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ACO-Based Routing Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Networks
Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) are an outstanding solution to improve efficiency of spectrum usage. Secondary users in cognitive networks may select from a set of available channels to use provided that the occupancy does not affect the prioritized licensed users. However, CRNs produce unique routing challenges due to the high fluctuation in the available spectrum as well as diverse quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. In CRNs, distributed multihop architecture and time varying spectrum availability are some of the key factors in design of routing algorithms. In this paper, we develop an ant-colony-optimization- (ACO-) based on-demand cognitive routing algorithm (ACO-OCR), jointly consider path and spectrum scheduling, and take advantage of the availability of multiple channels, to improve the delivery latency and packet loss rate. Then, an analytical framework based on M/G/1 queuing theory is introduced to illustrate the relay node queuing model. The performances of ACO-OCR have been evaluated by means of numerical simulations, and the experimental results confirm its effectiveness. Simulation results show that ACO-OCR outperforms other routing approaches in end-to-end path latency and package loss rate.