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Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

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Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Hepatitis C virus infection, besides its substantial unfavorable
impact on liver health, has several other manifestations, from which we have
focused on its associations with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in
an in vitro setting in this review of the literature. Several epidemiologic
studies have already proven the strong association between chronic HCV infection
and development of diabetes mellitus. However, attempts to clarifying molecular
mechanisms for this association have not made up until recent years. We made
a comprehensive review of the literature but we only found 6 studies investigating
HCV impact on insulin signaling pathway in an in vitro era. We tried
to review and compare the findings of these studies to show what we already
know on the issue and what we still need to know. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

An efficient method for in vitro propagation and cryopreservation
of Aerides odorata was established. Leaf segments were cultured on New
Dogashima (ND) mediums supplemented with various concentrations of Benzyladenine
(BA) (0-5 mg L-1) combined with Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) (0-2
mg L-1). The optimal treatment for inducing Protocorm-like Bodies
(PLBs) from leaf segments was obtained from the combination of 1 or 3 mg L-1
BA and 0.5 or 1 mg L-1 NAA; whereas, the addition of BA or NAA alone
induced shoot and/or root initiation rather than PLB or callus formation. Shoots
rapidly developed on ND mediums containing 5 mg L-1 BA. Cryopreservation
of leaf segment-derived PLBs was successful using the encapsulation-dehydration
method. The maximum survival percentage of Cryopreserved (Cryp) PLBs was achieved
by encapsulating PLBs with 2% Na-alginate combined with 2 M glycerol and 0.4
M sucrose. The encapsulated PLBs were then precultured in 0.75 M sucrose for
24 h and dehydrated for 6 h before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Genetic stability
of Cryp PLBs after regrowth was assessed by flow cytometry. The findings showed
no different patterns of ploidy levels and morphology between Cryp and non-cryopreserved
(Ncryp) control plantlets. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Stress responsive transcriptional regulation is an adaptive strategy of plants that alleviates the adverse effects of environmental stresses. The ectopic overexpression of Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding transcription factors (DREBs) either in homologous or in heterologous plants are the classical transcriptional regulators involved in plant responses to drought, salt and cold stresses. To elucidate the transcriptional mechanism associated with the DREB2A gene after removing PEST sequence, which acts as a signal peptide for protein degradation, 34 transgenic T0 canola plants overexpressing DREB2A were developed. The quantitative Real time PCR of transgenic plants showed higher expression of downstream stress-responsive genes including COR14, HSF3, HSP70, PEROX and RD20. The transgenic plants exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt stress. At the high concentration of NaCl the growth of non-transformed plants had been clearly diminished, whereas transgenic line was survived. These results indicated that transformed DREB2A gene might improve the plant response to salinity in transgenic canola plants. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in
semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture.
This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on
irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on
okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was
conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW) and inorganic fertilizers to observe
a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical
analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved
solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl¯, Ca++,
Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy
metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater
(GW). The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated
with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when
used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics,
chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different
growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase
due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120
proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury
dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible
limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for
the cultivation of okra. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The present study was undertaken to study the benthic productivity of shelf region off Krishna River mouth. Standing stock of macrobenthos and its distribution were studied. Sampling was done onboard FORV Sagar Sampada from depths as 30, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 m using Smith-McIntyre grab having a bite area of 0.2 m2. After identification, data were treated using statistical package PRIMER v6. The nature of the sediment was medium sand up to 150 m depth and fine silt at 200 m. The benthic biomass (0.2977-3.1091 mg 0.2 m-2), abundance (58-289 nos. 0.2 m-2 and number of species (12-48) decreased with increase in depth. The total number of species recorded was 69. Species estimators showed the possibility of collecting 129 species (Chao1) with intense sampling. Polychaetes formed the largest group with 40 species followed by molluscs (15 species) and crustaceans (14 species). The Spearman rank correlation (Rho) value (0.513) which was significant at 1.1% showed gradual change in species composition with increase in depth. The Pi value (3.78) comparing the similarity of benthos at 200 m depth with those of other depths (30, 150, 100, 75 and 50 m) showed significant differences (0.6%). Matching of biotic variables with that of environment showed the influence of dissolved oxygen on the distribution of macrobenthos (Rho 0.757). Intense sampling should be done to record all the species as shown by species estimators besides studying shelf productivity off other rivers and relating it with nutrient discharge and other environmental factors including sediment nature. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta has been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The Total Phenolic Compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulps and the thornless has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg g-1; thornless: 77.03 μg g-1) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg g-1). 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.)
were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable
Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif,
2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the
character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative
characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first
female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest,
days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit
width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per
plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation
and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits
per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but
also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants
of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect
on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last
fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association
was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made
for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement
in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit
harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per
plant. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Several endophytic fungal strains from Srikaya plants (Annona squamosa L.) have been isolated and one of them was identified as Penicillium sp. Penicillium has been proven as an established source for a wide array of unique bioactive secondary metabolites that exhibit a variety of biological activities. The aim of this study is isolation of secondary metabolite from Penicillium, an endophytic of A. squamosa L. Penicillium sp. from endophytic of A. squamosa L. was fermented in Wicherham media. The whole extract from both liquid media and mycelium was partitioned by ethyl acetate and evaporated to obtain crude ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract was then brokedown using column chromatography with silica as stationary phase and mixture of ethyl acetate/methanol (98%:2% ) as mobile phase and then was separated by sephadex column. Structure elucidation of isolated compounds were mainly done by analysis of one and two dimensional NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) data and supported by HPLC (High performance Liquid Chromatography) and MS-TOF (Mass Spectrometer-Time of Flight). Isolated secondary metabolites were tested using in vitro assays for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. For anticancer activity, the metabolites were tested against breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using MTT assay, while for antimicrobial activity was performed using disk diffusion assays. From these physical, chemical and spectral evidences that the secondary metabolites were confirmed as Chrysogine and Meleagrine. Chrysogine and Meleagrine have no activity as anticancer and antimicrobial. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of
effluents at inducing chromosomal aberrations, using this as a biomarker tool
in wild Clarias pachynema for assessing and monitoring pollution of the
aquatic environment. A total of 60 live fish (30 each downstream and upstream)
were obtained and subjected to chromosomal analysis. Chromosomal aberration
in the fish samples from the downstream sector was recorded at a rate of 30%,
while there were no aberrations in the samples collected upstream the effluent
discharge point. Water sample analysis revealed a high concentration of Ammonia
and Nitrates above permissible standards of Federal Environmental Protection
Agency (FEPA) guidelines. Heavy metal analysis also revealed the presence of
Cr (0.05), Cu (0.01), Pb (0.05), Zn (5.0) and Fe (0.3) above permissible standards
from the downstream section of the river. This study shows clearly that the
ever increasing discharge of effluents from the industry could increase chromosomal
damage in the aquatic components. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of roselle on the membrane composition of red blood cells. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were divided randomly into four groups. Diabetic rats were induced streptozotocin (45 mg kg-1, i.v). The normal and diabetes groups were administrated with distilled water. The other normal and diabetes group were administrated with roselle aqueous extracts (100 mg kg-1). After 28 days, the blood was drawn by sinus orbital for biochemical tests including membrane total protein, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine and morphology of red blood cells was carried out through light microscope. In diabetic rats, the result showed the weight of rat, membrane total protein and Phosphatidylcholine (PCh) were significantly lower (p<0.05), while blood glucose and membrane cholesterol showed significantly higher (p<0.05) than control rats. In diabetic rats demonstrated with roselle, the result showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in weight and blood glucose compared to diabetic rats. The membrane total protein and PCh were significantly higher (p<0.05) than diabetic rats, whereas membrane cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to diabetic rats. The observation red blood cells morphology that showed echinocytes, schistocytes and Heinz body in diabetic rats was caused by oxidative stress damage. The morphology of red blood cells in diabetic rats supplemented with roselle is normal. Aqueous extract of roselle showed potential protective effects on membrane composition of damaged red blood cells. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Breed-wise standard electrocardiographic values in dogs have
been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation, which limits
the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador retrievers being
originated from hunting dogs, their electrocardiogram (ECG) values might be
different from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the purpose of
the present study was to determine the standard ECG of Labrador retrievers and
to check effect of body weight, gender and breed upon different ECG parameters.
Six-lead ECGs, three bipolar standard limb leads (I, II and III) and three augmented
unipolar limb leads (aVR, aVL and aVF), were taken from 24 Labrador retrievers
positioned in right lateral recumbency without any chemical restraint. Amplitude
and duration of P wave and QRS complex, PR interval, QT interval and mean electrical
axis and heart rate were measured in each recording. Non-significant effect
of gender and body weight was seen on all the ECG waves. Deep Q waves in Leads
I, II and aVF and variation in relation to QRS pattern were noted. It was concluded
that retrievers had a specific shape of QRS complex which must be considered
when evaluating a patient suspected of having cardiac disease. However, amplitude
and durations of different ECG waves in all the six leads were statistically
not affected by gender or body weight. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The pantropical genus Enicostema (Gentianaceae) has
three species and two sub species world over, namely, E. verticillatum (L.)
Engl. (America), E. elizabethae Veldkamp (Madagascar) and E. axillare
having 3 subsp. viz., subsp. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (India), subsp.
latilobum (N.E. Br.) A. Raynal (East Africa) and subsp. littorale (Blume)
A. Raynal (Indonesia). The present study aims to delimit the Indian taxa based
on field and herbarium studies. Comparative morphology is studied using live
as well as consulting wide range of specimens housed at various herbaria. The
anatomy of leaf, stem and root is studied using free hand sections and from
epidermal peelings. The seed and pollen morphology are studied under SEM. Information
on anatomy, palynology and seed micromorphology of E. axillare subsp.
axillare is provided for the first time. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have
potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A
feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented
wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes
for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty
unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary
treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates
per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served
as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the
diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water
were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter
phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant
(p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio.
The economic analysis also showed that cost (58.52)
of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (53.10)
for 30% FWCC. The least cost (101.24)
of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30%
FWCC compared to (105.53)
for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted
with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of endocrine system.
This dreadful disease is found all over the world and is becoming a serious
threat to the mankind health. Alternative to synthetic agents, plants provide
a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs. The aim of the present study was to
evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of 70% alcoholic extract of Pentapetes phoenicea
(PPE) on blood glucose level in glucose loaded, normal and experimentally induced
diabetic rats. Based on the acute toxicity test, two variable doses (250, 500
mg kg-1 b.wt.) of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. phoenicea
leaves were compared with glibenclamide for the influence on fasting blood glucose
in glucose loaded, normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg kg-1,
i.p.) induced hyperglycemic rats. All the statistical comparisons were made
by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison
Test using Graph Pad Prism 4.01 v for windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego,
CA, USA). The difference showing a p level of 0.05 or lower was considered to
be statistically significant. The administration of PPE in two doses and glibenclamide
(5 mg kg-1) to STZ induced hyperglycemic animals significantly lowered
the blood glucose levels with 18.84% (p<0.01) for PPE 250 mg kg-1
and 38.89% (p<0.001) for PPE 500 mg kg-1 in a dose dependant manner.
Considering all the results obtained, the study concludes that the hydro-alcoholic
extract of P. phoenicea leaves produced promising decrease in blood glucose
levels in STZ induced hyperglycemic rats which might be related to tannins,
terpenoids, sterols and flavonoid contents. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Araucaria cookie is an ornamental plant, which are evergreen conifer found in India and in many other European countries. Similarly Brassaia actinophylla is also an ornamental plant with its native from Java, Australia and in U.S. Though these plants are used for various purposes, the medicinal properties of the plants were not investigated. In our study, the two ornamental plants were chosen for screening both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The Leaves of the plants were used for preparing crude extract and was prepared by Soxhlet extraction method. For the extraction of the leave extracts, different solvents viz., methanol, chloroform and petroleum ether were used based on our preliminary data. The obtained extracts were condensed and stored. For the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, the extractions were prepared into various concentrations. For the antioxidant activity DPPH was used as scavenger of the free radicals which showed the inhibition of percentage for Araucaria cookie was 63% and the inhibition percentage for Brassaia actinophylla 41%. For the antimicrobial activity the extracts were checked against two bacterial and two fungal pathogens. The phytochemical analysis assists in the study of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity as to the probable compounds responsible for the activity. The result thus obtained provides a report of Brassaia actinophylla as a possible source of antioxidants and also the use of both extracts as a probable antimicrobial agent. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Respiratory and reproductive disorders in dairy animals due
to various etiological agents have led to significant economic losses to dairy
industry. These losses are due to abortions, metritis, retention of placenta,
repeat breeding, death of animals, loss of production and trade restrictions
etc. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the seroprevalence
of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) in dairy animals of western
parts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Anti BHV-1 antibodies were measured using a commercial
ELISA kit (SYANOVIR® IBR-Ab). Blood samples were collected from
a total of 134 animals of different age, gender from 8 districts. Overall individual
seroprevalence was 32.84%. The study revealed that BHV-1 is comparatively more
widespread in cattle (46.51%) than buffalo (35.28%). Comparison of different
sex groups of animals revealed that the higher numbers of infected animals were
identified in male (48.00%) than female (29.35%). The seropositivity of IBR
increased with age of animals. The highest prevalence of IBR (66.67%) was observed
in animals aged more than 8 years. As vaccination against IBR is not practiced
in the region and higher percent positivity (>20%) in all age group of animals
indicated the natural circulation of BHV-1 virus in the population. Because
of less awareness on the vaccination of animals against this virus, the disease
may spread rapidly. The results of present study also indicate that strict monitoring
and surveillance of IBR is need of today to protect the animals from infection
and further spread. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The objective of this study was to apply the physical characteristic
and palatability of biscuit bio-supplement for dairy goat. This research was
conducted at Laboratory of Feed Industry, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural
University, Indonesia and the palatability test was conducted on the dairy goat
farm at Leuwiliang, Bogor, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Twenty heads of dairy
goat were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments (four heads of goat/treatment).
Experimental design used Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments
were biscuit bio-supplement composition i.e., R1 = biscuit bio-supplement of
Indigofera sp., R2 = biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus
L. Merr leaf, R3 = biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. leaf,
R4 = biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf and
Indigofera sp., R5 = biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L.
leaf and Indigofera sp. The variables measured were moisture, water activity,
water absorption, density and palatability of dairy goat. The results of this
research indicated that the treatments of biscuit bio-supplement gave significant
effect (p<0.05) on water content, water absorption, density and palatability,
but had not significant effect on water activity. Palatability of R1 was 76.38±7.92,
R2 was 23.81±6.08, R3 was 40.25±3.54, R4 was 29.56±4.77
and R5 was 95.63±7.36 g/head. Biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya
L. leaf and Indigofera sp., (R5) had the best value of palatability
for dairy goat and had the best crude protein (36.65%), also had lowest water
activity, highest density than the other biscuits. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

One of the major problems in obstetrics and pediatrics is
preterm birth. A new method of prediction of preterm birth is by salivary estriol.
This study aimed to determine the predictive value of single measurement of
salivary estriol and its relationship with preterm birth. In this study, the
salivary specimens of 466 pregnant women of 25-34 weeks gestational age were
collected and kept in a freezer until delivery. Consequently, the salivary specimens
were thawed and estriol levels were measured. The cut-off point for estriol
was determined by a receiver operating characteristics curve. Salivary estriol
levels equal to or higher than the cut-off point (2.6 ng mL-1) were
considered as the estriol (+) group and those lower than 2.6 ng mL-1
were considered as the estriol (-) group. Our findings showed that 36 (18.3%)
subjects in the estriol (+) group and 22 (8.2%) subjects in the estriol (-)
group had preterm deliveries. There was a significant relationship between salivary
estriol levels and preterm birth (χ2 = 10.636, p = 0.001). Sensitivity,
specificity and predictive values (positive and negative) of estriol were 62,
60, 18.3 and 82%, respectively. Single measurement of salivary estriol at 25-34
weeks of gestation, with its high negative predictive values, could be beneficial
to identify women who will not develop preterm labor. This outcome suggests
that unnecessary interventions should be avoided to prevent preterm births. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The present study aimed at the production of cellulase enzyme
from the cellulolytic fungi Trichoderma reesei CEF19 and subsequent application
of the cellulase for the fermentation of ethanol. For the same, the cellulolytic
fungi, Trichoderma reesei CEF19 was isolated and was allowed to produce
cellulase enzyme using optimized conditions. The cellulase enzyme was extracted
and purified with the help of ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed
by ion exchange chromatography with DEAE-Sephadex column. The purified cellulase
enzyme was characterized using SDS-PAGE analysis. The saccharification of the
cellulosic substrates was done using the cellulase enzyme. The fermentation
of saccharified cellulosic substrates into ethanol was carried out using Saccharomyces
cerevisiae. From the results obtained, rice straw was found to be the better
source for the ethanol production when compared to the other substrates. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Cardiovascular and related disorders are one of the most common
disease prevailing all over the world. Hyperlipidemic condition have been largely
considered in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was
carried out to investigate the effect of Ambrex on hematological factors in
hyperlipidemic rats and untreated hyperlipidemic rats. In this study, eighteen
rats were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each The groups
received normal diet (Control Group A) high fat diet (HFD group B) and Ambrex
treatment (Group C). After the study period, White Blood Cell (WBC), Red Blood
Cell (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), Hemoglobin, platelet (PLT), lymphocytes, monocytes,
granulocytes, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), plateletcrit
(Pct), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Platelet Distribution Width (PDW), red
cell distribution-standard deviation (RDW-SD), red cell distribution-correlation
variance (RDW-CV), micro red blood cell (μRBC), macroRBC were measured
using digital cell counter (MS9-3s). Hyperlipidemia increases markedly the PLT
count. Administration of Ambrex appeared to significantly increase WBC, Lymphocytes,
granulocytes. However, erythrocyte indices does not show statistically significant
variations among the test groups and control groups. The findings demonstrated
that Ambrex does not cause any significant undesirable alterations in hematological
factors in male rats. Ambrex also enhances white blood cell concentration and
lymphocytes which probably stimulate the immune defense mechanism. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Tinospora cordifolia also known as Giloy or Guduchi,
is an indigenous climber plant indigenous to tropical areas of India, Myanmar
and Sri Lanka. Its stem is used for treatment of fever, jaundice, emaciation,
skin ailments, diabetes, anaemia and various infectious diseases. The study
was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of the stems
of Tinospora cordifolia. The proximate analyses were carried out using
standard methods, while mineral elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer, equipped with air acetylene flame. The proximate analysis
of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia showed that it contained moisture
34.39%, ether extract 0.912%, crude protein 7.74%, crude fibre 56.42%, total
ash 7.96%, nitrogen free extract 26.97%, cellulose 23.02% and hemicellulose
3.70%. The mineral analysis of the stems showed that they contain the following
essential minerals: Calcium (102.23 ppm), phosphorous (24.81 ppm), iron (26.058
ppm), copper (3.733 ppm), zinc (7.342 ppm) and manganese (12.242 ppm). The study
revealed that Tinospora cordifolia stems to be a potential source of
nutrition and minerals for man as well as animals. 2013/11/25 - 22:22

The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts obtained from roots of the medicinal plant Jatropha dioica (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated. In order to evaluate their antimicrobial activity, the organic extracts were tested against clinical isolates of the human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Sporothrix schenckii. Results revealed that the hexane extract possess the stronger activity and a broader microbicide spectrum compared to the acetone and ethanol extracts. The activity of hexane extract may be attributed in part to the presence of β-sitosterol, the major compound identified by bioautography. The hexane extract, as well as the bioactive fraction were not cytotoxic when assays were profiled against the normal cell lines Chang, OK and LLCPK-1 (IC50>1000 μg mL-1). 2013/11/25 - 22:22

Diagnosis is an important part in case of animal husbandry
as treatment of a disease depends on it. Advancement in molecular biology has
generated various sophisticated tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR),
its versions along with pen-side diagnostic techniques. Every diagnostic test
however has both advantages and disadvantages; PCR is not an exception to this
statement. To ease the odds faced by PCR several non-PCR techniques which can
amplify DNA at a constant temperature has become the need of hour, thus generating
a variety of isothermal amplification techniques including Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based
Amplification (NASBA) along with Self-Sustained Sequence Replication (3SR) and
Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) and Loop mediated isothermal amplification
(LAMP) test. LAMP stands out to be a good and effective diagnostic test for
empowering in developing countries as it does not require sophisticated equipments
and skilled personnel and proves to be cost-effective. Performance of LAMP mainly
relies on crafting of six primers (including 2 loop primers) ultimately accelerating
the reaction. LAMP amplifies DNA in the process pyrophosphates are formed causing
turbidity that facilitates visualisation in a more effective way than PCR. The
Bst and Bsm polymerase are the required enzymes for LAMP that
does not possess 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Results can be visualized by adding
DNA binding dye, SYBR green. LAMP is more stable than PCR and real-time PCR.
Non-involvement of template DNA preparation and ability to generate 109
copies of DNA are added benefits that make it more effective than NASBA or 3SR
and SDA. Thus, it fetches researcher’s interest in developing various versions
of LAMP viz., its combination with lateral flow assay or micro LAMP and more
recently lyophilized and electric (e) LAMP. Availability of ready to use LAMP
kits has helped diagnosis of almost all pathogens. LAMP associated technologies
however needs to be developed as a part of LAMP platform rather than developing
them as separate entities. This review deals with all these salient features
of this newly developed tool that has enlightened the world of diagnosis. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Photosensitization is a process in which the skin reacts to exposure to ultraviolet radiations. There are various associated dermatological consequences like photoxicity and photoallergic reactions which make the disease more complicated. There are various drugs which together with solar radiations worsen the situation of photosensitivity and hence termed as photosensitizers. The developments on the use of phytoconstituents from the herbal extract is the ardent need for fighting against the deleterious photosensitization reactions. This review attempts to highlight the problems of photosensitivity its pathological manifestation with the approach to treat them naturally with the help of skin rejuvenating herbs. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Pleurotus fossulatus (Cooke) Sace is member of oyster
mushroom can produced extracellular laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase;
EC in submerged fermentation. To analyze the optimum production for
laccase P. fossulatus was cultured both in stationary and shaking condition
in different media. Partial purification of laccase was done after 0-80% ammonium
sulphate precipitation, followed by DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl) Sephadex (A-50)
anion exchange chromatography. Potato-sucrose peptone (PSP) medium and Potato-dextrose
(PD) medium showed highest laccase production in shaking and stationary conditions,
respectively. Though the time required for optimum laccase production in stationary
condition was much more than the shaking condition but the amount of laccase
was about 2.75t greater in former condition. The laccase produced in stationary
condition was more stable than the enzyme produced in shaking condition. The
partially purified enzyme showed highest affinity towards o-dianisidine than
guaiacol and ABTS (2,2’- Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)
as evidenced by their Km. The physico-chemical properties of the
laccase suggested the significance of this enzyme in industrial applications. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Retama raetam is a stem-assimilating, C3, evergreen,
medicinal plant species, desert legume common to arid ecosystems around the
Mediterranean basin. This study addresses the genetic diversity and relationship
among and within three populations collected from different habitats in southern
Tunisia by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Estimates of the percentage
of polymorphic bands, Shannon’s diversity information index and Nei’s
gene diversity index were determined. Results showed that population from the
Island Djerba has the lowest Nei’s gene diversity; this also was for Shannon
diversity index. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that the majority
of variation existed within populations (68%) and that there was significant
differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.316, p<0.001). Genetic distance
(ΦPT based values) between pair-wise populations ranged from 0.098 to 0.505
and the differentiation between pair-wise populations was significant when individual
pairs of populations were compared. Based on the coefficient of gene differentiation
(Gst), gene flow (Nm) was estimated and was found to vary from 0.490 to 4.609
between pair-wise populations and 1.42 among populations. The results of UPGMA
cluster analysis and PCoA analysis indicated that most variation occurred within
populations and that genetic differentiation had happened between populations.
These findings are important for a better understanding of the adaptive strategy
of R. raetam in southern Tunisia and will be useful for conservation
managers to work out an effective strategy to protect this important species. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Borrelia persica is a strain seen only in the Middle
East and responsible for relapsing fever. These spirochetes are notable for
multiphasic antigenic variation of polymorphic outer membrane lipoproteins,
a phenomenon responsible for immune evasion. Diagnosis of the disease is a problem
and requires a fixed antigen like the flagellar antigen. In vitro culture
of B. persica was carried out for the first time and flagellar antigen
was purified from culture. 10% SDS was added to the mixture to dissolve the
cell wall and then the solution was sheared in an Omni mixer. Electron microscopy
confirmed the purity of a 42 KDa periplasmic antigen as revealed by SDS-PAGE.
Indirect haemagglutination kits were designed using the pure flagella and tested
for cross reactivity with another relapsing fever spirochaete Borrelia microtii
positive serum. The kit showed 98% sensitivity and 95% specificity. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Water is the most universally used single necessity of life.
To attain a safe water quality to various communities, an understanding of water
microbiology and chemistry is therefore imperative. In this study, well water
at different storage durations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks were assessed for bacteriological
quality using standard microbiological techniques. Black barrel-shaped plastic
containers (300 liter capacity) were used for different storage durations. Water
samples at the different storage durations were collected from each corresponding
containers. Sterile swabs were used to sample the sides and bottom of the storage
containers to determine the prevalence of specific bacteria present in the samples.
The results obtained showed that 0 week storage had the highest (100.00 CFU
mL-1) coliform counts while the lowest (28 CFU mL-1) was
obtained for 8 weeks of storage. Escherichia coli were not found in 4,
6 and 8 weeks old water. 0 and 2 weeks old water contained E. coli
and the mean values were 1.80x104±0.03 and 1.43x104±0.01CFU
mL-1, respectively (p<0.05). Salmonella organisms were
found in the 0 week old water but absent in the 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks old water.
Shigella count (62.33x102±45.30 CFU mL-1)
was highest in 4 week old water while the lowest (11.0x103±1.00
CFU mL-1) was found in 6 week old water (p<0.05). Zero week old
water had the lowest significant (p<0.05) value of 0.35x104±0.05
CFU mL-1 for mesophilic bacteria and the highest value of 50.00x104±10.0
CFU mL-1 was recorded in the 8 weeks old water. Sides and bottom
samples were contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella
and Shigella organisms. It was concluded that the variously stored well
water samples were contaminated with bacteria and the values obtained were above
the recommended standards by the World Health Organization (WHO). 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Heavy metal contamination has accelerated due to the rapid industrialization world wide. Accumulation of metals in excess can modify the structure of essential protein or can replace an essential element. Bradyrhizobium strains showed tolerance to cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. All the isolates showed maximum tolerance towards lead and zinc which was followed by nickel and chromium. These strains also showed tolerance towards most of the antibiotics. Bradyrhizobium strains were also tested for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) substances, all isolates produced good amount of indole acetic acid and were positive for ammonia but only three strains were positive for HCN and siderophore (RM1, RM2 and RM8), the rest isolates showed negative result. Based on the above intrinsic abilities of Bradyrhizobium species, these strains can be used for the growth promotion, as well for the detoxification of the heavy metals in metal polluted soils. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

This study assessed the bioconversion of Agriculture wastes like invasive weeds species (Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus) as a substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) cultivation together with wheat straw as a control. The experiment was laid out in factorial combination of substrates and three edible oyster mushroom species in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Pleurotus ostreatus gave significantly (p<0.01) total yield of 840 g kg-1 on P. hysterophorus, Significantly (p<0.01) biological efficiency (83.87%) and production rate of 3.13 was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on P. hysterophorus. The highest total ash content (13.90%) was recorded for P. florida grown on L. camara. while the lowest (6.92%) was for P. sajor-caju grown on the P. juliflora. Crude protein ranged from 40.51-41.48% for P. florida grown on P. hysterophorus and L. camara. Lowest crude protein content (30.11%) was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on wheat straw. The crude fiber content (12.73%) of P. sajor-caju grown on wheat straw was the highest. The lowest crude fiber (5.19%) was recorded for P. ostreatus on P. juliflora. Total yield had a positive and significant correlation with biological efficiency and production. Utilization of the plant biomass for mushroom cultivation could contribute to alleviating ecological impact of invasive weed species while offering practical option to mitigating hunger and malnutrition in areas where the invasive weeds became dominant. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Whey, the natural product resulting from coagulation of milk is reported to have diverse pharmaceutical credentials. In the present investigation the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the whey powder was investigated. The Whey powder which was prepared using rennet powder and lactic acid, was studied against Magnesium sulphate-induced Diarrhea in Swiss Albino mice. Castor oil-induced enteropooling studies and in vitro biofilm-forming potentials of the whey powder were also carried out, as this is believed to contribute to the anti-diarrhoeal activities of the preparation. Anti-diarrhoeal activity was more pronounced in mice which received 250 mg kg b.wt. of whey powder when compared to those which received 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. The percentage inhibition of total number of feces in the 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. drug-treated group was 56.14%,whereas the animals which received 500 mg kg-1 b.wt. of whey powder showed 37.18% inhibition. The loperamide treated animal group showed 63.81% inhibition. In castor oil induced enteropooling, the percentage inhibition of intestinal content in the 250 mg kg-1 b.wt. drug-treated group was 61.42% against atropine-treated animal group that showed 26.24% inhibition. The whey powder also exhibited strong biofilm forming capacity with increase in concentration. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of whey preparation established herein is believed to be owing to certain active principles present in it or due to biofilm-forming capacity, which inhibits the attachment of mediators of diarrhoea to mucosal walls of the GI tract or due to interaction of diarrhoea inducing chemicals with whey peptides, which needs further investigation. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Patient satisfaction is an integral component of service quality and obtaining feedback from patients about quality of primary healthcare is a powerful way to develop more patient-centered approaches to healthcare delivery. The aim of this study was to measure patients' satisfaction with family physician program in central provinces of Iran in the fall of 2010. A cross sectional survey was conducted at 60 medical centers with family physician services at central provinces of Iran. Patient satisfaction was measured by a standardized questionnaire with eight domains: personnel manner, time consumption, guidance and training, cost of services, service adequacy, capability and skills of personnel, adequacy of equipment and amenities. Student t test, Analysis of Variance (AVOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used in data analysis. Overall, 76.03% of the respondents were satisfied with the whole performance of family physician program, 76.41% of the respondents were satisfied with the family physicians. The strongest domains of client satisfaction were the manner of staffs and adequacy of equipments. It was shown that high patient satisfaction with the family physician was the most powerful predictor of patients’ satisfaction with the program. A considerable proportion of patients are unsatisfied with guidance and training and adequacy of program services. Iranian policymakers can develop better programs based on comments from service recipients and promoting the project and some program processes. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

The experiment was conducted to investigate the morphological
status of the critically endangered riverine catfish Rita rita using
morphometric and meristic traits. About 158 species of Rita were collected from
the old Brahmaputra river in Mymensingh district and were studied in the laboratory
of the Fisheries Biology and Genetics Department, Bangladesh Agricultural University.
Measurement of length and weight of Rita were recorded by using measuring scale
and electric balance respectively. Significant curvilinear relationship existed
between total length and other morphometric characters and between head length
and other characters of the head. Relationships between total length and various
body measurements of the fish were highly significant (p<0.01) except the
relationship between total length and pelvic fin length of male fish (p<0.05).
In case of meristic characters-dorsal fin rays, pelvic fin rays, pectoral fin
rays, anal fin rays, caudal fin rays, number of vertebrae and branchiostegal
rays were found to be more or less similar except slight differences. The values
of condition factors (k) in the total length body-weight relationships for female
and male were found to be 0.41 and 0.38, respectively. The mean values of relative
condition factors (kn) were 1.0 and 1.005 for female and male, respectively. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Protein glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of specific diseases, including cancers. The ginger rhizome is known to have anti-cancer and anti-fungal properties. This investigation was carried out to study the effect of ginger on glycoproteins of Raji cells. A 10% yield of ginger extract was mixed with 0.01% DMSO and added to 6x104 Raji cells at different concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 h at 37°C . Their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined and analyzed statistically using Graphpad prism software. Cell extracts were prepared and their glycoproteins purified using lectin-affinity chromatography (Q proteome total glycoprotein and O glycoprotein kits) and SDS PAGE was carried out. IC50 of ginger extract on Raji cells was 20 μg mL-1 at 72 h with <0.01 significance. Silver staining of purified glycoprotiens in Raji cells indicated the presence of O-glycans and N-glycans. N-linked mannose and N-linked sialic acids were detected with the total glycoprotein kit. O-linked galactose and O-llinked sialic acids were identified with the O-glycoprotein . Ginger reduced the expression of O-linked sialic acid and also N-linked mannose on Raji cells but had no effect on other glycoproteins. Sialic acid is now well known as a cancer marker and investigations are on to use it as a drug-target in cancerous tissues. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

The ability of three Pleurotus species (P. florida LCJ 65, P. ostreatus LCJ 183 and P. sajorcaju LCJ 184) was compared for the decolourization of bromophenol blue, brilliant green and methylred using by solid and liquid medium. All three Pleurotus species were effective in decolourizing the dyes on potato dextrose agar plate. During quantitative decolourization experiments, the absorption spectrum of the dye solution showed a steady decrease in decolourization with the increase in the days of incubation. The decolourization efficiency varied for species to species and it was found that P. sajorcaju LCJ 184 effectively decolourized the selected dyes by 85-98%. In present study, different factors (dye concentration, inoculums size, pH, static and shaking culture conditions) influencing the ability of Pleurotus species to decolourize three different dyes is documented and the result proposes P. florida LCJ 65 and P. sajorcaju LCJ 184 as potential strains for decolourization of bromophenol blue, brilliant green and methylred dye. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Cryopreserved oocytes show low developmental ability. To understand the mechanism underlying their development impairment, study was designed to determine the effect of epinephrine on the in vitro developmental competence of vitrified mouse oocytes. Mature oocytes were vitrified using Open Pulled Straw (OPS) method. The vitrified oocytes were warmed and introduced into M2 medium which contains epinephrine at different concentrations (10-2, 10-4, 10-6, 10-8 mol L-1) in an incubator for 1 h. Then the survival rate of the oocytes was evaluated and the subsequent development of oocytes was assessed through in vitro Fertilization (IVF). Furthermore, the levels of intracellular ROS, GSH and the concentration of ATP were determined among 10-4 mol L-1 epinephrine-treated group, vitrification group and fresh group. Results showed that vitrified oocytes treated with 10-4) mol L-1 epinephrine had significant higher rates of cleavage (66.4 vs.45.2%) and blastocyst (47.2 vs. 34.7%) than no epinephrine treated group, as well as more blastocyst cells (54.5 vs. 36.8) and lower ratio of apoptotic cells (5.9 vs. 21.5%; p<0.05). Further experiment found that 10-4 mol L-1 epinephrine treatment could significantly reduce intracellular ROS level and enhance cytoplasmic ATP concentration (p<0.05), but there was no different in GSH level compared to vitrification group. In conclusion, epinephrine could promote vitrified oocytes cryosurvival and their subsequent development ability, which maybe related with the changes of intracellular ROS level and ATP content. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

In this study maternal and neonatal outcome evaluated in each
trimester of pregnancies with non obstetric laparotomies. In this descriptive-analytic
study, 100 pregnant women operated during pregnancy were evaluated. Based on
available data a questionnaire comprising general information, kind of surgery
as well as the maternal-neonatal outcome was fulfilled. These outcomes were
compared in the different gestational ages. In this study, 28 (28%), 48 (48%)
and 24 (24%) patients had been operated in the first, second and third trimester,
respectively. The patients of these three groups were matched for general characters.
Sixty one patients had appendectomy, 30 adnexal mass or torsion, 6% cholecystectomy,
3% abdominal mass. Maternal complications were recorded in 6, 3 and 9% patient
in 3rd, 2nd and 1st trimester of pregnancy, respectively. Abortion in first
trimester was 8.2%. Low apgar in fifth minute and asphyxia were higher in third
trimester. Appendectomy was the most common surgery in the pregnancy. Maternal
and fetal complications were higher in third and first trimester. Besides obstetric
and pediatric consultation before surgery are necessary for optimal safety of
the woman and the fetus. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Digital mammogram is the only effective screening method to
detect the breast cancer. Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) textural features
are extracted from the mammogram. All the features are not essential to detect
the mammogram. Therefore identifying the relevant feature is the aim of this
work. Feature selection improves the classification rate and accuracy of any
classifier. In this study, a new hybrid metaheuristic named Ant-Cuckoo Colony
Optimization a hybrid of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Cuckoo Search (CS)
is proposed for feature selection in Digital Mammogram. ACO is a good metaheuristic
optimization technique but the drawback of this algorithm is that the ant will
walk through the path where the pheromone density is high which makes the whole
process slow hence CS is employed to carry out the local search of ACO. Support
Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with Radial Basis Kernal Function (RBF) is done
along with the ACO to classify the normal mammogram from the abnormal mammogram.
Experiments are conducted in miniMIAS database. The performance of the new hybrid
algorithm is compared with the ACO and PSO algorithm. The results show that
the hybrid Ant-Cuckoo Colony Optimization algorithm is more accurate than the
other techniques. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area. 2013/11/20 - 20:38

Determination of uric acid concentration in human urine and blood is needed to diagnose several diseases, especially the occurrence of kidney disease in gout patients. Therefore, it is needed to develop a simple and inexpensive method for uric acid detection. The purpose of the research was to observe the use of Indonesian microbe that was immobilized on natural zeolite as a source of uricase for uric acid biosensor. Selection of mediators and determination of optimum condition measurement, the stability and kinetic properties of L. plantarum uricase were performed using carbon paste electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was employed to investigate the catalytic behavior of the biosensor. The result indicated that the best mediator for measurement of L. plantarum uricase activity was Qo (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4 benzoquinone). Optimum conditions for immobilization of L. plantarum uricase on zeolite were obtained at pH 7.6, with temperature of 28°C, using uric acid concentration of 0.015 mM and zeolite mass at 135 mg KM and VMax of L. plantarum uricase obtained from Lineweaver-burk equation for the immobilization uricase on zeolite were 8.6728x10-4 mM and 6.3052 mM, respectively. KM value of L. plantarum uricase directly immobilized onto the electrode surface was smaller than KM value of L. plantarum uricase immobilized on zeolite. The smaller KM value shows the higher affinity toward the substrate. The Electrode when kept at 10°C was stable until 6 days, however the immobilized electrode on zeolite was stable until 18 days. Therefore, Indonesian L. plantarum could be used as a uric acid biosensor. 2013/11/20 - 20:38