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Research Journal of Information Technology

A growing number of botnets threats recently has grown to the level of world
wide concerns. This dangerous phenomenon emerges drastically and offers undefined
capability to attack the global internet security never seen before. As time
evolves, the incremental numbers of botnets attack have been recorded with types
of variants such as peer-to-peer (P2P) have been discovered. Attentively, botnets
attack nowadays is typically declared as an advance malware due to its ability
to smokescreen itself as a benign P2P application which make it difficult to
detect and shut down and also easily to escape itself. Alarming on this crisis,
many studies propose on detection, prevention and mitigation techniques as the
precaution action. Hence, this study addresses in-depth review on a wild scale
for botnets detection techniques. Technically, the survey classifies the detection
techniques into five categories based on its anomaly, signature, DNS, data mining
and hybrid technique. To enrich the level of understandings on the strategy,
this study also highlights the importance of such characteristics as type of
technique, approach, response time, type of botnets, detection parameter, metric
and variants. In addition, this study offers detail discussion about botnets
detection techniques which is beneficial for botnets investigation and helpful
to other researches for immediate references. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

The day to day advancements in science and technology resulted in enormous
data transaction and demand for secure communication and e-banking are not an
exception. The usage of ATMs for cash withdrawal and other transaction related
works is massive. Looking at the elements required by a customer for ATM utility,
the debit card and secure PIN are being sent separately by postal service to
the customers of many banks for increased security. However, tampering is always
possible because of the unique mode of sending the both card as well as PIN
authentication to the customers. Here we suggest an alternative method to enhance
the security with respect to debit card and PIN communication to the customers
with LabVIEW based transform domain steganography approach where the PIN will
be hidden in the scanned Debit card image with the help of Discrete Cosine Transform
(DCT) and swapping algorithm. This transformed image will be e-mailed to the
customers. Proper retrieval algorithm will be used by the concerned customers
to reveal the secret PIN authentication. Histogram report, error metrics like
MSE and PSNR have also been discussed in this study for sample ATM debit card
image. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

DC/AC power converters are very much useful to provide ac output from DC power
supply. Based on their operation, these converters find their way in lot of
applications such as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), Uninterruptible
Power Supply (UPS), HVDC Transmission System etc. These converters are often
classified into voltage source and current source inverters. In these, multi
level configuration is common for both converters which are suitable for high
power applications. This study explains a different multi level current source
inverter configuration with various PWM control strategies. The operation and
analysis of the proposed converter with control strategies are examined through
PSIM and MATLAB simulation. The result shows the variation in the output Total
Harmonic Distortion (THD) for different control methods. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

The objective of the study is to develop level controller for conical tank
system using Model Predictive Control (MPC) and compare its performance with
conventional Discrete Time Proportional Integral Derivative control (DTPID).
The nonlinear property of the conical tank is divided into different operating
zones and process model is obtained for each zone. The overall process is divided
into 6 operating zones and different control schemes such as DTPID and discrete
time MPC were simulated in MATLAB environment. Among these two control schemes
MPC resulted with better transient performance in all the six operating zones. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

Embedded devices have taken a prominent role in today’s
data communication. Steganography, an ancient method has immense budding to
shield electronic data from threats in the modern world. The focus on this study
is to make use of Hilbert Space Filling Curve (SFC) to implement random steganography
on a single chip embedded device that embeds textual information on grey scale
images. The written embedded C program was optimized for in terms of code size
and execution time and the results are compared. The results of the proposed
method are also compared with a similar methodology hosted on an equivalent
embedded device. The main aim of this implementation is to make use of the specialized
bit operation capabilities of ARM processor to improve the security level of
the embedding algorithm by introducing bit level arbitrariness in the selection
of data to be embedded. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

The 6to4 tunneling is a type of automatic tunneling that developed among other
numerous of transition mechanisms. It was introduced to ensure smooth implementation
of IPv6 on existing network. However, it is believed that the implementation
has been manipulated to execute several types of attacks. As a concern, this
study thoroughly describes on potential of Neighbor Discovery based attack passed
through 6to4 Tunneling. The preference development tools and networking mechanism
suite are setup to conduct proposed attack method under testbed environment.
The results carried out proved that the attacking method is feasible to attempt,
while 6-4 tunnel showed the influence on the achievement of this attack in current
internet. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

In this study, RGB based image encryption was proposed. Initially the RGB components
are separated, to each plane logistic mapping was employed. Then permutation
was done for number of iterations given by the user and then the bitplanes are
combined form a single image. Circular shift operation was performed on either
left/right then up/down of the permuted pixels. As a final module, bitwise operation
are applied based on two keys for row and column, respectively. To analyse the
robustness of the proposed method correlation values, Unified Average Changing
Intensity (UACI), Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR) and histogram tests were
estimated. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

Uninterrupted power supply, variable speed drives and rectifiers are some of
the non linear loads and they produce non sinusoidal current from the network.
Shunt active filters connected in parallel to the load act as a current source
with opposite phase to harmonic current opposes the current harmonics. This
proposed study deals tuning of Shunt Active Filter (SAF) along with Artificial
Neural Network (ANN) controller. Shunt active filter recompenses reactive power
and improve the power factor. ANN is used for extracting the harmonics’
fundamental component in the load current which is used as reference for the
mains supply. This reference is compared to actual supply current and then error
is given as input to hysteresis current controller, which in turn tunes the
SAF. The usage of ANN simplifies the hardware to a great extent. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

Secure data transmission plays a crucial role in today’s
world. While the data in the form of images are required extensively, the need
to safeguard the original images has become inevitable. An image encryption
based on the architecture of 14-bit and 8-bit cellular automata circuits has
been proposed in this study. With the mighty pseudo randomness of two different
cellular automata circuits, both shuffling and encryption operations were performed
on grayscale images. The algorithm was implemented on Cyclone II EP2C35F672C6
FPGA. The proposed image encryption scheme on the reconfigurable hardware consumed
a maximum of 11,675 logic elements (35% of total LEs) and 2,62,144 M4KRAM bits
for encrypting the two grayscale secret images of size 128x128 that were stored
in internal memory of the FPGA. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

The purpose of this study is to achieve the risk assessment by using the Bayesian
network. Provides a possible new method in airline risk assessment. Airline
risk assessment system is an interrelated index system. The risk assessment
index system is established by collecting the reliability data, maintainability
data, management data and safety data from airlines. The weight of index is
determined by using the analytic hierarchy process and the qualitative index
are quantified by using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The airline risk assessment
model is based on the Bayesian network. The findings of this article identify
a number of useful scenarios for future airline safety risk management applications
and considerations. Research limitations/implications: It is imperative to emphasize
that the concept of this article solely sheds light on risk assessment of Bayesian
network. Practical implications: Implications of risk assessment for airline
may result in enhancing airline safety management level and reducing operating
costs. Further implications could possibly be extended to various of civil aviation
operations. Social implications: The risk assessment method can be applied to
other complicated systems. Originality/value: The qualitative index are quantified
by using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The airline risk assessment model based
on the Bayesian Network (BN) using GeNIe software. In this way, it can take
full advantages of the two methods and raise the effect of integration. 2014/06/19 - 17:40

Fluorescence microscopy imaging is a common biomedical tool for researchers
make use in the study of active processes occurring inside live cells. Although
fluorescent confocal microscopes are consistent instruments, the acquired images
are normally corrupted by a severe type of poisson noise owing to the small
amount of acquired radiation (low photon-count images) and also the huge opto-electronics
amplification. These effects are still more destructive when very low intensity
incident radiation is employed to avoid photo toxicity. To validate various
standards of denoising algorithms to denoising the cardio fibroblast cells,
in which all the fluorescence images are affected by Poisson Gaussian noise.
These images are considered especially as a cardio fibroblasts contribute to
structural, biochemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the myocardium.
The denoising approaches employed here can directly act on Poisson noise like
PURELET or use approaches wherein Gaussianize the noise by means of standard
VST algorithms and then Gaussian denoising algorithms like BLS_GSM, BM3D and
OWT SURELET are proposed. The experimental results are carried out on how the
ISNR changes with the change in algorithms and inverse transforms for cardio
fibroblasts. 2014/06/03 - 11:14

This study proposes a steganographic technique based on Fibonacci representation
using cellular automata. The pixel’s
color component is decomposed into Fibonacci domain to introduce more available
bit-planes which can be used in data-hiding. In order to increase the robustness
of hidden data against modification attacks, the secret bits are embedded into
a higher LSB layer. Nevertheless, the embedding secret bit in the higher LSB
layer causes more distortion to cover-image. An adaptive adjustment is applied
to minimize the degradation of the cover-image. The security of hidden message
is enhanced by employing the Game of Life, a cellular automaton, to generate
the used key stream for encryption and image pixel selection. By employing the
adaptive adjustment, every pixel in the image can be used in the embedding process.
Therefore, the capacity of the embedding secret message is the same as the classical
LSB algorithm. Experimental results show that the existence of hidden message
cannot be figured out by the visual or statistically attack and the robustness
of hidden data in the stego-image is enhanced. 2014/06/03 - 11:14

The study presents a review on different methodologies to diagnose the melanoma,
a deadly skin cancer. Melanoma is a type of skin cancer which arises on the
outer layer of skin. Major cause of this type of skin cancer is over exposure
of skin to UV radiation and also severe sun burns. It is the cancer which grows
rapidly and has higher chances of death. There are many clinical diagnosis techniques
are available, but the exact and accurate results of melanoma is acquired by
analyzing the skin lesion image with the emerging image processing and soft
computing techniques. ABCD analysis is the process used to differentiate the
melanoma skin lesions with the other type of skin diseases. The same is used
in the processing of the skin lesion image using image processing techniques
and the results are optimized using soft computing techniques. This study narrates
the procedure and methodologies of image processing and soft computing techniques
used to diagnose the melanoma with better accuracy. 2014/05/19 - 22:49

This study presents a new clustering algorithm called Robust Genetic Algorithm with Chromosome Reorganization (Robust GACR) based on genetic methodology. The discussion details key aspects of the proposed methodology, including a chromosome reorganization method and a new crossover operator that exploits a measure of similarity between chromosomes. Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation are employed to prevent the convergence of the GA to a local optimum. The performance of the Robust GACR algorithm, GCA, KGA, GA clustering and K-means algorithm are compared through the experiments based on several artificial data sets and real data sets. The K-means is unable to provide the correct clustering. However, the KGA and GCA are correctly clustered only some data sets, but they are unable to detect the correct clusters in all data sets. The Robust GACR is able to detect the clusters reasonably well in all data sets. 2014/05/19 - 22:49

Carrier Aggregation (CA) is one of the key technologies for Long Term Evolution
Advanced (LTE-A) systems. Technology has been receiving enormous attention because
of its numerous advantages particularly for bandwidth expansion to 100 MHz.
One of the primary issues affecting the performance of the technology is effective
component carrier selection. The selection processes become even more critical
with introduction of heterogeneous network and thus require better techniques
in order to reap the reality benefits of carrier aggregation. In this study,
we proposed a new technique to ease the selection process for Component Carriers
(CC) in an impromptu network deployment using analytic hierarchy process and
Iterative water filling technique. Our simulation results show that user’s
throughput can be improved while maintaining low inter-cell interference among
base stations. 2014/05/19 - 22:49

The multistandard video and image codec using a single platform is the recent trend in multimedia technologies, in which the Two-Dimensional forward and inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (2-D DCT/IDCT) is used as a transform core. Therefore, the 2-D DCT/IDCT core should support multiple transforms and that to be implemented with low cost hardware, while keeping the required performances for real time applications. In this study, a fast multistandard DCT/IDCT generalized algorithms are developed with low complexity for 2x2, 4x4 and 8x8 forward/inverse transforms in H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC), 8x8 forward/inverse transform in Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS), 4x4 and 8x8 forward/inverse transforms in VC-1 and 8x8 forward/inverse discrete cosine transform in JPEG and MPEG-1/2/4. The hardware implementation of these generalized algorithms is performed with low cost hardware, in which the hardware sharing design and shared factorization of coefficient multiplications are used. Furthermore the multiplications are avoided by using additions and shifts. The multistandard 2-D DCT/IDCT is achieved with the proposed 1-D DCT/IDCT sharing architecture and a robust transpose buffer. These pipelined hardware architectures are described in VHDL hardware language, synthesized, verified and implemented on low cost FPGA. The implementation results of the proposed multistandard 2-D DCT/IDCT show a decrease of computational complexity by 29.7% of additions while the number of shifts remains almost the same and an increase of maximum frequency and throughput by 18.2% in comparison with other previous design. 2014/04/18 - 19:47

Due to the widespread use of Internet and communication networks, a reliable and secure network plays a crucial role for Information Technology (IT) service providers and users. The hardness of network attacks as well as their complexities has also increased lately. The anomaly-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are able to detect unknown attacks. Major task of this research is to increase detection rate and accuracy while keeping the false alarm at low rate. To overwhelm this challenge a new hybrid learning approach, KM-NEU is proposed by combination of K-means clustering and Neural Network Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classification. The K-means clustering algorithm is engaged for grouping analogous nodes into k clusters using the similarity measures such as attack and non-attack, whereas the Neural Network Multi-Layer Perceptron classifies the clustered data into detail categories such as R2L, Probing, DoS, U2R and Normal. Performance of this hybrid approach is evaluated with standard knowledge discovery in databases (KDD Cup ’99) dataset. The experimental results confirm that this approach has considerably increased in the detection rate and accuracy and reduce in false alarm rate compared to single neural network classifier. 2014/04/18 - 19:47

Sub-optimal modulation scheme was proposed to reduce the Bit Error Rate (BER) in Vector Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (VOFDM). Suboptimal modulation scheme is connected with the minimum Euclidean distance of all possible received vector symbols. VOFDM using the suboptimal modulation has shown an improvement on eliminating channel spectral nulls. However, it has a high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal which may increase the complexity of the system. This paper introduces the carrier interferometry technique in suboptimal modulation-VOFDM to reduce the PAPR and improve the BER performance. The simulation results of the proposed system show about 10dB PAPR reduction compared to the conventional VOFDM system. 2014/04/18 - 19:47

Spread Spectrum technology can be considered as one of the most important communication technologies. Its basic idea is depending on enlarging the modulated signal Bandwidth throughout a second modulation. For the hybrid spread spectrum, most of the researches and applications focused on the Direct Sequence/Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum, on the other hand a few researches deal the Direct Sequence/Frequency Hopping/Time Hopping hybrid spread spectrum systems. In this study, the performance of a coded Direct Sequence/Fast Frequency Hopping/Time Hopping system is analyzed and evaluated under the additive white Gaussian noise and frequency selective fading channel. The results show that the presented system provides a great performance enhancement due to its multi-spread spectrum techniques. 2014/03/12 - 08:18

The simulation of Direct Sequence/Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is discussed by a lot of researches; on the other hand a few researches illustrated the hybrid spread spectrum including Direct Sequence/Frequency Hopping/Time Hopping. In this study, a complete simulation in addition to a mathematical analysis of a coded hybrid Direct Sequence/Frequency Hopping/Time Hopping Spread Spectrum transmitter system is presented. The simulation is performed by using the matlab Graphical User Interface that shows the effect of changing multi values of the system parameters on the transmitted signal. 2014/03/12 - 08:18

The common techniques used to implement image steganography are: One-Modified
Least Significant Bits (LSB) substitution techniques with the readjustment procedure
to reduce the Mean Square Error (MSE); Two-Pixel Indicator (PI) to increase
the complexity of embedding procedure; Three-random path inside the file. These
techniques, when used without making much compromise on the critical parameters,
ensure enhanced security of the secret data. In this study, we propose to effectuate
the knight’s tour for random walk without altering the quality of the image.
To ensure full security, randomization of the Red, Green and Blue (RGB) planes
of the cover image using row vector is implemented and the obtained image is
divided into four pixel blocks. Then, knight’s tour to choose successive
block follows the Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) to embed data optimally. Thus,
this method assures a highly imperceptible and complex steganography with higher
capacity. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

In this study, a steganographic run is espoused for images with LSB as a building
block. Living in the world of advanced technologies where zillions of people
get connected online every day, problem of cyber crimes has also become inevitable.
Since innumerable digital files are exchanged, importance given to problem solving
measures has also up risen. For the security of images sake, steganography has
introduced many modus operandi which are implementable both commercially and
domestically. Steganography involves the hiding of data such that it is invisible
to the naked eye and it also aims at hiding the very existence of the message
itself by a cover medium which could be image or audio or video. Depending on
the need of the user, any type can be used. Image steganography is very prevalent
among these three. The choice of the algorithm is driven by parameters such
as veracity, sturdiness, capacity and availability. Modified LSB is used in
this algorithm but with a different perspective that give adequate implication
to all of the previously mentioned. The algorithm is rationalized by means of
MSE and PSNR results. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

The IEEE 802.11e standard provide services to different applications with the
required Quality of Service (QoS) by using differentiated channel access scheme
for vast verity of real time traffic categories. It introduced a contention
based Enhanced Distribution Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism that provides a
prioritized channel access to guarantee the minimum bandwidth required for the
streaming traffic. To allow high priority dataflow and enhance the channel throughput
in a heavily loaded IEEE 802.11e EDCA Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), we
propose new adaptive differentiation techniques that consider the network state
before readjusting the Contention Window (CW). Also an admission control algorithm
which manipulate the CWmin factor to improve the performance of WLAN with guaranteed
throughput and delay. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

The developments in expertise and internet fruition have amplified dependence on systems and IT abided by the demand to secure the same. This intriguing effort in electronic world has unfolded a new boulevard called cyber defense. In this world of cyber hacking, information security plays a vital role. Primitive techniques though are old but are very helpful in giving a perfect outline of things away from human thoughts. One such technique is the Magic Square Method, wherein the brilliant orientation of the numbers leads to a perfect matrix useful for any mathematical developments. Block Segmentation in this study involves two kolams firstly the Kubera Kolam is the magic square that is employed and incorporated for introducing the randomization. Further is the Pulli Kolam, square for acting as the symmetric key for giving the precise bits to be hidden. Further on, modifiable pixel indicator gets slightly altered from the rudiments and is used to accomplish a much efficient and effective indicator liken the conventional one. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

In this study, projected a model for safe secret-digital file transmission
by having Steganography as the ground. Steganography, in prehistoric times,
dealt with camouflage of secrets between two parties. A part from text, many
images, audio and video in millions are shared between millions. All sorts of
the aforesaid face a common and serious challenge. Here proposed three routines,
in which clandestine information is embedded based on the key in method 1, i.e.,
number and position of 1s in the four Least Significant Bits (LSB) of the key
decides the pixels for embedding. In method 2, position of 1s in the entire
key decides the pixels and the position of 1s in four LSBs only decides the
location for embedding. In method 3, secret data is plunged by means of the
same process but not directly. Instead, it is encoded by Huffman Coding and
then embedded. Justification for this study is given by computing Mean Squared
Error (MSE) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) values for all the planes
in the images by taking sample key values for all the three methods. Experimental
results are demonstrated and the corresponding image outputs are also presented. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

This study proposes an innovative methodology that incorporates the famous
Rubik’s cube into steganography. Rubik’s cube is a pivot mechanism
that enables each face to turn independently thus allowing mixing up of colors.
By using this mechanism to represent the three planes of a color image (Red,
Green, and Blue) the randomness of the stego image can be improved. The pixel
intensity values can additionally be used as pointers to indicate the type of
shift that needs to be done to the pixels in three planes. This study contains
the experimental results that validate the superiority of this methodology compared
to other existing ones in terms of imperceptibility, robustness and with reasonable
embedding capacity. It is also found to be more resistant to steganalysis. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

In this study, declared a new fangled methodology for image encryption using
one of the cryptographic modes. The need for protection rises phenomenally with
greater than before custom of internet and online communication. It is challenging
and crucial to safeguard the information be it any multimedia file online and
to check illegal entrée’. Naturally images play a huge role in doing
so in so called cryptographic and steganographic techniques. The former is very
primeval but interestingly is still in use and lends a helping hand to realize
secret sharing. Of the various fruits of cryptographic techniques, image encryption
is awe-inspiring having multiple proficiencies possessing countless platforms
to explore. This paper paints yet another advantageous model to image encryption
where the image undergoes exceptional echelon of shuffling, scrambling and encrypting
customs with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) cryptographic mode as the brain. The
analytical results demonstrate that this proposal is unsurpassed in the grounds
of Correlation, BER, UACI, NPCR, PSNR and MSSIM. The encrypted images and their
corresponding histograms are publicized to prove the paper’s purpose creation. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

Without an iota of doubt, technology has been instrumental in envisioning and realizing a host of hither-to unforeseen things in our daily works and walks. It can be pervasive and still deliver many services without any loss in quality. With technology various devices are being integrated with our already existing environment to make them more comfortable or people friendly. One such scenario has been described here where a unique use case has been presented that can enhance the quality of train travel for travelers through the deeper connectivity and spontaneous integration of a plethora of electronic devices. Here for this example, a wireless sensor network had been dynamically created that would periodically obtain information from various parts of every train coach and contribute for the improvement of the quality of services being provided to the passengers. DPWS, a leading service-based device integration standard specification has been utilized as the device middleware in order to build this integrated application that serves as the foundation in making this use case a reality. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

The Internet mostly uses insecure links, where information for communication
is put to test through its open exposure to interception. As far as information
is concerned, its safeguarding measures are of prime concern nowadays. Some
solution to be discussed is how to pass the not to be disclosed message in a
fashion that its subsistence is made unidentified to invaders. Stenography is
a hiding mechanism where the charisma of the secret is veiled by infixing the
same in cover files. Steganalysis is the field associated with steganography
detection by all its attributes which has now acknowledged much notice from
media, law enforcement etc. Chi square test is the one such statistical technique
used for steganalysis. This paper purports an algorithm for embedding data within
images such that the chi square test fails to detect the hidden information.
Merits and demerits of the algorithm are also discussed. Simple LSB substitution
along with proposed modified LSB substitution is discussed with the help of
PSNR and Chi square value. Another algorithm called as IPMCS (Increased Probability
of matching between Cover and Secret data) is introduced which can be used to
improve the image quality in terms of PSNR. It is important to know that IPMCS
works well only for those images whose PSNR value obtained after applying OPAP
is below a threshold value. Stegnographers should obtain stego outputs which
when seen from naked eye, are impossible to tell apart from their corresponding
covers. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

In this study, we highlighted a new and efficient steganographic modus operandi
based on pixel indicator routine to infix covert data in an RGB image. Usually
when pixel indicator technique is employed on an RGB image, only one among the
three planes (R, G and B) is labeled the indicant plane and the other two as
depository planes in which the data can be stored. The proposed method is a
similar concept by considering all the three planes for storage of the data
instead of just two. This is carried out by using 5, 6 and 7 bits of a plane
as indicator bits which increases the possible fields (from 4-8) to store the
data. Because of this, the data embedding capacity of the image is improved
to a greater extent since the indicator plane can also be used for embedding
data in it. Optical Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP) is also used here for reducing
Mean Square Error. Furthermore the OPAP technique is not applied on the indicator
plane as it modifies the indicator bits for reducing the MSE. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

The last few decades have seen a tremendous growth in computing machines as
well as the digital information with internet expansion. The transmission and
storage of this huge volume of information is a high priority issue and has
lead to the evolvement of information hiding and cryptographic techniques. Cryptography
scrambles the message to be transmitted safely and different key sizes implement
different security levels. Steganography is an information hiding technique
and embeds the information in undetectable files like images or texts such that
their very presence is not detected with the naked eyes. Cryptography and steganography
have their own advantages and disadvantages and though each is resistant to
attacks in their own ways, a combination of both results in a better cryptosystem
and is a chief domain of research these days. Completely different from other
methods, this paper makes use of the basic traits of statistical distribution
given by mean and standard deviation; the basic building block for this paper.
Embedding is done by adopting LSB substitution and PI. Bits to be infixed are
decided by some prerequisites for increasing ramification. Justification for
this algorithm is given by rudimentary of images along with bits per pixel and
capacity of embedding. This paper promises high security and enhanced robustness
as well. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

The rapid growth of the Internet over the last two decades has enormously increased
the abundant of computer data such as audio, images and videos to the public.
It has greatly facilitated the hacking and unauthorized distribution of those
digital media, which become simple and easier due to the adequate technology
processing platforms. To enforce the intellectual property rights and digital
media from tampering, “digital watermarking” technique can be used.
The pixel values of the watermark which is embedded with the asset image are
directly modified in spatial domain watermarking technique. Transform domain
watermarking embed the watermark in the transform domain like modifying the
spectral coefficients of both asset and watermark images. In this paper, we
implement watermarking in hybrid domain which modify the image regarding both
spatial and spectral coefficients. DWT is applied to both the asset and message
which is to be hidden in the asset image. The watermark is embedded spatially
with the HL, LH and HH components which has been wavelet transformed using various
wavelet filters. The Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio
(PSNR) are evaluated to test the imperceptibility of the watermark. Watermarked
image suffers some different signal attacks like compression, adding salt and
pepper noise, image cropping, image rotation and filter which are used to evaluate
the robustness of a watermark. Simulation results show the Daubechies 10 wavelet
produces better response among all the others, at the cost of more computation. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

Authentication in Mobile ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) is difficult and challenging
because of its frequent topology changes. Central authority based authentication
schemes have been proposed and with every movement of a node outside the network
demands re-authentication of the nodes by the central authority before the node
rejoins the network. This research contribution intends to propose a novel Non-Interactive
Zero Knowledge Protocol (NIZKP) to address this problem of re-authentication.
The proposed NIZKP achieves re-authentication by neighborhood authentication
of the node that wants to rejoin the network. This reduces the dependences on
the central authority for re-authentication thereby avoiding the attacks that
are possible during re-authentication. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

This study proposes the usage of humanoid as a sensor node, which uses its
inherent locomotion abilities that turns the sensor node dynamics simultaneously
on with an installation of a transceiver. The humanoid is capable of wireless
transmission of sensor data to a place of desired location and accordingly correction
measures can be taken. The system requires the development of three independent
modules namely the humanoid, a transmitter/receiver and a sensor node. The humanoid
is manually operated through an on-board Atmega kit and an interface (computer)
at operator’s side. It is developed to move forward, turn right and left
and sitting still when power to its servos is turned off. The transmitter/receiver
module operating at 433 MHZ is capable of sending 4 bit parallel data. Transceiver
is fed data through an encoder with 4 data lines, likewise at receiver end a
decoder with 4 output data lines is used. Sensor module consists of Volatile
Organic Compound (VOC) sensor, studied with ethanol in the present paper. Its
output is fed to 4 comparators whose outputs in turn are fed to data lines of
an encoder which is provided with 4 variable range concentration windows. Finally
sensor and transmitter/receiver module is integrated and installed on the humanoid.
Hence humanoid can be sent to a remote location and ethanol concentration can
be detected. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

Convergence of voice and data services into a single IP network introduces new complex challenges in the network QoS research community. Transmission of voice in IP network has to meet stringent requirements on bandwidth, packet delay and throughput. To improve the QoS, (MPLS) Multiprotocol Label Switching as per Adaptive Concurrent Multipath Packet Dispersion Architecture pro VoIP Networks is proposed. The proposed system categorises to VoIP, Non VoIP flows using probing techniques. Later, they get routed via multiple path. The non VoIP data flows are routed using SCTP’s concurrent multihoming feature that simultaneously transfers the data across multiple end to end paths to the receiver. Analytical upshots report this study benefits using Ns-2 simulator. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

This study concentrates on a novel efficient solution to counterfeit problems like recovering of currency which has been lost during interbank transferring process, to get rid of cloning and so on with the inclusion of latest Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. In this proposed method each and every currency note is equipped with a RFID-tag i.e., A smart tag analogous to Bar code which can be accessed at a distance. Each tag is given with a unique serial number which will be useful for easy management like for the purpose of simultaneous verification for Genuineness of note, counting and tracking etc., The proposed management system consists of a Central Server which coordinates its activities with Mobile Networks, RFID currency reader’s in order to track and management of currency. ORACLE database serves as the master. Thus, a high level of security can be incorporated in currency notes in an economical incisive manner. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

Visual cryptography is the latest means of cryptography modes that takes in
the human’s natural vision to decrypt the image without any tedious processes
involved. This technique has the methods of setting information in a haphazard
manner which get properly distinguishable to the human eye only when they are
superimposed. In this study, three such visual cryptographic schemes are analysed
with proper illustrations, advantages and disadvantages. So, the banalities
of various secret sharing are (k, n) scheme, pixel rotation, share rotations
are analysed and the results are presented. These methods improvise information
as well a security than the regular schemes. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

The cloud idea has been percolating to every tangible domain. Having understood the fact that significant savings can be availed and acquired with the assimilation and adoption of cloud concepts, business executives, entrepreneurs and engineers are working overtime in putting cloud-centric tactical as well as strategical plans and proposals in place to easily and quickly accomplish the lingering mantra of ‘more with less’. Cloud infrastructures (private, public and hybrid) are erupting across the globe, cloud platforms, applications and services are being developed or assembled, deployed, managed, delivered via one or more of these cloud infrastructure providers. The popularity and pervasiveness of cloud services are quiet surging. Though cloud computing is being seen as a silver bullet for the ICT industry, there are a few shortcomings such as security, availability, data ownership, etc. In this study, we are concentrating on the perpetual and prominent security problem of the cloud paradigm. We have discussed about the possible solutions for the security issues at different layers and levels. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

An evolution on new discipline under nonlinear engineering was considered based
on two facts: the first one is based on the higher order effects that takes
place and plays more importance in current designs and the second one is focused
mainly on non-linear behavior for the new upcoming designs. While considering
for the latter one, the complexity of non-linear behavior in random manner is
called "chaos", which is now applied for various areas like communications,
physiology, signal processing. In this paper, we propose an effective method
for improving the security in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
by the use fractals in the form of chaos. 2013/08/03 - 16:10

Picture quality and undetectability are the key aspects of steganography. In this study, the proposed framework uses a novel approach to enhance the steganographic scheme with optimized picture quality and higher anti-steganalysis capability. To achieve this, the secret image is hidden in the carrier image by creating layers in Stegoimage. Differing from previous works, this method retains the quality of the carrier image and it doesn’t depend on the size of the carrier image and shows better imperceptibility. To abate to the damage in the reconstructed carrier image, the secret image is divided into two segments, one with odd bytes and the other with even bytes. These are embedded into the carrier image in the form of layers rather than embedding it on the carrier image itself. A pass-key is used for security purpose. This is done after pointing out the related approaches and then highlighting this model’s contributions with respect to the embedding and extraction processes. 2013/08/03 - 16:10