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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

[Revised entry by Mitchell Green on October 2, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html]
We are attuned in everyday conversation not primarily to the sentences we utter to one another, but to the speech acts that those utterances are used to perform: requests, warnings, invitations, promises, apologies, predictions, and the like. Such acts are staples of...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/speech-acts/ 2014/10/03 - 09:25

[Revised entry by Dorothy Edgington on October 2, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html]
Take a sentence in the indicative mood, suitable for making a statement: "We'll be home by ten", "Tom cooked the dinner". Attach a conditional clause to it, and you have a sentence which makes a conditional statement: "We'll be home by...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/conditionals/ 2014/10/03 - 09:25

[Revised entry by Alexander Miller on October 2, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
The question of the nature and plausibility of realism arises with respect to a large number of subject matters, including ethics, aesthetics, causation, modality, science, mathematics, semantics, and the everyday world of macroscopic material objects and their...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/realism/ 2014/10/03 - 09:25

[Revised entry by Lars Vinx on October 1, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Carl Schmitt (1888 - 1985) was a conservative German legal, constitutional, and political theorist. Schmitt is often considered to be one of the most important critics of liberalism, parliamentary democracy, and liberal cosmopolitanism. But the value and significance...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/schmitt/ 2014/10/01 - 21:06

[Revised entry by David Crossley on October 1, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
The ethical writings of the Oxford Idealists, T. H. Green and F. H. Bradley, reflect the influence of Kant and Hegel on English moral philosophy in the latter part of the Nineteenth Century. To the extent that either draws on other sources it is to Aristotle that they turn rather than to British moral philosophers such as Butler, Hume or Reid; a point which is evident both from the fact that Green and...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/bradley-moral-political/ 2014/10/01 - 21:06

[Revised entry by Larry M. Jorgensen on September 27, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html]
In the seventeenth century, "consciousness" began to take on a uniquely modern sense. This transition was sparked by new theories of mind and ideas, and it connected with other important issues of debate during the seventeenth century, including debates...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-17th/ 2014/09/27 - 19:33

[Revised entry by Marga Reimer and Eliot Michaelson on September 26, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html]
Reference is a relation that obtains between certain sorts of representational tokens (e.g., names, mental states, pictures) and objects. For instance, when I assert that "George W. Bush is a Republican," I use...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/reference/ 2014/09/27 - 19:33

[New Entry by Jana Rošker on September 26, 2014.]
In current research, the debate on the epistemological dimensions of Chinese texts and their role in the context of Chinese thought has been developed increasingly successfully under the aegis of rediscovering and applying specific traditional Chinese methodological approaches and categories (Lenk and Paul 1993). Chinese epistemology deals with problems such as the possibility of attaining correct...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-epistemology/ 2014/09/27 - 19:33

[Revised entry by George di Giovanni on September 24, 2014.
Changes to: Bibliography]
Polemicist, socialite, and literary figure, Jacobi was an outspoken critic, first of the rationalism of German late Enlightenment philosophy, then of Kant's Transcendental Idealism, especially in the form that the early Fichte gave to it, and finally of the Romantic...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/friedrich-jacobi/ 2014/09/24 - 22:49

[Revised entry by James Woodward on September 24, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html]
Issues concerning scientific explanation have been a focus of philosophical attention from Pre-Socratic times through the modern period. However, recent discussion really begins with the development of the Deductive-Nomological (DN) model. This model has had...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-explanation/ 2014/09/24 - 22:49

[Revised entry by Ryan Nichols and Gideon Yaffe on September 23, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Thomas Reid (1710 - 1796) is a Scottish philosopher best known for his philosophical method, his theory of perception and its wide implications on epistemology, and as the developer and defender of an agent-causal theory of free will. In these and other areas he offers...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/reid/ 2014/09/24 - 22:49

[Revised entry by Julia Driver on September 22, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Utilitarianism is one of the most powerful and persuasive approaches to normative ethics in the history of philosophy. Though not fully articulated until the 19th century, proto-utilitarian positions can be discerned throughout the history of ethical...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history/ 2014/09/23 - 05:54

[Revised entry by Roberto Di Cosmo and Dale Miller on September 19, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Linear logic is a refinement of classical and intuitionistic logic. Instead of emphasizing truth, as in classical logic, or proof, as in intuitionistic logic, linear logic emphasizes the role of formulas as resources. To achieve this focus, linear...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-linear/ 2014/09/19 - 21:03

[Revised entry by Brian Weatherson on September 19, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
David Lewis (1941 - 2001) was one of the most important philosophers of the 20th Century. He made significant contributions to philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of science, decision theory, epistemology, meta-ethics and aesthetics. In most of these...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/david-lewis/ 2014/09/19 - 21:03

[Revised entry by David Sullivan on September 18, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Rudolph Hermann Lotze (1817 - 1881) mediated the transition from the exuberance of German idealism, in the first half of the nineteenth century, to the sober, scholarly and scientific ethos that came to prevail in the second half. He adapted the notion...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hermann-lotze/ 2014/09/19 - 21:03

[New Entry by Henry Jackman on September 15, 2014.]
The term "meaning holism" is generally applied to views that treat the meanings of all of the words in a language as interdependent. Holism draws much of its appeal from the way in which the usage of all our words seems interconnected, and runs into many...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/meaning-holism/ 2014/09/19 - 21:03

[Revised entry by Benjamin Pollock on September 12, 2014.
Changes to: Bibliography]
Franz Rosenzweig (1886 - 1929) ranks as one of the most original Jewish thinkers of the modern period. As a historian of philosophy, Rosenzweig played a brief but noteworthy role in the neo-Hegelian revival on the German intellectual scene of the 1910s. In the years...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rosenzweig/ 2014/09/13 - 21:43

[Revised entry by Nigel J.T. Thomas on September 12, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, american-response.html, bibliography-mental-imagery.html, bibliography-supplementary.html, demand-characteristics-problem.html, european-responses.html, mental-rotation.html, notes.html, quasi-perceptual.html, quasi-pictorial.html, representational-neglect.html, theories-memory.html]
Mental imagery (varieties of which are sometimes colloquially refered to as "visualizing," "seeing in the mind's eye," "hearing in the head," "imagining the feel of," etc.) is quasi-perceptual experience; it resembles perceptual experience, but occurs in the absence of the appropriate external stimuli. It is also generally understood to bear...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mental-imagery/ 2014/09/12 - 19:16

[Revised entry by Kathleen Lennon on September 11, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
In terms of the history of western philosophy, the philosophy of embodiment is relatively recent. For much of this history the body has been conceptualised as simply one biological object among others, part of a biological nature, which our rational faculties set us...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminist-body/ 2014/09/12 - 19:16

[New Entry by Charles Guignon and Somogy Varga on September 11, 2014.]
The term 'authentic' is used either in the strong sense of being "of undisputed origin or authorship", or in a weaker sense of being "faithful to an original" or a "reliable, accurate representation". To say that something is authentic is to say that it is what it professes to be, or what it is reputed to be, in origin or authorship. But the distinction between...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/authenticity/ 2014/09/12 - 19:16

[Revised entry by Mario Gómez-Torrente on September 10, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html]
On any view, logic has as one of its goals to characterize (and give us practical means to tell apart) a peculiar set of truths, the logical truths, of which the following English sentences are paradigmatic examples:...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logical-truth/ 2014/09/11 - 06:45

[Revised entry by Barry Kogan on September 10, 2014.
Changes to: Bibliography]
Judah ben Samuel Halevi (c. 1075 - 1141) was the premier Hebrew poet of his generation in medieval Spain. Over the course of some fifty years, from the end of the 11th century to the middle of the 12th, he wrote nearly 800 poems, both secular and...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/halevi/ 2014/09/11 - 06:45

[Revised entry by Bernard Linsky on September 10, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
The term "logical construction" was used by Bertrand Russell to describe a series of similar philosophical theories beginning with the 1901 "Frege-Russell" definition of numbers as classes and continuing through his...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logical-construction/ 2014/09/11 - 06:45

[Revised entry by Samuel Freeman on September 9, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
The original position is a central feature of John Rawls's social contract account of justice, "justice as fairness," set forth in A Theory of Justice (TJ). It is designed to be a fair and impartial point of view that is to be adopted...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/original-position/ 2014/09/11 - 06:45

[New Entry by Jan van Eijck and Rineke (L.C.) Verbrugge on September 8, 2014.]
Social procedures that have algorithmic aspects can often be improved by redesign. This holds for voting and other peaceful decision making procedures, for match-making, for auctioning, for fair division of estates, and for many procedures of distributive justice. The algorithmic aspects can be analyzed with formal methods. The term "social software" was coined by Rohit...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/social-procedures/ 2014/09/08 - 22:33

[Revised entry by Mario Turchetti on September 7, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Jean Bodin (1529/30 - 1596) was a lawyer, economist, natural philosopher, historian, and one of the major political theorists of the sixteenth century. There are two reasons why Bodin remains both fascinating and enigmatic: on the one hand, aspects of his life remain...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/bodin/ 2014/09/07 - 16:26

[Revised entry by Kurt Smith on September 6, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, history.html, tenglish.html]
Descartes has been heralded as the first modern philosopher. He is famous for having made an important connection between geometry and algebra, which allowed for the solving of geometrical problems by way of algebraic equations. He is also famous for having promoted a new...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-works/ 2014/09/07 - 16:26

[New Entry by Gabriel Uzquiano on September 3, 2014.]
Quantifier expressions are marks of generality. They come in a variety of syntactic categories in English, but determiners like "all", "each", "some", "many", "most", and "few" provide some of the most common examples of quantification.[1]...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/quantification/ 2014/09/06 - 11:39

[Revised entry by Alan Chan on September 2, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, supplement.html]
The term "Neo-Daoism" seeks to capture the dominant intellectual current or focal development in "early medieval" Chinese philosophy, from the third to the sixth century C.E. As a label, "Neo-Daoism" (or...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/neo-daoism/ 2014/09/03 - 17:26

[New Entry by Karen Warren on August 29, 2014.]
Early positions of "feminist environmental philosophy" focused on mostly ethical positions and perspectives on interconnections among women, nonhuman animals, and nature (e.g., Carol Adams 1990; Deborah Slicer 1991). As it matured, references to feminist environmental philosophy became what it is now - an...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-environmental/ 2014/08/30 - 18:44

[Revised entry by Steven Kuhn on August 29, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Tanya and Cinque have been arrested for robbing the Hibernia Savings Bank and placed in separate isolation cells. Both care much more about their personal freedom than about the welfare of their accomplice. A clever prosecutor makes the following offer to each. "You may choose to confess or remain silent. If you confess and your accomplice...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/prisoner-dilemma/ 2014/08/30 - 18:44

[Revised entry by Roberto Casati and Achille Varzi on August 27, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Smiles, walks, dances, weddings, explosions, hiccups, hand-waves, arrivals and departures, births and deaths, thunder and lightning: the variety of the world seems to lie not only in the assortment of its ordinary citizens - animals and physical objects, and perhaps...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/events/ 2014/08/28 - 08:42

[Revised entry by Gopal Sreenivasan on August 27, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Among American men, there is a 15.4 year difference in life expectancy between Asians and high-risk urban blacks, where these groups constitute, respectively, the best-off and worst-off groups of men in the 'eight Americas' analysis of mortality in the United States by Murray and colleagues (2006). Among American women, the corresponding difference in life expectancy is 12.8 years,...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/justice-inequality-health/ 2014/08/28 - 08:42

[Revised entry by Nick Zangwill on August 26, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Beauty is an important part of our lives. Ugliness too. It is no surprise then that philosophers since antiquity have been interested in our experiences of and judgments about beauty and ugliness. They have tried to understand the nature of these experiences and...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aesthetic-judgment/ 2014/08/28 - 08:42

[Revised entry by Wolfgang Huemer on August 26, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Franz Clemens Brentano (1838 - 1917) is mainly known for his work in philosophy of psychology, especially for having introduced the notion of intentionality to contemporary philosophy. He made important contributions to many fields in philosophy, especially to metaphysics and ontology, ethics,...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/brentano/ 2014/08/28 - 08:42

[New Entry by Jan Sprenger and Julian Reiss on August 25, 2014.]
Scientific objectivity is a characteristic of scientific claims, methods and results. It expresses the idea that the claims, methods and results of science are not, or should not be influenced by particular perspectives, value commitments, community bias or personal interests, to name a few relevant factors. Objectivity is often considered as an ideal for scientific inquiry, as a good reason for...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-objectivity/ 2014/08/26 - 16:09

[Revised entry by Pasquale Porro on August 25, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
Henry of Ghent (b. 1217?, d. 1293) is perhaps the most prominent figure at the Faculty of Theology in Paris during the last quarter of the 13th century; that is, of the next generation after the death of Thomas Aquinas. For a long time it was thought that Henry was...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/henry-ghent/ 2014/08/26 - 16:09

[Revised entry by Richard Hayes on August 25, 2014.
Changes to: Main text]
The Madhyamaka school of Buddhism, the followers of which are called Mādhyamikas, was one of the two principal schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism in India, the other school being the Yogācāra. The name of the school is a reference to the claim...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/madhyamaka/ 2014/08/26 - 16:09

[Revised entry by Germana Ernst on August 25, 2014.
Changes to: Bibliography]
Tommaso Campanella (Stilo, 1568 - Paris, 1639) was one of the most important philosophers of the late Renaissance. His best-known work is the utopian treatise La citta del Sole (The City of the Sun); but, in reality, his thought was extremely...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/campanella/ 2014/08/26 - 16:09

[Revised entry by David Brink on August 22, 2014.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
John Stuart Mill (1806 - 1873) was the most famous and influential British philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was one of the last systematic philosophers, making significant contributions in logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and...

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mill-moral-political/ 2014/08/24 - 14:01