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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

RUSC. Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento

In order to improve university government and management, in this article we propose a tool for identifying the stage of growth in the organisational learning capacity of a university. It consists of a questionnaire about the main factors affecting learning in a university as a whole, or in any of its units (faculties, departments, etc.). An analysis of the results will enable us to act upon them and make improvements.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-tintore-arbos 2013/07/17 - 13:23

The study presented in this article examines various conceptual aspects for assessing the quality of learning objects (LOs). The main aim is to design an assessment guide enabling the level of quality attained by LOs to be determined by means of a series of indicators. These indicators take into account characteristics relating to design and presentation, and also to pedagogy and technology. The metrics used to measure the level of quality are explained. These entail quantifying the assessment by means of the proposed mathematical expressions and the adopted scale, which is based on values assigned to each indicator. Also presented are the results obtained after applying the proposed guide to a sample of LOs created by the University of Information Sciences (UCI), Havana, to support the educational process.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-toll-ril 2013/07/17 - 13:23

With an increasing number of young people reaching university entrance age, the demographic reality of Latin American countries is changing the face of their traditional higher education spaces. The impact is driving institutions to seek effective solutions, and technology has been identified as a ‘way forward’ in terms of offering education to the growing population of young people who want it. Technology-mediated education must therefore help to improve Latin American citizens’ quality of life.In Mexico, and since 2010, the National System of Distance Education (SINED) – an initiative led by universities interested in strengthening education mediated by information and communication technologies (ICTs) – has been exploring ways to incorporate these tools into the evolution of Mexican and, by extension, Latin American universities.This monographic Dossier, produced in conjunction with RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, is part of the SINED’s effort to progress towards generating information, documentation and materials to support the academic community involved in ICTs and innovation from a number of angles, including use, learning and research. In order to achieve the objectives set, it is important to support and disseminate effective initiatives in and consolidated experiences of using and applying technologies to university education contexts, and also to foster the emergence of spaces that are open to the agents of the educational community for disseminating and sharing their experiences of technologies in education. 

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-ontiveros-canay 2013/07/17 - 13:23

The aim of this article is to present an analysis of challenges and perspectives through a project supported by the Mexican National System of Distance Education (SINED) and based on a successful case called the Regional Open Latin American Community for Social and Educational Research (CLARISE). The CLARISE for Distance Education project (2012-2013) seeks to generate knowledge on teaching models in accordance with distance education needs and a competency-based training approach, by means of networking activities that progress through three phases (diagnosis, training, implementation). This article focuses on the first phase. Having conducted a diagnostic survey of 40 participants from 9 Mexican institutions, it presents a descriptive exploratory study into 4 areas: identification data, the open education movement, distance education and innovation competencies, and networks. The purpose of the study was to devise the actions that would need to be carried out as a research group in the field of distance education. The challenges were identified in three areas: (a) institutional policies for open access; (b) knowledge management and communication; and (c) cultures of collaboration. The perspectives could be opened up by: (a) facilitator training for competency development; (b) innovative models with open access systems; and (c) mobilisation through innovation networks.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-ramirez 2013/07/17 - 13:23

This article presents the results of a study whose aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions that students, lecturers/tutors and coordinators had of the pedagogical models underpinning online undergraduate programmes in Colombia, and of the application of these models with regard to collaborative work and interaction. The study used qualitative and quantitative techniques to complement and contrast the participants’ perceptions. A total of 48 group and individual interviews were conducted, and 288 students and 44 lecturers answered an online survey. The results show that the programmes are based on constructivist principles and tend to use active pedagogies pertaining to that theory. However, the lecturers and students expressed uncertainty about the implementation of collaborative work and the fostering of interaction.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-pineda-hennig-segovia 2013/07/17 - 13:23

This article presents an evaluation of the institutional cooperation project entitled “Universidad y sociedad del conocimiento. Fortalecimiento institucional en áreas dedicadas a la enseñanza universitaria con nuevas tecnologías” (FEUNT, Universities and knowledge society. Institutional strengthening in areas dedicated to new technology-mediated university teaching), funded by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) and undertaken by the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Spain, and the National University of Córdoba (UNC), Argentina. The main aim of the four-year project was to incorporate technologies into the institution, with emphasis on improved teaching and institutional conditions. By combining top-down, bottom-up and middle-out strategies (Cummings et al., 2005), the project articulated five programmes (research, lecturer training, technological improvement, teaching materials production, and dissemination and open knowledge), in which lecturer training, educational technology research and technology investment were interrelated. Taking needs into account, investment was made in core technologies and peripheral learning technologies (Salmon, 2005) that allowed the activities to be carried out, while others showing new potential were proposed. The aim of the work was to mobilise institutional culture in order to bring changes in teaching practices (Hargreaves, 2003). Lecturer training was carried out by means of workshops focusing on teaching materials production, viewed as an artefact that enabled teaching staff to reflect on decision-making when confronted with technology-mediated teaching processes (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2001). The results of the evaluation evidenced the success of a proposal based on strengthening a working group (Educational Technology Area) to support teaching staff. They also highlighted several weaknesses, particularly in relation to the project’s sustainability.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-gewerc-alonso 2013/07/17 - 13:23

In recent years, the Internet and Web 2.0 tools have played a fairly pivotal role in university education. Social software tools have stood out in particular, with social networks attracting the most attention. In the field of education, social networks have gradually become a highly valuable didactic resource because the students who populate today’s university classrooms also live out a large part of their lives on those networks. Student group work is a cornerstone of the constructivist view of teaching, which can draw on resources of this type because, among other things, they foster socialisation, information searching, the attainment of a common goal, etc. But, for all of this to happen, students must have positive attitudes towards group work. This article presents the results of a study on university students’ level of knowledge of social networks and their perceptions of group work. It was conducted on a sample of students from Argentina, Spain, the Dominican Republic and Venezuela. The findings particularly show that the students held high perceptions of group work and of the opportunity to work online with fellow students from different geographical areas.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-cabero-marin 2013/07/17 - 13:23

An analysis was performed to identify the key points for achieving effective strategic communication in universities via Twitter. An evaluation and comparison was made of how 263 universities used Twitter by looking at their followers, tweets, retweets, replies and hashtags. The main purposes for its use were identified as boosting communication among members of its community and disseminating institutional information. Many Latin American universities are active on Twitter, but they need community managers to manage their official profiles to optimise communication and to increase their reach by making the most of their users’ activity. 

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-guzman-delmoral 2013/07/17 - 13:23

In a previous study published in RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, we observed that blogs in Spanish aimed at textual comprehension and production still lacked the instruments and materials to foster the cognitive processes necessary for collaborative creation of new knowledge. Given that context, this article studies a specific case of using a class blog in an Argentinean university, in which didactic strategies to encourage group writing activities have been put into practice. This case study will provide an important empirical basis for reflection on collaborative learning in blog writing activities.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-alvarez-bassa 2013/07/16 - 06:41

Corporate universities are a growing phenomenon in present-day Spanish society. Corporations increasingly depend on knowledge and, as an alternative to the gaps identified in traditional education, they are creating and strengthening these institutions in order to endow themselves with a type of training that is consistent with their needs, objectives and strategies. This article presents the main results of a study whose aim was to forecast the future role of corporate universities in Spain, a little-studied reality despite its increasing importance. The study objectives were to identify certain aspects of corporate universities’ future evolution (their role in Spanish society, their organisational changes and the challenges posed by ICTs) and to perform a prospective analysis of their relationships with traditional universities (comparative strengths and weaknesses, and future means of collaboration). The research technique used was the Delphi method, applied to a panel of experts formed by the heads of Spanish corporate universities. Besides collecting data on the above-mentioned study objectives, the results confirmed the important role that corporate universities would play in training and knowledge management within the framework of Spanish higher education, even though the participating specialists believed that they would become a complement rather than a direct competitor to traditional universities.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-baladron-correyero 2013/07/16 - 06:41

This article focuses on the topic of interactions among peers in virtual environments. The analytical approach considers both the cognitive dimension and the social dimension (addressed more recently in the literature) of interactions.The study was conducted on 28 groups of students (15 formed by undergraduates and 13 by graduates) who interacted with each other in electronic forums to perform an academic task within the framework of the subjects that they were taking.From the analysis of the dialogues among the students in the 28 group forums, it was possible to construct 7 categories in order to classify the interventions by their main purpose or goal, namely: 1) social and/or off-topic interventions; 2) organisation to perform the task; 3) progress in drafting the answer; 4) requests for help; 5) acceptance of the collectively produced answer; 6) answers to requests for help; and 7) sharing the instruction and/or its interpretation.The distribution of the different types of intervention in each group was similar and homogenous; there were no differences between undergraduate and graduate students. In all cases, a majority of social interventions was found, followed by organisation interventions and, to a lesser extent, progress in drafting the answer. The remaining interventions were irregular and infrequent.A higher intervention-per-student average was also found in the graduate student groups. In contrast, no differences in the intervention-per-student average were found when taking group size into account.The final considerations stress the need to know more about communication in virtual environments in order to contribute to the design of innovative proposals that broaden the opportunities for learning in such environments. 

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-chiecher-donolo 2013/07/16 - 06:41

Improving the quality of education systems is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. In many cases, this can be put down to the specific demands of accreditation regulations placed on higher education institutions and degree courses, and to the process of continuing improvement to meet the educational needs of a society whose expectations have changed considerably in recent decades. Assessment is carried out to identify problems or unattained objectives and to suggest improvements.An assessment of a distance education institution should consider factors ranging from student achievement to the comprehensiveness of the teaching proposal within a particular context. Virtualisation applies not only to students, but also to every university function.The aim of this article is to present the advances in the design of a quality assessment model that allows the Department of Distance Education in the Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Hídricas (FICH) at the Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Argentina, to assess educational quality so that it can implement a process of continuing improvement on the degree courses that it offers.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-giorgetti-romero-vera 2013/07/16 - 06:41

The aim of this research project is to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as an appropriate method for strengthening the learning processes of pre-school children. The experience was carried out in Escuela Normal Superior La Hacienda de Barranquilla in Colombia. The method in question is both fun and educational, enabling teaching-learning processes to be boosted and supported by means of a school environment project in e-learning mode.A sample of 75 pre-school children and 10 pre-school teachers was selected to take part in the project. Before it began, the teachers in charge were surveyed in order to determine their knowledge of technology and to ascertain how useful they considered it to be. The results showed that the majority of teachers did not use technology in their teaching because of a lack of time and knowledge of it.This research was conducted as part of master’s degree programme in e-Learning, offered by the Autonomous University of Bucaramanga (UNAB), Colombia, in partnership with the Open University of Catalonia (UOC), Spain.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-hernandez-acuna 2013/07/16 - 06:41

This study identifies the relationships between the learning styles and certain characteristics of the navigational practices of a group of students taking an online postgraduate course in Moodle. These two aspects may help to appreciate the characteristics of student learning and, therefore, to guide the teaching-learning process. They may also play an important role in the generation of theoretical and practical knowledge, thus enabling a better understanding of the topic. The study confirmed the existence of significant relationships between certain characteristics of navigational practices and one learning style in particular, thus suggesting the need for a more systematic exploration. 

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-lavigne-diaz-mcanally-organista 2013/07/16 - 06:41

The main aim of this study is to show the utility of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in primary education teacher training. A series of experiences using these resources was produced and then undertaken by students to facilitate their learning of the curricular components of social sciences teaching. This practical exercise was implemented on the Didactic Methodology subject for social sciences teaching, offered on the Primary Education bachelor’s degree course. The experience shows how the students produced a WebQuest and developed the learning process for both the subject’s curricular content and competencies. 

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-miralles-gomez-arias 2013/07/16 - 06:41

The aim of this article is to identify the relationships and synergies between two basic management skills – teamwork and leadership – in the virtual learning environment of a master’s degree programme subject, whose purpose, among other things, is to enable students to acquire both competencies. A two-fold methodology was used: first, a qualitative analysis of a student survey specifically designed to gain an insight into teamwork and leadership practices; and second, a quantitative analysis of Moodle activity logs for each member of every team’s use of communication spaces and methods (forums and chats). The results obtained from both analyses showed that the dynamics varied considerably from team to team; that there was a clear relationship between teamwork, leadership management and participation, and each group’s performance; and that groups with a clear leader from the start obtained better results.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-pacios-bueno 2013/07/16 - 06:41

In order to improve university government and management, in this article we propose a tool for identifying the stage of growth in the organisational learning capacity of a university. It consists of a questionnaire about the main factors affecting learning in a university as a whole, or in any of its units (faculties, departments, etc.). An analysis of the results will enable us to act upon them and make improvements.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-tintore-arbos 2013/07/16 - 06:41

The study presented in this article examines various conceptual aspects for assessing the quality of learning objects (LOs). The main aim is to design an assessment guide enabling the level of quality attained by LOs to be determined by means of a series of indicators. These indicators take into account characteristics relating to design and presentation, and also to pedagogy and technology. The metrics used to measure the level of quality are explained. These entail quantifying the assessment by means of the proposed mathematical expressions and the adopted scale, which is based on values assigned to each indicator. Also presented are the results obtained after applying the proposed guide to a sample of LOs created by the University of Information Sciences (UCI), Havana, to support the educational process.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-toll-ril 2013/07/16 - 06:41

With an increasing number of young people reaching university entrance age, the demographic reality of Latin American countries is changing the face of their traditional higher education spaces. The impact is driving institutions to seek effective solutions, and technology has been identified as a ‘way forward’ in terms of offering education to the growing population of young people who want it. Technology-mediated education must therefore help to improve Latin American citizens’ quality of life.In Mexico, and since 2010, the National System of Distance Education (SINED) – an initiative led by universities interested in strengthening education mediated by information and communication technologies (ICTs) – has been exploring ways to incorporate these tools into the evolution of Mexican and, by extension, Latin American universities.This monographic Dossier, produced in conjunction with RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, is part of the SINED’s effort to progress towards generating information, documentation and materials to support the academic community involved in ICTs and innovation from a number of angles, including use, learning and research. In order to achieve the objectives set, it is important to support and disseminate effective initiatives in and consolidated experiences of using and applying technologies to university education contexts, and also to foster the emergence of spaces that are open to the agents of the educational community for disseminating and sharing their experiences of technologies in education. 

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-ontiveros-canay 2013/07/16 - 06:41

The aim of this article is to present an analysis of challenges and perspectives through a project supported by the Mexican National System of Distance Education (SINED) and based on a successful case called the Regional Open Latin American Community for Social and Educational Research (CLARISE). The CLARISE for Distance Education project (2012-2013) seeks to generate knowledge on teaching models in accordance with distance education needs and a competency-based training approach, by means of networking activities that progress through three phases (diagnosis, training, implementation). This article focuses on the first phase. Having conducted a diagnostic survey of 40 participants from 9 Mexican institutions, it presents a descriptive exploratory study into 4 areas: identification data, the open education movement, distance education and innovation competencies, and networks. The purpose of the study was to devise the actions that would need to be carried out as a research group in the field of distance education. The challenges were identified in three areas: (a) institutional policies for open access; (b) knowledge management and communication; and (c) cultures of collaboration. The perspectives could be opened up by: (a) facilitator training for competency development; (b) innovative models with open access systems; and (c) mobilisation through innovation networks.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-ramirez 2013/07/16 - 06:41

This article presents the results of a study whose aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions that students, lecturers/tutors and coordinators had of the pedagogical models underpinning online undergraduate programmes in Colombia, and of the application of these models with regard to collaborative work and interaction. The study used qualitative and quantitative techniques to complement and contrast the participants’ perceptions. A total of 48 group and individual interviews were conducted, and 288 students and 44 lecturers answered an online survey. The results show that the programmes are based on constructivist principles and tend to use active pedagogies pertaining to that theory. However, the lecturers and students expressed uncertainty about the implementation of collaborative work and the fostering of interaction.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-pineda-hennig-segovia 2013/07/16 - 06:41

This article presents an evaluation of the institutional cooperation project entitled “Universidad y sociedad del conocimiento. Fortalecimiento institucional en áreas dedicadas a la enseñanza universitaria con nuevas tecnologías” (FEUNT, Universities and knowledge society. Institutional strengthening in areas dedicated to new technology-mediated university teaching), funded by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID) and undertaken by the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Spain, and the National University of Córdoba (UNC), Argentina. The main aim of the four-year project was to incorporate technologies into the institution, with emphasis on improved teaching and institutional conditions. By combining top-down, bottom-up and middle-out strategies (Cummings et al., 2005), the project articulated five programmes (research, lecturer training, technological improvement, teaching materials production, and dissemination and open knowledge), in which lecturer training, educational technology research and technology investment were interrelated. Taking needs into account, investment was made in core technologies and peripheral learning technologies (Salmon, 2005) that allowed the activities to be carried out, while others showing new potential were proposed. The aim of the work was to mobilise institutional culture in order to bring changes in teaching practices (Hargreaves, 2003). Lecturer training was carried out by means of workshops focusing on teaching materials production, viewed as an artefact that enabled teaching staff to reflect on decision-making when confronted with technology-mediated teaching processes (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2001). The results of the evaluation evidenced the success of a proposal based on strengthening a working group (Educational Technology Area) to support teaching staff. They also highlighted several weaknesses, particularly in relation to the project’s sustainability.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-gewerc-alonso 2013/07/16 - 06:41

In recent years, the Internet and Web 2.0 tools have played a fairly pivotal role in university education. Social software tools have stood out in particular, with social networks attracting the most attention. In the field of education, social networks have gradually become a highly valuable didactic resource because the students who populate today’s university classrooms also live out a large part of their lives on those networks. Student group work is a cornerstone of the constructivist view of teaching, which can draw on resources of this type because, among other things, they foster socialisation, information searching, the attainment of a common goal, etc. But, for all of this to happen, students must have positive attitudes towards group work. This article presents the results of a study on university students’ level of knowledge of social networks and their perceptions of group work. It was conducted on a sample of students from Argentina, Spain, the Dominican Republic and Venezuela. The findings particularly show that the students held high perceptions of group work and of the opportunity to work online with fellow students from different geographical areas.

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-cabero-marin 2013/07/16 - 06:41

An analysis was performed to identify the key points for achieving effective strategic communication in universities via Twitter. An evaluation and comparison was made of how 263 universities used Twitter by looking at their followers, tweets, retweets, replies and hashtags. The main purposes for its use were identified as boosting communication among members of its community and disseminating institutional information. Many Latin American universities are active on Twitter, but they need community managers to manage their official profiles to optimise communication and to increase their reach by making the most of their users’ activity. 

http://journals.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n2-guzman-delmoral 2013/07/16 - 06:41

En el nuevo contexto europeo universitario es necesario un cambio metodológico y evaluador orientado a perspectivas didácticas activas, socioconstructivas e investigadoras centradas en el estudiante. La presente investigación describe el escenario de aprendizaje, los resultados y las conclusiones de una práctica innovadora universitaria realizada con estudiantes de primer curso de dos titulaciones diferentes que se imparten en una universidad andaluza, con la utilización de portafolios electrónicos de carácter grupal, implementados a través de un edublog. El estudio pretende, principalmente, constatar los logros, dificultades y evidencias más relevantes de este proyecto didáctico grupal que incluye el diseño y la implementación de un material educativo multimedia (MEM), que implica a los estudiantes en procesos de planificación didáctica y autoevaluación. Las conclusiones del estudio destacan que el portafolio electrónico es una metodología didáctica que integra globalmente en un contínuum la enseñanza, el aprendizaje y la evaluación, al permitir trabajarlos didácticamente de forma conjunta. Asimismo, esta alternativa metodológica facilita de forma considerable el conocimiento por parte del docente de los procesos de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, la metodología de trabajo de sus clases, las dificultades de trabajar en equipo, las fuentes de información que utilizan los estudiantes, los procesos de tutorización, así como los procesos de una evaluación formativa. Por último, permite valorar la comprensión didáctica y el grado de adquisición de las competencias profesionales de los futuros educadores sociales.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-aguaded-lopez-jaen 2013/01/16 - 11:52

En este trabajo se analiza la posibilidad de integrar en programas de formación de posgrado del Área de la Salud nuevas prácticas de aprendizaje que permitan a los estudiantes adquirir competencias específicas sobre su ámbito de estudio, al mismo tiempo que mejorar otras competencias transversales relacionadas con el uso de elementos propios de la sociedad de la información y del conocimiento. Con tal intención se desarrolló la experiencia Wiki DM, una actividad colaborativa en torno a diferentes aspectos de la dieta mediterránea (DM) usandowikispaces.Con esta actividad se pretendía, por un lado, desarrollar una visión holística y transdisciplinar del fenómeno de la alimentación, no solo en su relación con la salud, sino también resaltando la importancia de su componente social, cultural o económico; y, por otro, se buscaba generar y disponer de un conjunto de recursos bibliográficos actualizados y fácilmente accesibles sobre el tema, que fueran de utilidad a lo largo de todo su proceso formativo. En la experiencia participaron docentes y estudiantes de diferentes programas formativos, de manera que, aunque centrados en un ámbito relacionado con su asignatura pero trabajando en un espacio y con un objetivo común, pudieran acceder a una serie de información multidisciplinar y con una visión más holística de la DM. Tras la experiencia se analizaron los resultados mediante la evaluación de la actividad, la participación en la wiki y una encuesta anónima. Los resultados demostraron que la Wiki DM resulta una herramienta efectiva para abordar el fenómeno de la alimentación desde diferentes perspectivas, así como un sistema útil para trabajar en competencias transversales, tales como el dominio de las TIC, la búsqueda bibliográfica y el trabajo colaborativo.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-aguilar-medina-pons-saigi 2013/01/16 - 11:52

La presencia y el desarrollo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) resulta cada vez más apreciable en todos nuestros ámbitos, y son muchos los esfuerzos que las universidades de todos los países efectúan para incorporarlas a actividades tales como la gestión, la investigación o la docencia. Es en este contexto en el que surge el estudio que exponemos en el presente artículo, cuyos propósitos principales se declararon en los siguientes términos: a) identificar los usos que hacen los profesores denominados como de «buenas prácticas» del e-learning; b) conocer qué problemas técnicos, didácticos y organizativos encontraban a la hora de incorporar esta modalidad de enseñanza-aprendizaje; c) analizar las características de los materiales diseñados para tal fin. Para ello se emplearon diferentes estrategias de recogida de información, tales como el biograma, la entrevista individual al profesorado, el análisis de los materiales y la entrevista grupal a los alumnos. En síntesis, podríamos decir que los resultados obtenidos nos permitieron llegar a algunas conclusiones, como, por ejemplo, una actitud favorable, tanto por parte de los profesores como de los alumnos, hacia metodologías en línea, pero, más especialmente, hacia modelos mixtos o semipresenciales, de las cuales destacaron su utilidad, la flexibilización que permiten, y el aumento de la implicación y la participación del alumnado. Asimismo, se identificó la necesidad de formación didáctica por parte de los docentes y los estudiantes, y la urgencia de servicios y unidades de ayuda para el profesorado en lo que se refiere al uso de herramientas, el diseño de materiales y los recursos disponibles. Por último, se detectó un incremento del rendimiento académico de los estudiantes mediante la implementación de acciones formativas semipresenciales.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-cabero-llorente-morales 2013/01/16 - 11:52

El estudio de la innovación en la universidad no es algo nuevo; en el pasado fue, principalmente, un fenómeno individual, esporádico y aislado. En este documento, se presenta como fundamental para transformar las universidades actuales, que deben ser los instrumentos esenciales que impulsen los grandes cambios sociales y científicos que permitirán progresar efectivamente hacia la futura sociedad del conocimiento (Castells, 2001). La investigación y el posgrado son elementos claves para apoyar la innovación, así como la pertinencia, la virtualización y la integración (Casas, 2005). El proceso de globalización es irreversible y provoca que las sociedades se transformen, que cambien con ritmos desiguales pero muy dinámicos. La universidad se convierte en un instrumento imprescindible para sustentar el cambio y reproducirlo. Los sistemas educativos deben movilizarse en relación con la sociedad del conocimiento y generar el saber significativo que se requiere. La innovación debe entenderse como proceso, no solo como producto. La parte crucial de la innovación educativa consistirá no solo en habilitar a los docentes en el uso de las TIC, sino en modificar el paradigma educativo de su práctica docente para construir un modelo organizativo que les permita adaptarse a un entorno cambiante y complejo.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-casas 2013/01/16 - 11:52

El estudio de carácter cualitativo exploratorio identifica y prueba una unidad de análisis para describir e interpretar de manera holística las prácticas de lectura y escritura académica hipertextual, que tienen lugar en un programa de formación de profesores en Chile. Las prácticas son observadas desde una perspectiva global y se caracterizan como un sistema compuesto de elementos e interacciones dinámicas y cambiantes, relacionadas con variables cognitivas, socioculturales y multimodales. La unidad básica a través de la cual se revisan las prácticas de alfabetización académica con apoyo tecnológico es la acción mediada, tomada del modelo de Burke (1969a). Los componentes del modelo: acto, escena, agente, agencia y propósito, permiten observar el objeto, poner en relieve sus elementos constituyentes y, al mismo tiempo, la interacción dialógica que moviliza el sistema. La investigación se organiza como un estudio de casos que recoge las percepciones de un grupo de sujetos que ha participado en la elaboración de un informe académico con apoyo hipertextual. La relevancia del estudio radica en validar un modelo de análisis que devela el objeto desde una perspectiva integradora y descubre aspectos que deberán ser asumidos en la formación de competencias de alfabetización académica hipertextual en programas de formación docente.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-figueroa-aillon-salazar 2013/01/16 - 11:52

La aparición de entornos virtuales de aprendizaje (EVA) caracterizados por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) en las diversas funciones institucionales básicas de la educación superior (docencia, procesos administrativos, desarrollo y distribución de materiales, etc.) constituye un elemento característico del contexto educativo actual. La expansión del aprendizaje virtual (e-learning) y la competencia en este ámbito han hecho que aparezca una creciente preocupación por la calidad de este servicio. En este sentido resulta necesario desarrollar sistemas, modelos y escalas que permitan obtener medidas válidas, fiables y consistentes de la calidad de los servicios educativos que se ofrecen en EVA. Este es el objetivo básico del presente trabajo, que toma como punto referencia la literatura sobre calidad del servicio percibida (CSP), y adoptando una perspectiva holística de los servicios formativos se presenta una escala modelo que permite medir la CSP en dichos entornos. Esta escala está compuesta por 24 ítems que se subsumen en cuatro dimensiones: servicio esencial (docencia), servicios facilitadores o administrativos, servicios de apoyo e interfaz del usuario.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-martinez-blanco-castan 2013/01/16 - 11:52

En la actualidad, algunos autores ven el aprendizaje informal como un cambio en los sistemas educativos actuales. Basándose en una tendencia instigada por el conectivismo, por el que se crean redes informales entre personas que se ayudan unas a otras a aprender, el aprendizaje informal parece ser una alternativa a las formas tradicionales de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Las nuevas tecnologías son claves para el desarrollo de estos modelos de aprendizaje informal. Así, los recursos educativos abiertos (OER) digitales y, más recientemente, los cursos abiertos en línea y masivos (MOOC) son dos métodos diferentes, si bien relacionados, para hacer posible este desarrollo. Aunque todavía están en emergencia y crecimiento, algunos de estos nuevos métodos parecen intentos de formalizar lo informal. Basados en modelos de transmisión tradicional, algunos de los modelos que se han desarrollado son solo transformaciones de los antiguos modelos, aunque utilizan nuevas tecnologías para conseguir sus objetivos. Este artículo presenta una revisión crítica de los últimos desarrollos en el aprendizaje informal, y señala la necesidad de realizar investigación basada en pruebas para establecer qué aprendizaje real puede conseguirse informalmente.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-sangra-wheeler 2013/01/16 - 11:52

Este artículo expone un experimento a pequeña escala sobre una estrategia diseñada para apoyar el intercambio de experiencias académicas en una universidad de educación a distancia. Dos pequeños grupos independientes compuestos por personal académico (uno con cuatro profesores y otro con cinco diseñadores de contenidos educativos, ambos con empleados con y sin experiencia) se ofrecieron voluntarios para reunirse periódicamente durante un período de un año para elaborar un mapa de conocimientos colectivos que representara una parte de sus conocimientos profesionales. Esta herramienta y actividad de tutoría entre compañeros de trabajo estableció un contexto de aprendizaje en el que se potenció que los participantes exteriorizaran y compartieran algunos conocimientos tácitos desarrollados a través de su práctica profesional, así como determinados conocimientos organizativos explícitos aunque algunas veces ambiguos. Los datos analizados hasta el momento incluyen la grabación de las entrevistas realizadas a cada participante antes y después del experimento, la grabación de las conclusiones al final de cada reunión y el mapa de conocimientos elaborado por cada grupo. Los resultados sugieren que combinar las tutorías de grupo con la modelización de conocimientos colaborativos es una estrategia prometedora para promover la adquisición de experiencias profesionales y por lo tanto apoyar el desarrollo profesional del personal académico en las universidades. Esta estrategia puede definirse como una actividad de aprendizaje intencional pero no formal que se adecua a las conceptualizaciones de aprendizaje en el lugar de trabajo a la vez como proceso de intercambio de conocimientos y proceso de creación de conocimientos.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-basque 2013/01/16 - 11:52

Los recursos educativos abiertos (REA) y las prácticas educativas abiertas (PEA) tienen un impacto cada vez mayor en el aprendizaje para adultos, ya que proporcionan educación gratuita de alta calidad a un creciente número de personas. Sin embargo, la distribución vertical que caracteriza a los cursos universitarios disponibles en la actual oferta educativa no se adecua necesariamente a contextos como el desarrollo profesional continuo (DPC). Este artículo sostiene que un nuevo planteamiento que permita pasar de un enfoque centrado en el proveedor a otro que gravite alrededor de la necesidad, basado en las teorías del aprendizaje informal, podría incrementar el impacto positivo de los REA y las PEA más allá de la torre de marfil en qué está hoy situada la educación superior. Para explorar este planteamiento, nos hemos centrado en los requisitos de una comunidad específica que no pertenece al ámbito de la educación superior –formadores del sector voluntario del Reino Unido– para diseñar un modelo que pueda aplicarse de forma amplia a una comunidad de aprendizaje sostenible y en línea centrada en REA y PEA. El modelo se basa en una encuesta reciente realizada a formadores voluntarios, que establecía su necesidad de disponer de recursos gratuitos de alta calidad y su deseo de entablar relaciones más productivas con sus colegas, así como en un informe sobre comunidades en línea pertenecientes o no al sector voluntario. El modelo que proponemos presta la misma atención a los recursos de aprendizaje que a la sociabilidad del grupo. Para ello, los investigadores y los profesionales trabajan conjuntamente para adaptar y crear materiales de aprendizaje y poner en común conocimientos y experiencias a través de foros de discusión y otras actividades en colaboración. El modelo plantea una dimensión explícita de mejora de competencias basada en la teoría de las comunidades de práctica (CP) y un sistema de gestión de la reputación que incentiva la participación. Se trata de un modelo único para la creación de una comunidad pan-organizativa totalmente abierta en cuanto a recursos y posibilidad de afiliación. Si bien el modelo que se presenta en este artículo se centra básicamente en el sector voluntario, también podría aplicarse de forma más amplia a otros sectores, lo que permitiría que las comunidades de práctica se beneficiaran de recursos diseñados a medida y de  contribuciones académicas, y que las universidades participantes vieran que sus REA se utilizan y reutilizan de forma más amplia para el DPC a través del aprendizaje informal.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-coughlan-perryman 2013/01/16 - 11:52

El desarrollo de la educación no formal está expandiendo las líneas de enseñanza y aprendizaje de la prestación global de servicios educativos. Esta expansión, junto con un mayor uso de recursos educativos abiertos (REA) está generando una potencial sinergia entre la educación no formal y los REA para reforzar la formación y el aprendizaje en todas las etapas educativas de las personas que viven en regiones marginadas y económicamente desfavorecidas. El principal argumento del autor es que los REA constituyen un valioso recurso educativo para la educación no formal que debería expandirse, investigarse y perfeccionarse. Los REA no son recursos formales o no formales por sí mismos, ya que lo que define su contexto y su aplicación a la docencia y al aprendizaje es la forma en que se usan en entornos educativos formales y no formales. Este artículo facilita el marco conceptual básico para conceptualizar el uso de RAE en la educación no formal. El autor sugiere que el proceso para evaluar actividades educativas no formales es similar a los principios básicos de diseño utilizados en la educación formal, entre los cuales están la identificación de objetivos, finalidades y resultados basados en competencias; el desarrollo de parámetros de diseño pedagógico; el análisis del contexto y la cultura pedagógica; y la evaluación y medición de la docencia y el aprendizaje no formal. Además, defiende que investigar el uso de REA en la educación no formal, junto con un liderazgo universitario visionario, será esencial para maximizar su potencial en la educación no formal. En el resumen final se destacan los principales puntos y temas tratados en el artículo.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-olcott 2013/01/16 - 11:52

Aunque el tema de la profesionalización docente no es nuevo como campo de estudio de la pedagogía, sí que resulta relevante su consideración en el contexto formativo de hoy en día, y lo es desde diferentes prismas: 1) desde la triple perspectiva de la integración de los sistemas de aprendizaje formal, no formal e informal; 2) desde la consideración del aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida; 3) desde la lógica de la formación basada en competencias, en la que se le da importancia a la formación inicial y continua, y que tiene un enfoque de desarrollo socioprofesional. En este artículo, tras esta triple consideración, pretendemos caracterizar mínimamente cómo es hoy en día la profesionalización docente y el desarrollo profesional, para centrar la atención en el profesor desde una perspectiva profesional. Finalmente, se analizan algunas implicaciones de dicho planteamiento sobre la formación de los formadores en la educación superior.

http://rusc.uoc.edu/ojs/index.php/rusc/article/view/v10n1-tejada 2013/01/16 - 11:52