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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition

The present study was carried out to determine the hepatoprotective
effect of some herbal oils as Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Fennel
(foeniculum vulgare) oil seeds against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) that
caused hepatotoxicity in rats. The experiment was performed on 30 adult rat
that classified into two main groups, the first main group (6 rats) was kept
as control (-ve) group while the second main groups (24 rat) were administered
a dose of (2 mL CCL4 /kg b.wt.) twice a week for two weeks to induce chronic
damage in the liver then classified into four subgroups (six rats each) as follow,
one of them (6 rats) was fed on the basal diet and used as a positive control
group (+ve), however, the other three subgroups were fed on basal diets and
obtained orally dill oil (1 mL/kg), Fennel oil (1 mL/kg), mixture of (0.5 dill
and 0.5 mL/kg fennel) oil, respectively for 4 weeks. The hepatotoxicity produced
by CCL4 administration was found to be inhibited by either Dill (Anethum
graveolens L.) or Fennel (foeniculum vulgare) oil or by the mixture
of both Dill and Fennel oil with evidence of significant (p<0.05) decrease
levels of serum AST and ALT and significantly (p<0.05) increase the level
of serum total protein and albumin. Moreover, Dill and Fennel oil supplementation
induced suppression of the increased ALP activity with the concurrent depletion
of raised bilirubins suggests the possibility of these oils to have ability
to stabilize biliary dysfunction in rat liver during hepatic injury by CCL4.
On the other hand, the increase in MDA level and the decrease activity of SOD
enzymes in liver induced by CCL4 suggests enhanced lipid peroxidation leading
to tissue damage and failure of antioxidant defense mechanism to prevent formation
of excessive free radicals. Treatment with either Dill or Fennel oil and their
mixture significantly (p<0.05) reverses these changes. Also, the studied
oils have hyoplipidemic effects. Hence it is likely that the mechanism of hepatoprotection
of either Dill or Fennel oil is due to its antioxidant effect. Dill or Fennel
oil and their mixtures have a potent hepatoprotective action against CCL4 induced
liver toxicity in rats. So that, the use of Dill and Fennel oil in food formulations
may be beneficial to patients who suffer from liver diseases associated with
oxidative stress.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.303.309 2014/08/17 - 22:11

Heavy metals are given significant interest throughout the globe
due to their toxic, mutagenic effects even at very low concentrations. Several
cases of human diseases, disorders, malfunction and malformation of organs due
to metal toxicity have been reported. Reports indicate that lead, cadmium and
chromium may cause a wide variety of changes in biological systems, even at
very low concentrations. Samples of different parts of Malva parviflora L.
(leaves, stems and roots) and associated soils collected with increasing distance
of 5, 25, 50, 100m from the gardens surrounding the chemistry labs in college
of agriculture university of Baghdad in Abu Ghraib region in Baghdad. The parts
of Malva parviflora L. (leaves, stems and roots) and the soil samples at depth
0-20cm were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after chemical treatment
using acid digestion procedures, the pH and the electric conductivity of the
soil were also measured. The concentrations Pd, Cr and Cd in the soil and plant
of Malva parviflora L. were compared with the maximum allowable limits
in different countries and they were beyond the maximum allowable limits in
the plant samples but in the soil samples they were below the maximum allowable
limits in the case of cadmium and below but very close to the maximum allowable
limits of lead and chromium.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.310.313 2014/08/17 - 22:11

Effect of different processing methods on chemical profile of
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed meal was investigated. Raw Baobab seeds
were collected for the study. Five different processing methods (Boiling, toasting,
soaking, soak and boiling and sprouting) were used. All the processed seeds
with the exception of toasted seeds were oven dried before milling for chemical
analysis. Result of the study shows that raw baobab seed contains 28.85% CP
with a reasonable amount of mineral and energy, it also contain some anti-nutritional
factors. Processing significantly reduced crude protein, mineral and anti nutrition
factors content but improved energy content. Boiling gave the least percentage
reduction of crude protein and highest percentage reduction of anti nutritional
factor. Boiling processing is recommended for baobab seed.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.314.318 2014/08/17 - 22:11

This research aimed to investigate biological responses of humpback
grouper (C. altivelis) supplied by synbiotic supplement, which are growth,
digestive enzyme activity and health status. Probiotic applied was isolated
from humpback grouper digestive tract and screened for amilolytic, proteolytic
and lipolytic activities; while prebiotic was obtained from the extracts of
sweet potato (Ipoemea batatas). The experiments comprised of four combination
of synbiotics containing 1% probiotic candidate in treatment RM3, RM4, RM5,
RM7 + 2% prebiotic and one control (without symbiotic) supplementation. Each
synbiotic treatment was added with 2% egg white to bind all ingredients together.
Completely randomized design with three replicates was applied for the experiment
during 40 days rearing period. The result indicated that treatment with synbiotics
were significantly different (p<0.05) in protein and total digestibility
as compared to control group, whereas treatment RM4 and RM7 had the best result
in weight gain (ΔW), specific growth rate (SGR), protein retention, feed
conversion ratio, RNA/DNA ratio, in comparison to treatment RM3, RM5 and without
synbiotic. Application of synbiotic treatment combination of 1% probiotic RM4
+ 2% prebiotic also showed enhancement of digestive enzyme activity (amylase,
protease and lipase), biochemical plasma (glucose and triglyceride) and haematology
parameter (haemoglobin, hematocrit and phagocytic activity).

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.319.326 2014/08/17 - 22:11

The research on the utilization of milk processing by product
(whey) as based edible film making with glycerol adding as plasticizer has been
done. Two thousand milliliters of whey is added to ethanol 95% (1:1) and heated
to 60°C and then added as much as 1% of the CMC and then treated with the
addition of glycerol as much as 2.5% (A), 3% (B), 3.5% (C), 4% (D) and 4.5%
(E) in randomized block design with five replications. This research aims to
determine the effect of adding glycerol to the characteristics of the edible
film. The Variable was observed in this research were the moisture, protein,
pH, thickness, viscosity and shelf life of the edible film. Result of the research
showed that the higher glycerol plasticizer adding was decreased of moisture
and protein content significantly (p<0.01) and increased pH, thickness and
shelf life of the edible film. The use of glycerol plasticizer as much as 4%
is the optimum in producing good edible film.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.327.330 2014/08/17 - 22:11

This study evaluated the chemical composition of unripe plantain
dishes commonly consumed by Type-2 diabetics attending the University of Uyo
Teaching Hospital, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. Groups of type 2 diabetic patients were
engaged in a focus group discussion to identify the plantain dishes commonly
prepared and their recipes. The groups mentioned many plantain dishes but five
of them were randomly selected for preparation. The ingredients for preparation
of the unripe plantain dishes were purchased from a market in Uyo. The proximate,
mineral and antinutrient composition of the dishes were analyzed using standards
methods. Means and standard deviation of the triplicate determination was determined
and analysis of variance was used to separate the means. The results showed
that Unripe plantain flour had the highest carbohydrate content (76.96%) while
unripe plantain flour meal with vegetable soup had the highest protein and ash
content. All the plantain dishes had low levels of minerals. The saponin (2.54%)
and tannin (0.08%) levels of the unripe plantain flour was the highest when
compared with the other plantain dishes. There is need to educate the diabetics
on the nutrient content of plantain based dishes and encourage them to diversify
their diets.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.331.334 2014/08/17 - 22:11

The nutritional potential of the fruits of Black Olive (Canarium
schweinfurthii Linn) were assessed by determining proximate and elemental
composition. Anti-nutrient factors were also assessed. Results indicate crude
fat of the fruit as 64.04%, protein 6.39%, fibre 16.37%, carbohydrate 3.85%,
respectively. Mineral analysis revealed the order P>N>Mg>I>K in
the fruits. Phosphorus and sodium levels were 1.74 and 1.369 mg/100 g, respectively.
The result of anti-nutritional factor revealed high tannins (240 mg/100 g),
phytic acid 162 and 26 mg/100 g oxalate which is relatively low. These results
suggest that Canarium schweinfurthii variety with thick mesocarp is nutritive
despite the presence of some anti-nutritive components like oxalate in very
low levels. The final products will contain even less.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.335.339 2014/08/17 - 22:11

A study was carried out to determine the comparative efficacy
of five new insecticides viz., diafenthiuron (polo 50%SC), thiamethoxam (actara
25%WG), acetamiprid (diamond 20%SP), imidacloprid (confidor 20%SL) and thiacloprid
(calypso 24% OD) at field recommended doses against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
(Genn.) on cotton variety Bt-121 grown at farmer field on 25th May, 2009 at
Chak No. 253/R.B, Faisalabad. Insecticides sprayed when population of whitefly
reached to economic threshold level (ETL) i.e., 4-5/leaf. The data regarding
mean number of whitefly per leaf was taken and converted in to mean percentage
mortality to find out differences among the treatments. The results of present
study showed that Imidacloprid, diafenthiuron, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam
were most effective insecticides against whitefly up to seven days after application.
While, Imidacloprid and diafenthiuron gave maximum mortality during first spray
(89.52 and 85.80%) and second spray (91.67 and 87.51%) after 72 h of application.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.340.343 2014/08/17 - 22:11

Present research was carried out to evaluate the comparative
efficacy of five new insecticides viz., diafenthiuron (polo 50%SC), thiamethoxam
(actara 25%WG), acetamiprid (diamond 20%SP), imidacloprid (confidor 20%SL) and
thiacloprid (calypso 24% OD) at field recommended doses against jassid, Amrasca
devastans on cotton variety Bt- 121 grown at farmer field Chak No. 253/R.B,
Faisalabad. Insecticides sprayed when population of jassid reached to economic
threshold level (ETL) i.e., 1- 1.5/leaf. The data regarding mean number of jassid
per leaf was taken and converted in to mean percentage mortality to find out
differences among the treatments. The results of present study showed that Imidacloprid,
diafenthiuron, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were most effective insecticides
against jassid up to seven days after application. While, Imidacloprid and diafenthiuron
gave maximum mortality during first spray (92.42 and 88.56%) and second spray
(90.87 and 85.67%) after 72 h of application.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.344.347 2014/08/17 - 22:11

Gelam putih (M. cajuputi Powell) in Central Kalimantan,
has not been exploited well. In vitro test conducted to evaluate the
potential of gelam leaves as cattle feed. The measured variables were NH3, volatile
fatty acids (VFA), dry matter Digestibility (DMD) and organic matter Digestibility
(DMO). Completely randomized design was made with 5 different treatments and
4 replications, in order to get 20 experimental units. Data were analyzed by
analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Followed by Duncan's multiple range test with a
significance level of 5%. The results showed that the giving 100% of gelam leaves
produced NH3 dan VFA for about 4.01 and 151.25 mM, also DMD and DMO by 58.35
and 52.38%. These results were significant (p<0.05), higher than the grass
field, so it can be concluded that the waste of gelam leaves, potentially be
used as cattle feed.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.348.350 2014/08/17 - 22:11

Good nutrition, a balanced diet and dietary intake are foundations
of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically
following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional
status of Iranian students studying overseas have never been investigated. The
objective of this study was to assess the associations between socio-demographic
factors, nutritional knowledge, weight management knowledge, lifestyle factors,
dietary intake and anthropometric factors with body weight status (BMI) among
Iranian postgraduate students in UPM. A cross-sectional study was conducted
to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged
between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between
body weight status and socio demographics factors nutritional knowledge, weight
management knowledge were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight,
BMI, waist and hip circumferences and body fat composition) were measured. Chi-square,
Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis. From a total of
210 postgraduate students 110 were females and 100 males. No significant correlation
was observed between smoking and BMI (p = 0.4). However, statistically significant
correlations were observed between gender (p = 0.007), using protein (p = 0.005),
carbohydrate (p = 0.002), fat (p = 0.001), fiber (p = 0.003), vitamin C (p =
0.04), calcium (p = 0.005), waist circumference (p = 0.02), hip circumference
(p = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (p = 0.002), body fat composition (p = 0.001)
and BMI. In a nut shell, the primary findings in the present study showed that
physical activity influences were the main factors that predicted the BMI among
Iranian postgraduate in UPM. This reflects that increase in physical activity
influences would result in decreased BMI among Iranian postgraduate students.
In general, the findings of the present study have important public health implications.
Hence, the present results prove that the nutritional behavior of university
students is poor, although their evidently higher level of education.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.351.358 2014/08/17 - 22:11

This study was conducted to evaluate the medicinal value of C.
procera seeds. The seeds of C.
procera were collected from the Tsampoko village, district of Gamboma, in northern area of Congo on 14th
March 2013. Nuts were dried in an oven at 70°C for 24 h and milled into powder. The powder was used for
proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis. The proximate analysis of the seed revealed high moisture
(47.92%), fat (23.14%), carbohydrate (17.13%) and energy value (1285.60 Kg/100 g) while the crude protein
(8.13%) and the ash (3.68%) were found to be low. The mineral analysis showed that Phosphorus (15.72%)
was the most abundant element, followed by iron (2.82%) and potassium (1.23%). Calcium and magnesium
were found in low concentrations (0.22 and 0.23%, respectively) while sodium and manganese were
detected in trace quantities (0.01-0.02%). The phytochemical screening of crude solvent extracts revealed
the presence in methanol of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, tannins, triterpenoids,
anthocyanins and phenols. In carbon tetrachloride steroids and tannins were not detected. Anthraquinones
were absent in all the screened extracts of both solvents. Quantitative analysis of the seeds showed high
alkaloid, flavonoid and phenolic concentrations (5.67±0.18, 5.98±1.38 and 7.46±0.15%, respectively) while
saponins and anthocyanins were detected in low quantities (0.92±0.10 and 2.01±0.12%).

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.359.365 2014/08/17 - 22:11

The objective of the present study is to describe and examine nutrition and food consumption patterns in KSA, namely to analyze and assess: the trends of per capita supply of major food groups (g/capita/day) from 1961-2007 and dietary energy supply, distribution by macronutrient and diversity of the food supply. Only secondary data were used. Saudi Arabia annual food balance sheet for the period form 1961-2007 which produced by FAO were used to drive the average per capita micronutrients (Dietary Energy Supply, protein and fats). Descriptive statistics were used as analytical tools. The results revealed that the overall supply of the different food groups in KSA is in continuous rise from 881 g/capita/day in the period of 1961/70 to more than double (1735 g/capita/day) in the period of 1981/90. The supply of vegetables showed a sharp drop from over 400 g/capita/day in the year 1990 down to less than 250 g in the year 2000. Fruits supply was slightly better than vegetable during the same period (1990-2007). On the other hand, meat group showed steady, positive increasing supply pattern during the period from 1990 to 2007. During these two decades, meat supply increased from about 26 g/capita/day in 1990 up to 139 g/capita/day in 2007 with a percent increase of 435%. Macronutrients are essentially of vegetal origin, amounted to 92% for energy, 81% for protein to 67% for lipid during the period of 1961/70. In the subsequent years fats from vegetal origin was more or less stabilized at 67-68% while fats from animal origin was at 33%. The share of protein, in the dietary supply has remained stable from 1961/70 to 2001/07. While the share of lipids showed an increase trend from just 15% in 1961/70 up to 1981/90 and stabilized at 25% up to the 2001/07 period. However, the share of carbohydrates in the dietary supply has decreased from 75% in 1961/70 to 64% in 2001/07. In the last five decades the per capita consumption of Sugar and sweetener, meat, animal fat, offal, egg and milk has increased, contrary the consumption of fruits and vegetable have fluctuating trends, such trends will not be continued if Saudi to adopt more healthy lifestyle.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.181.190 2014/07/06 - 00:18

The objective of the present study is to describe and examine nutrition and food consumption patterns in KSA, namely to analyze and assess: the trends of per capita supply of major food groups (g/capita/day) from 1961-2007 and dietary energy supply, distribution by macronutrient and diversity of the food supply. Only secondary data were used. Saudi Arabia annual food balance sheet for the period form 1961-2007 which produced by FAO were used to drive the average per capita micronutrients (Dietary Energy Supply, protein and fats). Descriptive statistics were used as analytical tools. The results revealed that the overall supply of the different food groups in KSA is in continuous rise from 881 g/capita/day in the period of 1961/70 to more than double (1735 g/capita/day) in the period of 1981/90. The supply of vegetables showed a sharp drop from over 400 g/capita/day in the year 1990 down to less than 250 g in the year 2000. Fruits supply was slightly better than vegetable during the same period (1990-2007). On the other hand, meat group showed steady, positive increasing supply pattern during the period from 1990 to 2007. During these two decades, meat supply increased from about 26 g/capita/day in 1990 up to 139 g/capita/day in 2007 with a percent increase of 435%. Macronutrients are essentially of vegetal origin, amounted to 92% for energy, 81% for protein to 67% for lipid during the period of 1961/70. In the subsequent years fats from vegetal origin was more or less stabilized at 67-68% while fats from animal origin was at 33%. The share of protein, in the dietary supply has remained stable from 1961/70 to 2001/07. While the share of lipids showed an increase trend from just 15% in 1961/70 up to 1981/90 and stabilized at 25% up to the 2001/07 period. However, the share of carbohydrates in the dietary supply has decreased from 75% in 1961/70 to 64% in 2001/07. In the last five decades the per capita consumption of Sugar and sweetener, meat, animal fat, offal, egg and milk has increased, contrary the consumption of fruits and vegetable have fluctuating trends, such trends will not be continued if Saudi to adopt more healthy lifestyle.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.181.190 2014/07/06 - 00:18

A total of 1800 Fayoumi chicks, 28 day-old of age, were used in this study to determine the effects of two levels of Aloe vera leaves on performance and immune parameters. Basal Fayoumi’s diet supplementation with 0, 1.0 or 2.0% Aloe vera leaves was investigated. The chicks were randomly divided into 9 separate floor pens each comprising 200 chicks and three pens (replicates) per treatment group in a completely randomized design. At the end of study, birds fed diets supplemented with 1.0 or 2.0% Aloe vera leaves had greater body weight gain, better feed intake and feed efficiency than those fed diets without Aloe vera leaves. Low morality was recorded in treatment groups. The geometric means HI titres of birds fed on diets containing Aloe vera leaves were higher than those fed on control. Aloe vera leaves included in the Fayoumi’s diet upto 1.0 or 2.0% did not have any deleterious effects on their performance and immunity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.191.195 2014/07/06 - 00:18

A total of 1800 Fayoumi chicks, 28 day-old of age, were used in this study to determine the effects of two levels of Aloe vera leaves on performance and immune parameters. Basal Fayoumi’s diet supplementation with 0, 1.0 or 2.0% Aloe vera leaves was investigated. The chicks were randomly divided into 9 separate floor pens each comprising 200 chicks and three pens (replicates) per treatment group in a completely randomized design. At the end of study, birds fed diets supplemented with 1.0 or 2.0% Aloe vera leaves had greater body weight gain, better feed intake and feed efficiency than those fed diets without Aloe vera leaves. Low morality was recorded in treatment groups. The geometric means HI titres of birds fed on diets containing Aloe vera leaves were higher than those fed on control. Aloe vera leaves included in the Fayoumi’s diet upto 1.0 or 2.0% did not have any deleterious effects on their performance and immunity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.191.195 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Broccoli is sufficiently potential to be developed as an additive in the food manufactures. In addition to provide the color to foods, it also contains antioxidant compounds that can improve the functional properties of ice cream. The purpose of this study is to determine the addition of the best broccoli that can produce ice cream with the best quality, having the functional properties and organoleptic preferred. In this study, the addition of broccoli is at the rate of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%. The results showed that the addition of broccoli on the quality of the ice cream had no effect on levels of fat, the amount of protein and sugar, but the effect was on the overrun, the total solids, the melting time, the antioxidant activity and the levels of fiber and vitamin C. The ice cream with the addition of 20% broccoli is the best product because it has 80% of color value, 75% of aroma, 75% of taste, 75% of texture, 30.16% of overrun, 56.99% of total solids, 10 min 51 sec of melting time, 9.79% of protein, 15.20% of sugar, 8.83% of fat, 37.25% of antioxidant activity, 17.11 mg/100 g of vitamin C, 1.13% of fiber content, 4.13 mg/L of chlorophyll and 1.05 mg/100 g of beta carotene.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.196.203 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Broccoli is sufficiently potential to be developed as an additive in the food manufactures. In addition to provide the color to foods, it also contains antioxidant compounds that can improve the functional properties of ice cream. The purpose of this study is to determine the addition of the best broccoli that can produce ice cream with the best quality, having the functional properties and organoleptic preferred. In this study, the addition of broccoli is at the rate of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%. The results showed that the addition of broccoli on the quality of the ice cream had no effect on levels of fat, the amount of protein and sugar, but the effect was on the overrun, the total solids, the melting time, the antioxidant activity and the levels of fiber and vitamin C. The ice cream with the addition of 20% broccoli is the best product because it has 80% of color value, 75% of aroma, 75% of taste, 75% of texture, 30.16% of overrun, 56.99% of total solids, 10 min 51 sec of melting time, 9.79% of protein, 15.20% of sugar, 8.83% of fat, 37.25% of antioxidant activity, 17.11 mg/100 g of vitamin C, 1.13% of fiber content, 4.13 mg/L of chlorophyll and 1.05 mg/100 g of beta carotene.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.196.203 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Group A (control) chicks were placed on commercial feed, group B, C and D were offered feed supplemented with garlic, kalongi and turmeric @0.5 g/ Kg of feed, respectively. Overall weight gain during six weeks was highest (1476.60 g) in chicks of group C followed by those of group D (1340 g), B (1338.97 g) and A (1333.60 g), respectively. Overall feed consumption was apparently highest in chicks of group B (3110 g) followed by group C (3065 g), D (3053 g) and A (2708.33 g), respectively. Overall FCR during six weeks period was apparently best in group C (2.0) followed by group A (2.0), D (2.2) and B (2.3), respectively. Maximum value for antibody titer against ND was recorded in group C (1032), followed by group B (873.33), D (783.33) and group A (558.33), respectively. The maximum antibody titer against IBD was recorded in group C which was 1030 followed by group B (873.33), D (770) and group A (470), respectively. ANOVA on data of both diseases showed significant differences between groups with respect to antibody titre at 6 weeks. Maximum value for serum cholesterol was recorded in group A (134 mg/dL). Followed by group D (115.70 mg/dL), C (105 mg/dL) and group B (94.67 mg/dL), respectively. ANOVA on data showed significant differences between groups with respect to serum cholesterol at 6 weeks. Statistical analysis of data on various treatments revealed non-significant effect on weight gain but significant effect on feed consumption and FCR. Statistical analysis also revealed non-significant effect of treatments on the average value of dressing percentage, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen and pancreas weight but significant effect on intestinal weight, abdominal fat pad weight, antibody titre against ND and IBD and serum cholesterol level. Maximum profit was found in treatment C (Rs.30.57) followed by treatment D, B and A i.e., 23.02, 22.11 and 28.16 rupees, respectively.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.204.210 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Group A (control) chicks were placed on commercial feed, group B, C and D were offered feed supplemented with garlic, kalongi and turmeric @0.5 g/ Kg of feed, respectively. Overall weight gain during six weeks was highest (1476.60 g) in chicks of group C followed by those of group D (1340 g), B (1338.97 g) and A (1333.60 g), respectively. Overall feed consumption was apparently highest in chicks of group B (3110 g) followed by group C (3065 g), D (3053 g) and A (2708.33 g), respectively. Overall FCR during six weeks period was apparently best in group C (2.0) followed by group A (2.0), D (2.2) and B (2.3), respectively. Maximum value for antibody titer against ND was recorded in group C (1032), followed by group B (873.33), D (783.33) and group A (558.33), respectively. The maximum antibody titer against IBD was recorded in group C which was 1030 followed by group B (873.33), D (770) and group A (470), respectively. ANOVA on data of both diseases showed significant differences between groups with respect to antibody titre at 6 weeks. Maximum value for serum cholesterol was recorded in group A (134 mg/dL). Followed by group D (115.70 mg/dL), C (105 mg/dL) and group B (94.67 mg/dL), respectively. ANOVA on data showed significant differences between groups with respect to serum cholesterol at 6 weeks. Statistical analysis of data on various treatments revealed non-significant effect on weight gain but significant effect on feed consumption and FCR. Statistical analysis also revealed non-significant effect of treatments on the average value of dressing percentage, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen and pancreas weight but significant effect on intestinal weight, abdominal fat pad weight, antibody titre against ND and IBD and serum cholesterol level. Maximum profit was found in treatment C (Rs.30.57) followed by treatment D, B and A i.e., 23.02, 22.11 and 28.16 rupees, respectively.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.204.210 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Guava leaves contained bioactive component like flavonoid had not been used optimally, so it is important to process the guava leaves to be a new product. Stability of the flavanoid is influenced by temperature. This study was carried out to make jelly candy from guava leaves as the raw material, using variation of the cooking temperature at 50, 60 and 70°C. The result showed that the temperature of cooking had a statistically significant effect on the moisture content, total phenols and IC50 but had no significant effect on the ash content, Aw, reducing sugars, sucrose, total plate count and total mold/yeast. Based on sensory evaluation it can be concluded that the use of cooking temperature 60°C is the best product.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.211.214 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Guava leaves contained bioactive component like flavonoid had not been used optimally, so it is important to process the guava leaves to be a new product. Stability of the flavanoid is influenced by temperature. This study was carried out to make jelly candy from guava leaves as the raw material, using variation of the cooking temperature at 50, 60 and 70°C. The result showed that the temperature of cooking had a statistically significant effect on the moisture content, total phenols and IC50 but had no significant effect on the ash content, Aw, reducing sugars, sucrose, total plate count and total mold/yeast. Based on sensory evaluation it can be concluded that the use of cooking temperature 60°C is the best product.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.211.214 2014/07/06 - 00:18

The study was carried to investigate the extent of adherence of exclusive breast-feeding among student mothers in the University of Cape Coast. The research assessed perceptions of student mothers in this regard. Stratified, proportionate sampling method was used to select student mothers who were lactating or had weaned their babies in the past 3-6 months of this study. Questionnaires were administered to collect data from the respondents. Frequency distribution tables and discussions were used to sum up the data. The study revealed that all the respondents (100%) were aware of the six months exclusive breast feeding but only four percent of the respondents were able to breast-feed exclusively. The study recommend that, there should be a conscious effort by women’s groups and policy makers to ensure that time table schedules in tertiary institutions will enable student lactating mothers to breast-feed their babies for the benefit of mothers and babies concerned.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.215.218 2014/07/06 - 00:18

A study was conducted to investigate the beneficiary effect of Biofeed microbial culture (EM4) in poultry for improving the production potential and nutrients digestibility in broilers. One hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 replicates of 10 birds each for the allotment to a control A and 3 treatment groups B, C and D. All four groups A, B, C and D were fed with starter up to four weeks and finisher ration from 5th to 7th weeks of age supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3% EM4, respectively. The supplementation of biofeed (EM4) in broiler ration (0-7 weeks) revealed non-significant (p<0.05) difference among the treatment groups in terms of growth rate, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency. A non significant difference was observed in experimental birds fed with ration supplemented with Biofeed (EM4) in terms of bone meat ratio while a significant (p<0.05) difference was found in gut weight with highest weight in group A (3.75 g) followed by in C (2.98 g), D (2.90 g) and B (2.84 g). Difference in dry matter was found non-significant in all groups supplemented with different level of Biofeed (EM4).

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.219.222 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Insulin resistance is a growing worldwide syndrome that predispose human to a number of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies have indicated that insulin action is highly influenced by diet compositions particularly dietary fat intake and proportion of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA). The current study was designed to assess the influence of High Fat Diet (HFD) with different n-6: n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios (FAR) on insulin sensitivity, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipoprotein profile. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups and received the isocaloric high fat diets enriched with either high n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (HFAR), medium n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (MFAR), low n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (LFAR) and compared with control rats fed standard chow (CTRL). The plasma insulin level of HFAR fed rats manifested significantly (P<0.05) higher concentration in most of the time points compared to the other groups. The corresponding insulin AUC (ng/L/120min) and insulin sensitivity index of HFAR fed rats appeared to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than CTRL (335.5±38.5), LFAR (273.7±37.6) and MFAR (265.9±21.7) groups. Blood lipid profile were found to be healthier in the LFAR and MFAR supplemented groups with significantly (P<0.05) lower total cholesterol and TAG levels. This study showed the possible protective effect against insulin resistance when low n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio in high fat diets are applied in a rat model.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.223.233 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Insulin resistance is a growing worldwide syndrome that predispose human to a number of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies have indicated that insulin action is highly influenced by diet compositions particularly dietary fat intake and proportion of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA). The current study was designed to assess the influence of High Fat Diet (HFD) with different n-6: n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios (FAR) on insulin sensitivity, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipoprotein profile. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups and received the isocaloric high fat diets enriched with either high n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (HFAR), medium n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (MFAR), low n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (LFAR) and compared with control rats fed standard chow (CTRL). The plasma insulin level of HFAR fed rats manifested significantly (P<0.05) higher concentration in most of the time points compared to the other groups. The corresponding insulin AUC (ng/L/120min) and insulin sensitivity index of HFAR fed rats appeared to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than CTRL (335.5±38.5), LFAR (273.7±37.6) and MFAR (265.9±21.7) groups. Blood lipid profile were found to be healthier in the LFAR and MFAR supplemented groups with significantly (P<0.05) lower total cholesterol and TAG levels. This study showed the possible protective effect against insulin resistance when low n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio in high fat diets are applied in a rat model.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.223.233 2014/07/06 - 00:18

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of poultry byproducts meal (PBM) on the performance of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty day old (male and female mixed) Hubbard broiler chicks were reared on the five experimental rations up to 42 days of age using control rations containing 8% fish meal. In the experimental rations both in starter and finisher fish meal was replaced by the poultry byproducts meal (PBM) at 2, 4, 6 and 8% levels keeping control rations without PBM. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 14 days the finisher rations were fed. The crude protein (%) and metabolized energy (Kcal/Kg) content of the starter rations A, B, C, D and E were 21.52, 2937; 21.71, 2916; 21.89, 2983; 22.0, 83007 and 22.29, 3032, respectively, while for finisher rations were 18.73, 3042; 18.92, 3070; 19.10, 3097; 19.29, 3125 and 19.47, 3152.28, respectively. The result showed that the rations containing PBM at the level of 2, 4 and 6% were the best for growth as compared to 8% consumed. There was a non-significant (p<0.05) difference in feed efficiency among different rations. The varying level of PBM used in rations did not significantly (p<0.05) influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks. It was also concluded that PBM can be used in broiler rations up to 8% of the total diet. It is concluded that PBM supplemented with amino acids may be suggested to be suitable and replace with fish meal in poultry diet.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.234.238 2014/07/06 - 00:18

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of poultry byproducts meal (PBM) on the performance of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty day old (male and female mixed) Hubbard broiler chicks were reared on the five experimental rations up to 42 days of age using control rations containing 8% fish meal. In the experimental rations both in starter and finisher fish meal was replaced by the poultry byproducts meal (PBM) at 2, 4, 6 and 8% levels keeping control rations without PBM. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 14 days the finisher rations were fed. The crude protein (%) and metabolized energy (Kcal/Kg) content of the starter rations A, B, C, D and E were 21.52, 2937; 21.71, 2916; 21.89, 2983; 22.0, 83007 and 22.29, 3032, respectively, while for finisher rations were 18.73, 3042; 18.92, 3070; 19.10, 3097; 19.29, 3125 and 19.47, 3152.28, respectively. The result showed that the rations containing PBM at the level of 2, 4 and 6% were the best for growth as compared to 8% consumed. There was a non-significant (p<0.05) difference in feed efficiency among different rations. The varying level of PBM used in rations did not significantly (p<0.05) influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks. It was also concluded that PBM can be used in broiler rations up to 8% of the total diet. It is concluded that PBM supplemented with amino acids may be suggested to be suitable and replace with fish meal in poultry diet.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.234.238 2014/07/06 - 00:18

For the study of the Effect of supplementing different dietary levels of antibiotic (Tylosin 20%) on the blood picture of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) an experiment was carried out. Fish were fed with a laboratorial manufactured diet with protein content of 31.04%, energy 1437 calories/kg, and an antibiotic Tylosin 20% added at different levels 0, 20, 60, 100 mg/kg B.W statistically red blood cells count (RBC) did not show great differences among treatments In spite of significant differences (p<0.05) between T2 and T4 treatment (3.03 x 106 mL, 3.17 x 106 mL), respectively white blood cells(WBC)did not record any significant differences among all treatments. While the count of differential white blood cells record significant differences(p<0.05) for the treatment T3 and T4 (68.67 and 0.69%) respectively in the lymphocytes, whereas there were not any significant differences among all experimental treatments in neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils cells.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.239.242 2014/07/06 - 00:18

For the study of the Effect of supplementing different dietary levels of antibiotic (Tylosin 20%) on the blood picture of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) an experiment was carried out. Fish were fed with a laboratorial manufactured diet with protein content of 31.04%, energy 1437 calories/kg, and an antibiotic Tylosin 20% added at different levels 0, 20, 60, 100 mg/kg B.W statistically red blood cells count (RBC) did not show great differences among treatments In spite of significant differences (p<0.05) between T2 and T4 treatment (3.03 x 106 mL, 3.17 x 106 mL), respectively white blood cells(WBC)did not record any significant differences among all treatments. While the count of differential white blood cells record significant differences(p<0.05) for the treatment T3 and T4 (68.67 and 0.69%) respectively in the lymphocytes, whereas there were not any significant differences among all experimental treatments in neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils cells.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.239.242 2014/07/06 - 00:18

Sunflower because of its quantity and quality of edible oil occupies an important
position in the world among the new oil seed crops. To improve achene yield
and quality of sunflower in our country different strategies have been adopted.
One is to increase number of plants per unit area, which ultimately needs more
nitrogen for its physiological and nutritional requirements. Normally, by increasing
plant density decreases plant height, head diameter and 1000-achene weight.
On the other hand, generally high rate of nitrogen application leads to more
rapid leaf area development, prolongs life of foliage, increases leaf area duration
after flowering and enhance on the whole crop assimilation, consequently contributing
to increase in seed production. By the N application head diameter, 1000-seed
weight, biological yield, seed yield per head, seed yield per plant were increased
though harvest index and seed oil concentration were decreased. With the increase
of nitrogen supply leaf gas exchange and shoot dry weight parameters improved
but beyond that these decreased and optimum nitrogen concentrations were different
among cultivars. Seed viability, seedling vigor and cool germination test performance,
leaf area index, biomass production, seed weight and seed yield per unit area
all were found to increase significantly due to the addition of the high N rate.
Grain yield and photosynthesis active radiation absorption increase with increasing
nitrogen levels and plant density. However, excess rates of nitrogen by enhancing
vegetative growth of aerial parts, prolongs the periods to flowering and physiological
maturity. High concentration of nitrogen did not affect specific leaf weight
but resulted in more dry matter production per plant. With increase in N supply,
RUE might also increase but in a lower order than LAI and IPAR. Nitrogen application
appreciably enhanced interception of PAR and RUE of sunflower crop sown in irrigated
areas. It is, therefore, concluded that while considering the optimum plant
density in sunflower nitrogen should rates should also revised to harvest maximum
achene and oil yield.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1024.1035 2014/05/23 - 23:01

This study was aimed to determine and compare Total Phenolic Content (TPC)
and Antioxidant Activities (AA) in germinated and non-germinated legume [peanut
(Arachis hypogeal) and soybean (Glycine max)] extracts prepared
using alkaline-acid hydrolysis. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities
1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging and reducing Ferric
Ion Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) in extracts were determined spectrophotometrically.
Total phenolic content in non-germinated peanut and soybean were 1090.58 and
888.08 mg GAE/100g dry weight, respectively. After germination, total phenolic
content in peanut increased to reach 1151.33 mg GAE/100g dry weight; while soybean
significantly decreased. In non-germinated peanut and soybean DPPH was 1084.99
and 507.59 μM TE/100g dry weight; and FRAP was 47966.67 and 23010.00 μM
Fe2+ equivalent/100g dry weight respectively. Following germination,
DPPH and FRAP were decreased in peanuts but increased in soybeans. The process
of germination has resulted to the increments of antioxidant activities in soybean
and total phenolic content in peanut.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1036.1041 2014/05/23 - 23:01

A sixteen weeks experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding
CPO and RPO enriched palm sugar on liver retinol and immunoglobulin G (IgG)
concentration in vitamin A depletion rats. Thirty-four-weeks old-male Sprague
Dawley rats were received the standard diet (AIN-93M) for two weeks as adaptation
period, after that 24 rats followed by vitamin A-free diet, for 10 weeks as
a depletion period and of six remaining rats were given the standard diet as
a control group. The depleted rats were then divided into 3 groups and received
daily for 4 weeks as repletion period either a red palm oil (RPO) or crude palm
oil (CPO) enriched palm sugar, or retinyl palmitate (RE) which each treatment
contain approximately 40 μg beta carotene. Rats were blood-sampled at week
2 and week 4 and liver retinol and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration were
determined. The body weight was taken every 5 days. Increasing on liver retinol
concentration in rat administered retinyl-palmitate was higher than in rat administered
CPO or RPO enriched palm sugar (p = 0.0136) which the increased in RE, CPO and
RPO groups of 115.4, 86.4 and 61.7%, respectively. However, administering of
enriched palm sugar both of CPO and RPO for 2-4 weeks can improve vitamin A
status to above cut off point which increase from 0.063 μmol/g liver up
to 0.107-0.117 μmol/g liver in CPO group and 0.079-0.102 μmol/g liver
in RPO group. On the other hand, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level of animal
administered palm sugar containing CPO or RPO were higher than in rat administered
retinyl palmitate (p = 0.0073), which is indicated by increasing levels of serum
IgG in both groups of CPO and RPO, that is equal to 225 and 216.01 percent,
respectively compared to RE group of 59.98 percent. From this research we conclude
that coconut palm sugar enriched with CPO or RPO were potentially as food-based
intervention to overcome vitamin A deficiency.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1042.1049 2014/05/23 - 23:01

The comparative effect of gamma irradiation doses (0.5 kGy), UV-C-30 min and
hot water 55°C-10 min on fungal load and aflatoxin production was evaluated
on mango (black chaunsa). Thirteen fungal species were isolated from the surface
of mango fruits (Mangifera Indica L.), among these the frequency of Aspergilus
niger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium cladosporoides
was higher. Fungal load can be controlled best by using gamma rays at 0.5 KGy
dose level followed by UV-C irradiation treatment while maximum load was found
in control group. It appeared that non thermal techniques (gamma irradiation
and UV-C) are comparatively better over control and conventionally used hot
water treatment. Regarding the production of aflatoxins by these isolates, gamma
irradiation treated samples showed less production of aflatoxin. Based on these
results gamma irradiation and UV-C treatment possess the potential to replace
conventionally used hot water treatment in mango.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1050.1056 2014/05/23 - 23:01

An experiment was conducted to assess four different processing methods which
include raw, sprouting, salt treating, cooking and roasting on proximate composition
and antinutritional factors of differently processed soybean. Results showed
that there was an increase in crude protein (40.13-56.66%), crude fibre (15.26-22.34%)
and crude fat (12.27-18.94%) of differently processed soybean. There was a decrease
in Nitrogen free extract (0.01-21.88%), calcium (0.33-0.43%) and phosphorus
(0.12-0.18%) of differently processed soybean. Results of antinutritional factor
revealed a decrease in trypsin inhibitor (3.51-24.54 mg/100 g), oxalate (15.00-25.00
mg/100 g), phytic acid (29.70-45.10 mg/100 g) and tannins (4.57-8.07 mg/100
g) of differently processed soybean. All the local processing methods were effective
in enhancing proximate composition and reducing antinutritional factors.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1057.1060 2014/05/23 - 23:01

Fruit bars are the products which are manufactured with cereal grains and the
other ingredients such as whole-grain cereals, flaked grains, fruit and legumes.
In the present study nutritious fruit bars were prepared using date paste, cereal
grains like, wheat, rice, flakes of corn, oat and barley, roasted grams, peanuts,
almonds, pistachio nut, coconut powder and skim milk powder. Fruit bars were
evaluated for their physico-chemical, microbial and sensory properties. Results
showed that fruit bars containing dry mix fruits showed maximum protein (13.63%)
and ash (3.93%) content while the maximum fiber content (8.07%) was found in
fruit bars containing coconut powder. The maximum gross energy (386.96Kcal)
was given by peanut based fruit bar. The microbial analysis of all the bars
showed results within acceptable limits due to low water activity and high sugar
content which posed no threats for microbiological growth. The study verified
that date and dried fruits can be used to prepare date based fiber enriched
fruit bars of good sensory and nutritional value which provide substantial amount
of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fiber and minerals.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1061.1065 2014/05/23 - 23:01

To investigate the effect of different levels of potassium fertilizer with
and without use of Farmyard Manure (FYM) on growth, yield and nutrition of tomato
a study was carried out in year 2011 in pots. FYM was kept as main plots with
five treatments of potassium (0, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg K2O/ha) replicated four
time. The results indicated that application of FYM and various K levels had
significant effect on the growth, yield and nutrient content of tomatoes. The
highest yield of tomatoes was (39.05 t/ha) observed in the pots receiving FYM
and 41.97 t/ha was found in the treatment receiving K @ 120 kg/ha. The growth
parameters including number of flowers per plant, number of fruits per plant
and fruit diameter were also found significantly different by the application
of FYM and K fertilizer. The mineral nutrition of tomato showed significant
effect of FYM and K levels on plant P and K. FYM and K levels also significantly
improved soil K content. It may be concluded that the Potassium applied @ 120
kg/ha along with the FYM was effective in improving the tomatoes attributes
as well soil K content.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1066.1069 2014/05/23 - 23:01

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of various phosphorous levels
on the yield and yield components of sunflower variety “Hysun-33”
at the Agronomic Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera
Ismail Khan during the year 2010. The phosphorous levels studied were 0 (N :P2O5:
K2O), 0 (P2O5), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 P2O5 Kg/ha. The results showed significant
effect of P2O5 @ 50 kg/ha and 60 kg/ha as compare to lower doses of phosphorous.
All varying levels of phosphorous affected the head diameter, number of seeds
per head, 1000-seeds weight, achene’s yield and achene’s oil content
but significant positive effect was observed where P2O5 @ 60 kg/ha N @ 50 kg/ha
and K2O 15 kg/ha was applied. However, number of plants, remained non-significant.
It is, therefore, recommended to apply phosphorous @ 60 kg/ha for obtaining
higher yield of sunflower.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1070.1074 2014/05/23 - 23:01

A total of 1600 commercial strain (Nick Chick) Single Comb White Leghorn hens,
90 week of age, were used in this study to determine the effects of different
induced molting programs on production and immune parameters. The hens were
randomly divided into four treatment groups (three experimental and one control)
of 400 hens each. The hens in the first treatment group were fed a layer ration
containing 4 g/kg diet of C for 5 d and received a reduced photoperiod of 8
h/d for 5 d (Al2O3 group). In the second group, feed was withdrawn for 10 d,
the photoperiod was reduced to 8 h/d and oyster shell and water were provided
for ad libitum consumption. At Day 11, hens consumed corn and oyster
shell ad libitum until Day 30 and at Day 31, hens was returned to a full
feed layer ration and received 16 h of light/d (California group). In the third
treatment, birds were provided feed and water ad libitum for one day
with 8 h light. During day 2-3, feed and water were withdrawn. On 4th day water
was provided but no feed was given. On 5 to 49 days, birds were offered feed
27 g each till egg production was reached upto 1%. Water was provided ad
libitum. Full feed at the rate of 112 g each bird was offered from day 50
onward. Birds received 8 h of light till 49 days which was increased to 16 h
on 50th day onwards (Washington group). The last group served as control. Body
weight, egg production, egg size, internal egg quality, shell weight and mortality
were determined. Total circulating leukocytes and differential leukocyte counts
were also measured. The results demonstrated that induced molting significantly
increased egg production from 65 to 75 to 81%, Haugh units from 80.1 to 85.6
to 87.0 and shell weight from 5.4 g to 6.3 to 6.5 g when compared to control.
The total circulating leukocytes was significantly lower in molted hens than
in control hens. Differential leukocyte counts were affected by all induced
molting programs and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased,
reaching 0.60, whereas that of controls was only 0.19.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1075.1080 2014/05/23 - 23:01

Dietary Electrolyte Balance (DEB) plays a vital role in body’s homeostasis
and optimum provision of DEB which is critical for maximum efficiency and stress
coping in birds. A total of 68 poultry feed samples were collected from Multan,
Rawalpindi and Sargodha districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. The study
included 16 broiler, 16 breeder and 36 layer diets. Water samples (n = 51) alongwith
feed samples were also collected wherever possible. These samples were examined
for sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-)
ions contents and DEB was calculated by subtracting anions from cations. The
results showed variations and discrepancies in provision of individual ions
as well as overall DEB. These results were compared with National Research Council
(1994) recommendations for ionic contents and DEB level was compared by findings
of other research studies. The mean of Na+ contents were well within
recommended range; Cl- contents were slightly high while K+
contents were 2 to 4 times higher than NRC (1994) recommendations. However the
resulting DEB for broiler, breeder and layer flocks was 192.7, 168.1 and 198.2
mEq/kg, respectively. The water can play important role in supplementation of
anions and cations thus effecting overall DEB. The 13, 23 and 15 water samples
(total = 51) collected from Multan, Rawalpindi and Sargodha districts, respectively
showed an area wise distribution pattern of these ions. The mean of Na+
contents of water samples collected from Multan district was 229 ppm as compared
to recommended level of 50 ppm for poultry consumption. Whereas analysis of
water samples collected from Rawalpindi and Sargodha district showed much better
ionic composition for poultry usage.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.1081.1084 2014/05/23 - 23:01