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Singapore Journal of Scientific Research

The idea for the present study is taken up from the folklore uses of Woodfordia fruticosa (WFE), Cissampelos pareira (CPE) and Stephania glabra (SGE). These plants are used to treat different ailments in tribal areas of Nepal, Himalayan region of India and China. Knowing their historical medicinal value, present study is focused on pharmacognostical study of different extracts from leaves of WFE, CPE and rhizome of SGE. Powder of dried leaves of WFE and CPE and rhizome of SGE were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvent. These plants were also extracted with distilled water by maceration. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was performed for distilled water extracts, Hydrodistillation of 30 g dried leaves powder of CPE were performed by using clevenger apparatus. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrate in all the extracts. The amount of volatile oil was reported to be 0.33%. Rf values in TLC plates from solvent system Toluene: Ethyl acetate was reported as 0.18, 0.077, 0.155 for SGE, 0.166, 0.24 for WFE and 0.5 and 0.488 for CPE. Rf values from solvent system Hexane: Chloroform: Methanol were reported as 0.126, 0.294, 0.642, 0.631 and 0.894 from CPE. In this solvent system Rf values for WFE were reported as 0.085, 0.0571, 0.042 and for SGE as 0.075, 0.1, 0.125, 0.15, 0.187 and 0.212. From the above study it was concluded that these studies could be useful for identification and preparation of a monograph of these plants. 2014/04/17 - 11:53

The present study was undertaken to assess the geomorphological parameters
of Tons river of Uttarakhand State, India which is largest tributary of the
Yamuna river and flows through Garhwal region in Uttarakhand, touching Himachal
Pradesh. A total of 500 m of area was selected for estimation of various geomorphological
features which includes river width, river depth, width-depth ratio, entrenchment
ratio, water-current velocity, substrate type and channel type. Width of the
river was reported maximum while depth was minimum at site-II. Width-depth ratio
was reported maximum at site-II. The maximum mean value of entrenchment ratio
was also observed at site-II thus according to the Rosgen system of river/stream
classification, the river under report is slightly entrenched. Site-I was reported
with boulders, site-II with large and small boulders cobbles, pebbles, sand,
silt and clay and site-III with cobbles, pebbles, silt, sand and clay as dominating
substrate along with other organic and inorganic matters. 2014/04/17 - 11:53

Citrus fruits are known to provide volatile oil from their peel. The standard procedure for extraction is known as eculle by which the peel is twisted clockwise or anticlockwise by the aid of forceps. In the present study, the eculle method has replaced by hydrodistillation of coarsely powdered citrus peel. Three varieties like Citrus lemonis (CLE), Citrus sinensis (CSE) and Citrus aurantium (CAE) of citrus and orange were used. Hydrodistillation of peels were done by taking 30 g coarsely powdered peel in 500 mL flask. Clevenger apparatus for volatile oils lighter than water was used for the experiment. Extraction was continued for 3 h. The amount of volatile was obtained as 0.9 mL for CLE, 1.3 mL for CSE and 2 mL for CAE which represent to 3, 4.3 and 6.6% for CLE, CSE and CAE, respectively. From the percentage yield it become clear that on hydrodistillation of CLE, CSE and CAE, CAE provided more amount of volatile oil which further denotes CAE as better source of volatile oil than other two varieties. 2014/04/17 - 11:53

Different staking methods on yield and quality of indeterminate tomato varieties
were examined in an experimental field under irrigation in Jimma University,
Ethiopia. Staking methods used were: single post staking (T1), single
string (T2), French type (T3) and non-staking (T0)
and Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The result
revealed; Miya with French type gave the highest number of flowers per plant
(75.26). The highest fruit set was recorded from the same variety, while the
three staking methods did not differ from each other but only differ from the
non-staked. Highest number of marketable fruit was found from Miya with French
type (27.53), the lowest was observed from the un-staked plants. Correlation
coefficient strongly supported the positive relationship between the number
of flowers with fruit set (r = 0.95) and a number of marketable fruit (r = 0.71).
Highest unmarketable fruits were recorded from un-staked plants of Metadel (20.86),
while lowest from a French type with Miya variety. Metadel with French type
staking gave the highest marketable fruit yield (1.75 kg). Miya with non-staking
had a lower marketable fruit yield as 0.64 kg. Miya variety was found to contain
more sugar 4.64%. High percentage of late blight and fruit rot were recorded
from control plots. The Blossom end rot was high in Miya and Metadel with un-staked
plants. Higher profits were found from French type and single string with Metadel
and Miya varieties. Least profit was obtained from non-staking. French type
and single string staking could be recommended for better yield and quality
of tomato. 2013/01/29 - 18:29

Kigelia pinnata (Lam) Benth is renowned for its traditional applications as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer effects. The leaves of Kigelia pinnata were extracted successively with hexane and ethylacetate at room temperature and the extracts fractionated on an open silica gel column using hexane, ethylacetate and methanol gradient of increasing polarity. Preparative thin layer chromatography was used for further purification and isolation of various compounds. Spectroscopic analyses from UV/VIS, IR, GC/GCMS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, COSY and HETCOR techniques were used for the characterization of the compounds isolated from the leaves of Kigelia pinnata. The compound identification was based on spectral data comparison with literature data. Based on the data available to us, we report for the first time isolation of Hentriacontane, β-tocopherol, 3-hydro-4,8-phytene, trans-phytol, (9Z,12Z)-methyl octadeca-9, 12-dienoate and 1,3,3,5,6,6-hexamethylcyclohexa-1,4-diene from Kigelia pinnata leave. 2013/01/29 - 18:29

The decolourization of Acid orange 10 in Synthetic Saline Wastewater (SSW) medium under static conditions was investigated using Bacillus firmus. The bacterium was able to effectively decolourize the azo dye in a wide range of salt (NaCl) concentrations (1 to 6%, w/v), temperature (20-40°C) and pH (6-10) after 24 h of incubation in static culture. Colour removal by this strain was enhanced in the presence of starch and considerable decolourization was obtained in medium with high salt concentration (6%) in the presence of SDS (0.5-50 mg L-1). Results suggest the potential of this halotolerant bacterium for use in effective treatment of dye-contaminated wastewaters containing high salt concentrations characteristic of typical textile effluents. 2012/06/24 - 04:03

Failure evaluation of zinc sample in 2 M hydrochloric acid solution in the presence of Bambusa bambos extract was conducted using the gasometric method. Zinc coupons, each measuring 2.5 by 1.5 cm were completely immersed in uninhibited and inhibited test solutions containing extract quantities of 60, 100 140 and 180 mL at a temperature of 298 K for 20 minutes. The volumes of hydrogen gas data obtained during the experiment were documented and analyzed. Results showed that maximum inhibitor efficiency and lowest corrosion rate were obtained at extract quantities of 140 and 100 mL, respectively while corrosion rate reduction did not follow any particular trend. Frumkin isotherm best explained the extract-metal surface interaction adsorption mechanism. Once quantity of the extract is known, an expression for estimating corrosion rate values was also obtained. In addition, the surface analysis indicated that the rate of deterioration of the metal reduced as extract quantity increased to some extent and changed thereafter. 2012/06/24 - 04:03

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based molecular detection techniques of food pathogens are taking place of conventional media based biochemical methods due to more quick and reliable performances. Detection of Salmonella sp. from food matrixes requires several steps, culture media and at least four consecutive days of incubation period, therefore we designed primer based (invA and fliC genes) multiplex-PCR analysis for detection of Salmonella sp. and Salmonella Typhimurium from chicken egg samples of local market in Dhaka city. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Salmonella Typhimurium were analyzed by standard biochemical detection method as well as multiplex-PCR technique from a total of 200 egg samples. The primers were selected for the presence of invA and fliC genes of Salmonella sp. and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. Twenty four samples out of 200 egg samples were found positive for Salmonella sp. through standard culture technique, on the other hand among all the biochemically positive samples, only 16 samples (66%) offered excellent response in multiplex-PCR assay. The results indicate that the present multiplex-PCR technique requires further optimization for getting higher response for detection of Salmonella sp. and Salmonella Typhimurium from egg samples. 2012/06/24 - 04:03

Ionic liquids believed as novel chemical agents and widely regarded as a greener alternative to many commonly used solvents because they are designable, recyclable and non-volatile. Based on it, ionic liquids have been studied for a wide range of synthetic applications, they have attracted considerable interest for use as non-volatile solvent based electrolytes in the areas of organic synthesis, catalysis, electrochemistry, solar cells, fuel cells, etc., due to they possess many benefits than volatile organic solvent. Several studies indicate the successful of using simple chemical reactions to synthesize ILs for large-scale processes. Recently, five types of ionic liquids are attracted much attention specifically alkylation ionic liquids, metathesis ionic liquids, protic ionic liquids, eutectic ionic liquids and protic eutectic ionic liquids. For that reason, this study describes precursor, preparation and application of these ionic liquids. 2011/08/03 - 12:55

The moisture dependent engineering properties of water hyacinth are not only important for the designing of different processing machines but also to provide the database relevant to handling process operations of the plant. Some engineering properties of water hyacinth parts (Leave, Stalk and Root) were investigated as a function of moisture content in the range of 8 to 52% w.b. These properties includes: Dimensions, mass, true and bulk densities, porosity, static and dynamic coefficients of friction and terminal velocity as a function of moisture content were determined using to standard methods. All experiments were replicated at least ten times. The SPSS software (version 11.5) and Microsoft excel (2003) were used for analysis of variance. The mean range of variation for three different parts of water hyacinth was about 0.048 to 0.074 g cm-3 for bulk density, 0.406 to 0.997 g cm-3 for particle density and 69.6 to 91.6% for porosity. The static and dynamic coefficient of friction of water hyacinth parts on four surfaces namely, glass, rubber, plywood and fibreglass were studied. The observed values for terminal velocity, coefficient of static and dynamic friction for the three different parts of the water hyacinth were statistical important at 5% probability levels for all the studied moisture contents. These findings could therefore, be used in designing and manufacturing of separators, conveyors and as well as estimating the quantity and the pressure on the bins of storage structures. 2011/08/03 - 12:55

There are a lot of machines and devices need periodic examination and after the results of the examination is to exclude the non defective machines while the rest need to change one part or more of its damaged components or that close to expiration date, assume that the system has served carry out switching and replacement the damaged parts by new parts. In this research was to obtain the probability distribution of the number of defective machines in the system during the period of time t and which can calculate the average number of defective machines in the system. 2011/08/03 - 12:55