Skip to Content

Instrukcja korzystania z Biblioteki

Serwisy:

Ukryty Internet | Wyszukiwarki specjalistyczne tekstów i źródeł naukowych | Translatory online | Encyklopedie i słowniki online

Translator:

Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

S.A.P.I.EN.S

This paper describes how the arts shape environmental behaviour of individuals and society and is a synthesis arising from a program of previous publication. The literature suggests that the arts may have a role in shaping environmental behaviour but it is not clear how or in what circumstances this might occur. Hence we set out to describe ways in which the arts shape environmental behaviour at the individual level and, through the accumulated actions of individuals, at the societal level. Through this examination we aim to explain the role of the arts in moving society towards ecological sustainability. Our research drew on interviews with 96 key informants working in the arts and in the natural resource management sectors, combined with a mix of empirical, experimental and post hoc studies of eight community-based art and environment events. On the basis of this research, a model was developed to describe how the arts can shape environmental behaviour. Three pathways are proposed...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1655 2014/09/11 - 18:10

In April 2013, based on reviews by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the European Commission announced a two-year ban on the use of three insecticides in the neonicotinoid group on certain flowering crops, as well as on certain crops that are not attractive to bees at certain times of the year.
Although there was strong lobbying against the proposed ban by the multinational chemical companies that produce the insecticides, along with farmer’s groups, strong lobbying in support of the ban came from environmental groups, beekeeping organizations and the general public. Even after two rounds of voting, the European parliament did not reach a consensus, forcing the European Commission to exercise its rights and impose the ban – based especially on the evidence presented in a review of relevant scientific data produced by the European Union’s own European Food Safety Authority. Various reports suggest that, on the one hand, some European governments were persuaded to support the ...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1648 2014/09/11 - 18:10

According to Swiss Re, there are currently approximately 180 urban disasters globally per year. Hurricane Katrina demonstrated the vulnerability of cities and the ability of humans to exacerbate the magnitude and intensity of man-made and/or natural hazards. The changes produced after a disaster can imply multiple adverse impacts including health risks, disruption to energy and water supply, and ecological imbalances. Post-disaster reconstruction, in this context, provides not only the necessity for a community to return to its pre-disaster state, but as Burby states, a “window of opportunity” to enhance resilience, and, in essence, to ‘regenerate’. These ‘windows of opportunity’ allow exploration to plan more globally, assess community social viability, foster adaptation and examine the technical issues of flooding, retrofits, location, and building energy efficiency. The multiple dimensions of resilience in urban settings are paramount to preserving community stability, as well as...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1610 2014/07/22 - 19:11

This article reviews the literature on the interactions between retail activities and urban economic resilience with a primary focus on the U.S. The social, economic and environmental impacts of large-scale retail outlets on existing retail and urban systems and their sustainability have been extensively discussed in the urban planning literature. However, the survival of retail venues as a major land use, in a competitive, dynamic urban environment, has been discussed less. In particular, the adjustment of traditional city-center retailers facing an influx of new shopping venues is a timely issue. The literature offers a wide range of examples, from their disappearance to their role in the successful revitalization, vitality and viability of city centers, and their increased economic resilience. At the same time, the number of dead malls has been increasing in developed and developing countries, and in particular in the U.S., showing that large-scale shopping venues also need strat...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1620 2014/07/22 - 19:11

In recent years, resilience has become a key term in disaster risk management (DRM). Its potential has been mainly discussed with respect to social-ecological systems as well as communities. With respect to Critical Infrastructures (CIs) however, resilience and vulnerability are often used without clear definition and reference to the DRM context. This paper aims to conceptualize vulnerability and resilience for the CI context. Building on socio-ecological approaches, the paper will outline the added value that a more stringent conceptualization of resilience offers for DRM of CIs. After an introduction of CIs and their meaning in the context of DRM (Section 1), the distinct features of the resilience concept and its application in different disciplines are presented (Section 2). Some of the governance challenges associated with the implementation of resilience strategies are presented (Section 3) before conclusions are drawn (Section 4).

http://sapiens.revues.org/1626 2014/07/22 - 19:11

In a step toward more economic and environmentally sustainable decision-making, this paper introduces transaction cost economics as a promising paradigm for revealing the cost-effectiveness of resilient infrastructure investments. Transaction cost economics is a theory and methodology for comparatively evaluating the cost-effectiveness of institutional arrangements governing transactions. Transaction cost theory was formulated to explain the economics of concessions and other forms of organization for delivering infrastructure goods and services. Research designs in transaction cost analysis are comparative, emphasizing the accumulated costs over time of one approach compared to another. Organizing research around comparative production and transaction costs, instead of price, creates an opportunity to internalize externalities, such as ecosystem services, into ex post evaluations of historical investment and ex ante analyses of alternative future development plans.
Resilience theory...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1639 2014/07/22 - 19:11

The last twenty-five years have seen increasing interests in both the science and practice of aquatic ecosystem restoration in the United States. Aquatic ecosystems were heavily altered in the U.S. during the early and mid-twentieth century for purposes of flood control, navigation, water supply, and agricultural and urban development. Over time, and with changing social preferences, it became clear that past successes in water resource development often led to the loss of important functions and services provided by aquatic ecosystems. Restoration activities began as a result, in part driven by legal imperatives, such as the 1973 Endangered Species Act and 1972, 1977, and other amendments to the Clean Water Act.
Aquatic restoration activities span a range of activities and scales. Examples include: systematic, long-term restoration of some degree of pre-regulation river and stream flow; discrete river flow or reservoir release experiments; deliberate drawdown of river levels in nav...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1607 2014/06/01 - 21:44

For nearly twenty years in the western United States, billions of dollars have been spent to recover anadromous salmon species listed under the federal Endangered Species Act. Broad support and participation from the private and public sectors is needed to address the limiting factors to salmon viability, especially the improvement of stream and watershed health. However, in today’s fiscal and political climate it is more important than ever to demonstrate the multiple ways that conservation work benefits not just the environment but also our economy.
This paper examines the employment and economic impacts of watershed restoration expenditures made in Oregon from 2001 to 2010, making use of multipliers developed by the University of Oregon’s Ecosystem Workforce Program. We retrieved data on salmon habitat restoration projects from a statewide database system, the Oregon Watershed Restoration Inventory, and grouped project activities according to the University of Oregon restoration ...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1606 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Box 1. facts and figures

* Location: USA; Pacific Northwest; Oregon State
* Ecosystems: River basins covering nine Level III ecoregions: Coast Range, Willamette Valley, Cascade Mountains, Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills, Columbia Plateau, Blue Mountains, Snake River Plain, Klamath Mountains, Northern Basin and Range Desert. Source: For more information, see Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, Ecoregion Maps and GIS Resources: http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/level_iii_iv.htm (Accessed April 11, 2014).
* Population: 3.9 million people in the state of Oregon, U.S.
* Size of Restored Area: 2,314 miles of riparian habitat improved; 642 miles of in-stream habitat treated; 686,570 acres of uplands improved; 37,122 acres of wetlands improved; 2,043 stream miles reopened to access by anadromous species.
* Budget: $411.4 million dollars invested in 6,740 watershed restoration projects.
* Study Period/Duration: 2001-2010
* Partners: University of Oregon Ecosyste...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1599 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Box 1. facts and figures

* Location: USA; Pacific Northwest; Oregon State
* Ecosystems: River basins covering nine Level III ecoregions: Coast Range, Willamette Valley, Cascade Mountains, Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills, Columbia Plateau, Blue Mountains, Snake River Plain, Klamath Mountains, Northern Basin and Range Desert. Source: For more information, see Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, Ecoregion Maps and GIS Resources: http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/level_iii_iv.htm (Accessed April 11, 2014).
* Population: 3.9 million people in the state of Oregon, U.S.
* Size of Restored Area: 2,314 miles of riparian habitat improved; 642 miles of in-stream habitat treated; 686,570 acres of uplands improved; 37,122 acres of wetlands improved; 2,043 stream miles reopened to access by anadromous species.
* Budget: $411.4 million dollars invested in 6,740 watershed restoration projects.
* Study Period/Duration: 2001-2010
* Partners: University of Oregon Ecosyste...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1599 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Facts and Figures
Location
Tanakeke Island is located just off the mainland of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia (Figure 1). A coral atoll, the island exhibits coral reef, seagrass and over-wash mangrove forest ecosystems, with a small proportion of terrestrial area. The main livelihood of most islanders is seaweed farming which takes place in expansive sub-tidal lagoons. Fishing along the reefs and out to sea is undertaken by the entire community of 10 073 inhabitants. During the 1990s, 1200 ha of the island’s 1776 ha of mangrove forest were converted to shrimp/milkfish aquaculture ponds (Ukkas, 2011). Of this total, 800 ha are community owned – yet largely disused – as Tanakeke Islanders have difficulty purchasing external inputs, maintaining dike walls and productivity, and have largely converted to seaweed mariculture. Tenure over 400 ha of converted mangrove forests has been granted to the Ministry of Transmigration, and as such has not yet been considered for mangrove rehabilit...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1589 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Facts and Figures
Location
Tanakeke Island is located just off the mainland of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia (Figure 1). A coral atoll, the island exhibits coral reef, seagrass and over-wash mangrove forest ecosystems, with a small proportion of terrestrial area. The main livelihood of most islanders is seaweed farming which takes place in expansive sub-tidal lagoons. Fishing along the reefs and out to sea is undertaken by the entire community of 10 073 inhabitants. During the 1990s, 1200 ha of the island’s 1776 ha of mangrove forest were converted to shrimp/milkfish aquaculture ponds (Ukkas, 2011). Of this total, 800 ha are community owned – yet largely disused – as Tanakeke Islanders have difficulty purchasing external inputs, maintaining dike walls and productivity, and have largely converted to seaweed mariculture. Tenure over 400 ha of converted mangrove forests has been granted to the Ministry of Transmigration, and as such has not yet been considered for mangrove rehabilit...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1589 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Introduction
Rice in Vietnam is grown under intensive cultivation conditions to maximize production. Farmers usually grow two crops a year and in some cases three crops in large continuous areas, applying high levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pests are often considered to be major constraints to yields and the farmers’ main control tactic is spraying pesticides. Because of poor spray equipment and poor knowledge, a large proportion of farmers’ sprays are misused (Heong & Escalada, 1997; Bandong et al., 2002). Farmers tend to focus on highly visible leaf damage like that caused by the leaf-feeding caterpillars in the early crop stages. However, this damage has little effect on yields because of plant compensation (Graf et al., 1992). These early season sprays instead destroy biodiversity and biological control ecosystem services and make the rice more vulnerable to more destructive secondary pests such as planthoppers (Way & Heong, 1994; Heong & Schoenly, 1998; Heong, 20...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1578 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Introduction
Rice in Vietnam is grown under intensive cultivation conditions to maximize production. Farmers usually grow two crops a year and in some cases three crops in large continuous areas, applying high levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pests are often considered to be major constraints to yields and the farmers’ main control tactic is spraying pesticides. Because of poor spray equipment and poor knowledge, a large proportion of farmers’ sprays are misused (Heong & Escalada, 1997; Bandong et al., 2002). Farmers tend to focus on highly visible leaf damage like that caused by the leaf-feeding caterpillars in the early crop stages. However, this damage has little effect on yields because of plant compensation (Graf et al., 1992). These early season sprays instead destroy biodiversity and biological control ecosystem services and make the rice more vulnerable to more destructive secondary pests such as planthoppers (Way & Heong, 1994; Heong & Schoenly, 1998; Heong, 20...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1578 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Evolution of a Community of Practice for Large-scale Ecosystem Restoration
In 2004, an effort was undertaken to bring together engineers, managers, planners, policy-makers and scientists — all identifiable as restoration practitioners — at the first National Conference on Ecosystem Restoration (NCER) under the leadership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This forum focused initially on a number of large-scale, federally funded ecosystem restoration projects in the United States (including Glen Canyon, Everglades, San Francisco Bay/Delta, Chesapeake Bay, Great Lakes, Louisiana Coastal Area, Puget Sound, and the Upper Mississippi River), with ecosystem restoration practitioners from other ecosystems welcome. The overall objectives of these efforts were to disseminate information regarding large-scale ecosystem restoration efforts, so that those efforts would be more prominent in practitioners’ thoughts, and incorporated into their research consideratio...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1569 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Evolution of a Community of Practice for Large-scale Ecosystem Restoration
In 2004, an effort was undertaken to bring together engineers, managers, planners, policy-makers and scientists — all identifiable as restoration practitioners — at the first National Conference on Ecosystem Restoration (NCER) under the leadership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This forum focused initially on a number of large-scale, federally funded ecosystem restoration projects in the United States (including Glen Canyon, Everglades, San Francisco Bay/Delta, Chesapeake Bay, Great Lakes, Louisiana Coastal Area, Puget Sound, and the Upper Mississippi River), with ecosystem restoration practitioners from other ecosystems welcome. The overall objectives of these efforts were to disseminate information regarding large-scale ecosystem restoration efforts, so that those efforts would be more prominent in practitioners’ thoughts, and incorporated into their research consideratio...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1569 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Box 1. Facts and Figures: Overview of CLO’s Transborder Drylands Restoration on Mexico Border

* Location: U.S.-Mexico borderlands in southeastern Arizona and northeastern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua, including the upper watershed of the Río Yaqui.
* Scale of Restoration Area: More than 4000 sq. kilometres subject to range of conservation and restoration programs, within which 748 sq. kilometres being actively restored by Cuenca Los Ojos (CLO).
* Biotic Provinces: Nearctic, Neotropical, Chihuahuan Desert and Sonoran Desert, encompassing seven major ecological communities found in the 1100-2500 m elevation range on CLO ranches in Mexico.
* Duration of Restoration Operations: Since 1983 on CLO’s Arizona ranches, and since 1999 at its Mexican ranches.
* Budget: Private funding for CLO restoration projects, while Malpai Borderlands Group relies on foundation funding for its conservation easements and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service depends on federal funding.
* Partners: Array of dozens o...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1553 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Box 1. Facts and Figures: Overview of CLO’s Transborder Drylands Restoration on Mexico Border

* Location: U.S.-Mexico borderlands in southeastern Arizona and northeastern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua, including the upper watershed of the Río Yaqui.
* Scale of Restoration Area: More than 4000 sq. kilometres subject to range of conservation and restoration programs, within which 748 sq. kilometres being actively restored by Cuenca Los Ojos (CLO).
* Biotic Provinces: Nearctic, Neotropical, Chihuahuan Desert and Sonoran Desert, encompassing seven major ecological communities found in the 1100-2500 m elevation range on CLO ranches in Mexico.
* Duration of Restoration Operations: Since 1983 on CLO’s Arizona ranches, and since 1999 at its Mexican ranches.
* Budget: Private funding for CLO restoration projects, while Malpai Borderlands Group relies on foundation funding for its conservation easements and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service depends on federal funding.
* Partners: Array of dozens o...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1553 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Introduction
Despite an international consensus in favour of increasing the number of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and enlarging them (Bonnin et al., in press), controversy surrounds their effectiveness and legitimacy, especially in the context of developing countries. This is particularly true in Africa, a continent scarred by varying levels of conflict, ecological crisis, impoverishment and State disengagement (De Santo, 2013). In terms of their ecological effectiveness, questions are repeatedly raised concerning the minimal size, boundaries and configurations of MPA (Agardy et al., 2011). In terms of their economic and social legitimacy, spatial and social justice and amenities for local communities are recurring issues (Potts et al., 2014; Trimble et al., 2014). According to Charles and Wilson (2009), it is possible to identify ten conditions that determine their success: attachment to place; high level of participation; effective governance; co-building of knowledge (scientific ...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1560 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Introduction
Despite an international consensus in favour of increasing the number of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and enlarging them (Bonnin et al., in press), controversy surrounds their effectiveness and legitimacy, especially in the context of developing countries. This is particularly true in Africa, a continent scarred by varying levels of conflict, ecological crisis, impoverishment and State disengagement (De Santo, 2013). In terms of their ecological effectiveness, questions are repeatedly raised concerning the minimal size, boundaries and configurations of MPA (Agardy et al., 2011). In terms of their economic and social legitimacy, spatial and social justice and amenities for local communities are recurring issues (Potts et al., 2014; Trimble et al., 2014). According to Charles and Wilson (2009), it is possible to identify ten conditions that determine their success: attachment to place; high level of participation; effective governance; co-building of knowledge (scientific ...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1560 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Box 1. Facts and Figures: Shinyanga Ecosystem Restoration

* Location: Shinyanga region is in north Tanzania, and south of Lake Victoria; the region has an area of approximately 50,000 sq.km.
* Ecosystems: Heavily modified Miombo and Acacia woodland ecosystems (mostly converted to other forms of use).
* Size of Community: Approximately 833 villages with a population of 2.25 million people.
* Restored Area: Between 1986 & 2004 approx. 300,000 hectare (& probably considerably more by 2014) – most farmers had their own restored patches together with restored village forests.
* Budget (estimate over 25 years): Approx. US$ 1.9 million, or approx. $6.4 per restored Ha (figures based on estimates of investment).
* Instutional and Technical Partners: Government of Tanzania (Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism), Government of Norway, Shinyanga Regional, District and Village Governments, variety of NGO’s, ICRAF, IUCN.
* Main Objectives and Benefits: Restore goods and services of Miombo and Acac...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1542 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Box 1. Facts and Figures: Shinyanga Ecosystem Restoration

* Location: Shinyanga region is in north Tanzania, and south of Lake Victoria; the region has an area of approximately 50,000 sq.km.
* Ecosystems: Heavily modified Miombo and Acacia woodland ecosystems (mostly converted to other forms of use).
* Size of Community: Approximately 833 villages with a population of 2.25 million people.
* Restored Area: Between 1986 & 2004 approx. 300,000 hectare (& probably considerably more by 2014) – most farmers had their own restored patches together with restored village forests.
* Budget (estimate over 25 years): Approx. US$ 1.9 million, or approx. $6.4 per restored Ha (figures based on estimates of investment).
* Instutional and Technical Partners: Government of Tanzania (Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism), Government of Norway, Shinyanga Regional, District and Village Governments, variety of NGO’s, ICRAF, IUCN.
* Main Objectives and Benefits: Restore goods and services of Miombo and Acac...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1542 2014/06/01 - 21:44

Introduction
Since 2007, half the world population has lived in urban areas (UN-Habitat, 2007). The growth rate is equivalent to building a new city of one million inhabitants a week. This means natural hazards cause major human and material damage to cities. The financial cost of damage is increasing rapidly and various insurance systems are changing in order to maintain their financial balance.
On a more local scale, experience shows that the success or failure of technical networks is of crucial importance in managing urban risks. Many urban malfunctions are linked to technical system malfunction and their criticality (Serre, 2011). In such a context, technical systems must be analysed with a two-pronged approach: not simply analysing the technical constraints involved in network design and management, but also analysing their physical, political and social context. Urban technical systems are “actors” within a region and play a major role in local risk management. In that sense, u...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1529 2014/04/09 - 19:19

The paper argues that creative destruction at the heart of capitalist dynamics, along with risk-prone features of neoliberalism, impedes wide-ranging resilience. A form of resilience focussing narrowly on natural and human-caused disasters replaces broader responses to risks, which address economic and personal hardship. Concurrently, combined effects of neoliberal societal arrangements and economic globalisation exacerbate economic risks to which individuals and communities are exposed. A discussion of the shrinking city phenomenon demonstrates that economic hazards, against which most resilience measures are helpless, represent a peril that is more common than, and often at least as destructive as, the disasters targeted by mainstream resilience approaches. The experience of shrinking cities points to the dual impact of their contracting economies: direct threats to the wellbeing and survival of their residents, and a depletion of the intervention capacity of agencies responsible ...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1523 2014/03/29 - 22:28

Immigrants represent a rapidly growing segment of the Canadian population: 48 percent of the population in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) and 40 percent in the Vancouver CMA are immigrants, the highest foreign-born metropolitan populations in the world. Immigrants’ settlement in postindustrial cities with competitive housing and labour markets has been explored with spatial, economic, and social theories, particularly in disciplines such as geography and urban planning. However, there is a great potential for community resilience theories from the disciplines of ecology and psychology to provide a richer understanding of the choices of specific ethnocultural groups.
This article introduces the literature on immigrants’ housing and neighbourhood choices in Canadian cities, citing theories of spatial assimilation, housing career and structural change. These theories have contributed to researchers’ understanding of how immigrants’ patterns differ from those of non-immigrant...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1516 2014/03/29 - 22:28

1. Introduction
As one of the greatest transformations humankind achieved in the past century, China's remarkable urbanization and industrialization attracts the attention from communities of academia, government and business across the world. The indicator of urbanization as measured by the proportion of population living in urban areas increased from 10.6 percent in 1950 to 45.7 percent in 2008 at an average annual rate of 0.6 percent. Further investigation finds that urbanization in China demonstrated an accelerating growth rate after 1979 and became even faster since 2000 with an annual rise of 1.19% (National Bureau of Statistics of China, various years). Along with the booming urban population is the rapidly expanding urban space. Urban developed areas across China, for instance, increased from 9,386 square kilometers in 1985 to 36,295.3 square kilometers in 2008, at an annual rate of 6 percent over the 23-year period (National Bureau of Statistics of China, various years).
A v...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1094 2014/02/28 - 16:53

1. Introduction
Who is responsible for preventing and fixing today’s environmental problems? “It is each and everybody’s task” seems to be the standard answer to that question. Indeed, in the environmental as well as in other fields (health, education, security), the appeal to a principle of responsibility has become the systematic answer to the decrease of the central role of the state, the intrusion of the commercial sphere into politics and the emphasis put on the individual action capacity of consumer-citizens. The reliance on mechanisms of institutional, public, private, collective or individual responsibility transfer is currently at the heart of the governance of “post-modern” societies which are confronted with situations of risk and uncertainty caused by their own development modes (Salles, 2006).
In the field of environmental policy, international organisations and supranational entities such as the European Union play a major role in the promotion of new governance standard...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1092 2014/02/28 - 16:53

1. Ponzi schemes: individual and collective deception and self deception
"Environmental despoliation may ... be conceived as kind of global Ponzi scheme, the early investors doing well, the later ones losing everything." (Paulos, 1996, p.96).
A Ponzi scheme is a type of fraudulent investment strategy. Typically fraudsters promise very high returns, and use money from new recruits to the scheme to pay off early-stage investors, until the scheme gets so big that the inflow of new money is insufficient; at which point the scheme collapses amid losses and recriminations (Sander, 2009, p.2). The fraud is often assisted by intermediaries who are reckless and negligent, rather than dishonest, and who guide investors towards the scheme. The beneficiaries are either well-informed and dishonest (the scheme promoters), wilfully and negligently ill-informed (intermediaries), or ill-informed but fortunate (investors who withdraw their funds before the collapse). The victims, those left with worth...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1083 2014/02/28 - 16:53

The disappointment over outcomes in Copenhagen has in certain countries reverberated on unilateral efforts towards factoring in carbon costs in energy prices. The French government, which had announced a carbon tax at 17 euro/ton CO2, backed out from the initiative following judicial concerns that more than 90 per cent of industrial emissions were to be exempted. The Irish government, on the other hand, recently did implement a domestic carbon tax (at a rate of 15 euro/ton CO2). No unilateral measure will of course tackle climate change per se and it can also be argued that a low tax mainly addressing households and private transport will have limited impact on carbon emissions. However, all tax changes come gradually and limited unilateral measures may offer prospects for the longer term, in particular if more countries implement comparable systems for pricing of carbon.
Competitiveness vis-à-vis emerging economies, in particular China, is at the heart of concerns over carbon leaka...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1072 2014/02/28 - 16:53

1. Introduction
I confine my attention to two issues. First, I discuss the effects of environmental policy objectives on trade and welfare. Second, I show how trade agreements can be integrated with environmental concerns and particularly how the production of an international trade in carbon-intensive outputs can be sensibly regulated. Some of the discussion is related to China.
2. Environmental threats to trade
Environmental concerns are seen by some as a threat to the continued growth of world trade particularly if trade itself promotes environmental degradation (Tamiotti et al. 2009). This continued growth is seen as improving the economic welfare of nations so that the pursuit of environmental objectives is seen by some as restricting the range of possible trades and thereby impeding sought-after welfare gains. These implied losses are seen as particularly important for developing countries who seek higher standards of non-environmental consumption per capita and who place a relat...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1069 2014/02/28 - 16:53

1. The Origins of Green Urbanism
1.1 Different schools of thought: from Districts to Green City
Over the last thirty-five years or so, an international debate on eco-city theory has emerged and has developed as a relevant research field concerning the future of urbanism and the city itself. During that time, a number of architectural schools of thought have been implemented worldwide. One such school is Technical Utopianism (a technological idealism that relied on the quick `techno-fix’, as expressed, for instance, in the work of Archigram). Other early writing on green urbanism was available from Ebenezer Howard, whose 1902 book was entitled `Garden City of Tomorrow’, and whose political and social agenda has recently made a comeback. Much later, in 1969, Reyner Banham pioneered the idea that technology, human needs and environmental concerns should be considered an integral part of architecture. Probably no historian before him had so systematically explored the impact of environme...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1057 2014/02/28 - 16:53

1. Introduction
Our cities are facing a huge transformation challenge. Today almost all large cities around the globe rely heavily on highly energy-intensive urban infrastructures. According to IEA (2008) by 2030 cities will consume about 73 per cent of the world’s energy and produce a comparable share of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. To prevent the worst consequences of climate change would require that GHG emissions be reduced to levels near zero by the middle of the century (Rockström et al. 2009, IPCC 2009, 2007, WBGU 2009). This means that urban infrastructures have to be converted to systems that consume less energy and produce almost no emissions by the middle of the century – or, in short, transformed to low carbon urban infrastructures.
To achieve this transformation, cities need political will and guidance. Many cities around the globe already have set ambitious GHG mitigation targets (Lechtenböhmer 2009b). Cities also need broad participation by all stakeholders, a...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1042 2014/02/28 - 16:53

1. Introduction
Regardless of the differences among existing conceptions and theories of sustainable development, they all begin by acknowledging vital environmental issues (climate change, loss of biodiversity, water and soil pollution, coming shortages in non-renewable resources, deforestation, overharvesting of natural resources, etc.) caused, notably, by inappropriate production and consumption patterns. As stated in Agenda 21(4.3), “[T]he major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries”. It is therefore imperative that consumers in industrialized countries adopt more sustainable consumption patterns, making ‘use of goods and services that respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life, while minimizing the use of natural resources, toxic materials and emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle, so as not to jeopardise the needs of future...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1022 2014/02/28 - 16:53

“What it takes to get things done”
------------------------------
This special issue of S.AP.I.EN.S aims to collect background material and identify relevant experiences for the international Conference that Veolia Environment Institute is organizing jointly with Agence Française de Developpement, International Union for Conservation of Nature and US National Research Council Water Sciences and Technology Board on “Ecosystems, Economy and Society: how large-scale restoration can stimulate sustainable development?”. Some articles will be selected for presentation or poster session at the Conference, to be held on May 29-30, 2014, at the US National Academy of Sciences in Washington DC, USA.

The objective of the Conference is to analyze the potential of large-scale restoration for the improvement of people’s livelihoods, jobs creation and socio-economic development, together with the recovery of ecosystems functionalities, continuity and biodiversity.
------------------------------
S.A.P.I...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1512 2013/10/25 - 12:52

Farming jobs are often considered as an adjustment variable that varies with changes in economic activity. As a tool for the sectoral and geographical mobility of “workers”, the job market is supposed to offer new opportunities to people leaving, or excluded from, agriculture. Unfortunately, because of a lack of regulation, the job market is flooded with workers. Most farmers no longer leave agriculture to respond to a job offer or a proposal for integration into another sector, but because of agricultural impoverishment that leads to exclusion. In continents where most people are farmers, those who are excluded from farming and are seeking paid work flock into cities that do not have the economic and industrial resources to offer them a job and provide them with an income. If nothing is done to change present trends, the ever-increasing integration of agricultural markets could lead 1.7 billion male and female farmers to leave agriculture within a few decades. If present employment...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1487 2013/10/03 - 16:18

Guest editors: Damien SERRE (Paris-Est University), Bruno BARROCA (Paris-Est University), Eric DUCHEMIN ([VertigO]/UQAM).
SA.P.I.EN.S is accepting articles for a special issue on “Resilient Cities” which will primarily publish review articles covering the various aspects of urban resilience. Suitable topics for this special issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Risk and vulnerability assessment methods
  • Resilient infrastructures indicators
  • Resilience planning and policy making
  • Assessment of impacts and costs
  • Social resilience
  • Governance for resilience
  • Financing resilience
  • Integrated cost assessment
  • Resilient urban infrastructures (water supply, energy supply, solid waste management, transport)
  • etc.

Submitted papers should not have been previously published nor be currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. All papers are refereed through a peer review process. Please consult our Instructions for authors for detailed style and content guidelines. Authors who are uncertain about the...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1476 2013/05/01 - 09:37

The rural poor often depend on biodiversity for a wide range of natural resources and ecosystem services essential for their well-being, and are therefore potentially affected by its degradation. Against this backdrop, conservationists, development practitioners and policy makers often have differing opinions on how—and whether—to link biodiversity conservation with poverty reduction. Nonetheless, the growing volume of literature on the subject often results in platitudes that fail to confront real problems faced by development projects, plans and policies. Indeed, the linkages between biodiversity and poverty are much more complex and dynamic that often assumed; this is why endeavours to address the real issues—rather than pretending they do not exist—as well as efforts to be more specific about definitions, contexts and activities when undertaking assessments, are so badly needed.
As a result, this paper first synthesises the biodiversity-poverty debate in a static perspective by ...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1452 2013/05/01 - 09:37

Introduction
Although scholars have long recognised the role functioning ecosystems play in maintaining biodiversity and human societies (Myers, 1983; De Groot, 1992; Daily, 1997; Costanza et al., 1997), it is only over the last decade that the concept of ‘ecosystem services’ has been widely adopted (Goldman & Tallis, 2009). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, 2005) served to define and popularize the concept and has contributed to a number of other major international initiatives including The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) and the recently established Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Increasingly bilateral and multilateral donors, large foundations, and businesses are establishing well-funded programs primarily focused on protecting and/or restoring ecosystem services. For example, the global corporation Dow ChemicalCompany has recently announced its goal to mainstream ecosystem services into all of its business planning....

http://sapiens.revues.org/1459 2013/05/01 - 09:37

The sustainable management of material resources has given rise to numerous studies that public policies draw on. Yet certain aspects are insufficiently investigated or elucidated, making public strategies less clear and consistent. On the one hand, the description of material cycles is usually based on flows and stocks, not on the underlying variation of flows (growth in consumption and production). On the other hand, the purpose assigned to recycling and waste reduction in the system dynamics is often poorly clarified: for instance, is waste production reduction to be understood in the regulatory sense (including waste that benefits from recycling), or in the environmental sense (only waste discharged in landfills or the natural environment)? Should the aim be to decouple economic growth from total raw material consumption (primary + recycled), or from primary raw material consumption (only what is extracted from natural deposits)?
In Europe, there are three EU strategic lines whi...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1242 2013/05/01 - 09:37

About us
The IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) is a science-based network of more than 8,000 volunteer experts from almost every country of the world. SSC members include experts on plants, fungi, birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates. The major role of the SSC is to provide information, advice and policy guidance to IUCN on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, the inherent value of species, their role in ecosystem health and functioning, the provision of ecosystem services, and their support to human livelihoods. SSC members also provide scientific information and advice to conservation organisations, government agencies and other IUCN members, and to the private sector, as well as supporting the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). A major function of the SSC is to catalyze conservation action among these external actors.
SSC members collectively form a highly-regarded and influential network of species experts that i...

http://sapiens.revues.org/1252 2013/05/01 - 09:37