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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Kolekcje IOP - REVIEWS

Reviews

Epitaxial cobalt oxide films on Ir(100) exhibit a rich scenario of different structural phases which
are reviewed in this paper. The great majority of phases could be, as a rare case,
crystallographically described by the joint application of atomically resolved STM and quantitative
LEED, whereby structural surprises were more the rule than the exception. So, the oxide grows in the
polar (111) orientation for both the Co 3 O 4 and CoO stoichiometry on the bare Ir substrate in
spite of the latter’s square symmetry. Moreover, the film orientation can be tuned to non-polar
(100) growth when one or several pseudomorphic Co layers are introduced as an interface between
oxide and Ir substrate. By using the nanostructured Ir(100)-(5 × 1)-H phase as a template a
nanostructured Co film can be formed whose oxidation leads to a nanostructured oxide. The nominally
polar films circumvent the polarity problem by appropriate surface terminations. That of CoO(111)
is, again as...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/25/17/173001 2013/03/28 - 01:39

We review recent studies on the resonance spectrum of quantum scattering systems, in the
semiclassical limit and assuming chaotic classical dynamics. Stationary quantum properties are
related to fractal structures in the classical phase space. We focus attention on a particular class
of problems that are chaotic maps in the torus with holes. Among the topics considered are the
fractal Weyl law, the formation of a spectral gap and the morphology of eigenstates. We also discuss
the situation where the holes are only partially transparent and the use of random matrices for a
statistical description.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/14/143001 2013/03/27 - 04:49

In this paper we present some research results on the micro and nano-photonic structures in the
visible and near infrared spectral region for optical devices that have been done within the
framework of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Program of Institute of Materials Science. In the first
part, we report the design and fabrication of 1D photonic structure based on porous silicon layers
fabricated by electrochemical etching method and some of their potential applications such as
optical filters, microcavity and optical sensors for distinguishing the content of bio-gasoline. In
addition, we demonstrate some results on preparation of the 2D and 3D nanophotonic structures based
on silica opal layers prepared by sol–gel and self-assembled methods. In the second part, we
demonstrate the results of lasing emissions of erbium ions in the visible and near infrared zone
from microcavity. The observation of emission of single-mode green light at the wavelength of 537 nm
from erbium ions in t...

http://iopscience.iop.org/2043-6262/4/2/023001 2013/03/26 - 07:23

A large amount of thermal energy emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat.
Thermoelectric (TE) power generators that convert heat directly into electricity can offer a very
promising means of waste heat recovery. However, the requirements for this task place in the
materials are not easily satisfied by conventional TE materials. Not only must they possess a
sufficient TE performance, but they should also be stable at high temperatures, nontoxic and have
low-cost comprising elements, and must be also able to be processed and shaped cheaply. Oxides are
among the strongest candidate materials for this purpose. In this review, the progress in the
development of two representative p- and n-type novel oxide materials based on Ca 3 Co 4 O 9 and
doped-ZnO is presented. TE modules built up from these oxides were fabricated, tested at high
temperatures, and compared with other similar oxide modules reported in the literature. A maximum
p...

http://iopscience.iop.org/2043-6262/4/2/023002 2013/03/26 - 07:23

Nanocrystals (NCs), representing a zero-dimensional system, are an ideal platform for exploring
quantum phenomena on the nanoscale, and are expected to play a major role in future electronic and
photonic devices. Here we review recent progress in the growth, characterization and utilization of
some group-IV semiconductors (Si and Ge), metal and high- k NCs for silicon planar technology
compatible light-emitting and floating gate memory devices. We first introduce the size-dependent
electrical and optical properties of Si and Ge NCs. We outline some of the schemes to achieve light
emission from indirect band gap Si and Ge NCs embedded in different high band gap oxide matrices. In
particular, special emphasis is given on the review of the advances in Ge NCs because of some of
their intriguing electronic and optical properties. We then describe the use of semiconductor and
metal NCs as floating gates for non-volatile memory devices to achieve high data retention and
faster pro...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/15/153001 2013/03/22 - 19:45

Until 2010 we had three unknown parameters of neutrino oscillation—the third mixing angle θ 13 , the
sign of the larger mass difference Δm 31 2 and the CP violating phase δ. Thanks to a number of
consistent experimental results since then, culminating in the recent Daya Bay reactor neutrino
data, we now have a definitive determination of θ 13 . Moreover its measured value, sin 2 2θ 13 ≈
0.1, is close to its earlier upper limit. This has promising implications for the determination of
the two remaining unknown parameters from the present and proposed accelerator neutrino experiments
in the foreseeable future. This article presents a pedagogical review of these profound developments
for the wider community of young physicists including university students.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0954-3899/40/5/053001 2013/03/22 - 00:56

A significant number of areal surface topography measuring instruments, largely based on optical
techniques, are commercially available. However, implementation of optical instrumentation into
production is currently difficult due to the lack of understanding of the complex interaction
between the light and the component surface. Studying the optical transfer function of the
instrument can help address this issue. Here a review is given of techniques for the measurement of
optical transfer functions. Starting from the basis of a spatially coherent, monochromatic confocal
scanning imaging system, the theory of optical transfer functions in three-dimensional (3D) imaging
is presented. Further generalizations are reviewed allowing the extension of the theory to the
description of conventional and interferometric 3D imaging systems. Polychromatic transfer functions
and surface topography measurements are also discussed. Following presentation of theoretical
results, experimental meth...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-0233/24/5/052001 2013/03/22 - 00:56

Using first-principles methods we explore the anisotropy of the spin relaxation and transverse
transport properties in bulk metals with respect to the real-space direction of the
spin-quantization axis in paramagnets or of the spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. Owing to
the presence of the spin–orbit coupling the orbital and spin character of the Bloch states depends
sensitively on the orientation of the spins relative to the crystal axes. This leads to drastic
changes in quantities which rely on interband mixing induced by the spin–orbit interaction. The
anisotropy is particularly striking for quantities which exhibit spiky and irregular distributions
in the Brillouin zone, such as the spin-mixing parameter or the Berry curvature of the electronic
states. We demonstrate this for three cases: (i) the Elliott–Yafet spin-relaxation mechanism in
paramagnets with structural inversion symmetry; (ii) the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in
ferromagnets; and (iii) the spin Hall e...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/25/16/163201 2013/03/21 - 04:45

When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final
film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article
describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen
to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is
seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes
horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays
cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with
particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The
reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect.
Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a
one-dimensional dry...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/76/4/046603 2013/03/19 - 01:55

This paper presents a review of the research which is focused on ferrite thin films for spintronics.
First, I will describe the potential of ferrite layers for the generation of spin-polarized
currents. In the second step, the structural and chemical properties of epitaxial thin films and
ferrite-based tunnel junctions will be presented. Particular attention will be given to ferrite
systems grown by oxygen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of the structure and chemistry
close to the interfaces, a key-point for understanding the spin-polarized tunnelling measurements,
will be detailed. In the third part, the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of magnetite (Fe
3 O 4 ) thin films as a function of structural defects such as the antiphase boundaries will be
explained. The spin-polarization measurements (spin-resolved photoemission, tunnel
magnetoresistance) on this oxide predicted to be half-metallic will be discussed. Fourth, the
potential of magn...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/14/143001 2013/03/16 - 11:56

We describe the collection of finite simple groups, with a view to physical applications. We recall
first the prime cyclic groups Z p and the alternating groups Alt n > 4 . After a quick revision of
finite fields ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1751-8121/46/13/133001/jpa366919ieqn1.gif] {$\mathbb
{F}_q$} , q = p f , with p prime, we consider the 16 families of finite simple groups of Lie type.
There are also 26 extra ‘sporadic’ groups, which gather in three interconnected ‘generations’ (with
5+7+8 groups) plus the pariah groups (6). We point out a couple of physical applications, including
constructing the biggest sporadic group, the ‘Monster’ group, with close to 10 54 elements from
arguments of physics, and also the relation of some Mathieu groups with compactification in string
and M-theory.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/13/133001 2013/03/15 - 05:31

Thin films formed from small molecules are rapidly gaining importance in different technological
fields. To explain their growth, methods developed for zero-dimensional atoms as the film-forming
particles are applied. However, in organic thin-film growth the dimensionality of the building
blocks comes into play. Using the special case of the model molecule para-Sexiphenyl, we will
emphasize the challenges that arise from the anisotropic and one-dimensional nature of building
blocks. Differences or common features with other rod-like molecules will be discussed. The typical
morphologies encountered for this group of molecules and the relevant growth modes will be
investigated. Special attention is given to the transition between a flat-lying and upright
orientation of the building blocks during nucleation. We will further discuss methods to control the
molecular orientation and describe the involved diffusion processes qualitatively and
quantitatively.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/25/14/143202 2013/03/12 - 02:56

We survey our recent theoretical studies on the generation and detection of coherent radial
breathing mode (RBM) phonons in single-walled carbon nanotubes and coherent radial breathing like
mode (RBLM) phonons in graphene nanoribbons. We present a microscopic theory for the electronic
states, phonon modes, optical matrix elements and electron–phonon interaction matrix elements that
allows us to calculate the coherent phonon spectrum. An extended tight-binding (ETB) model has been
used for the electronic structure and a valence force field (VFF) model has been used for the phonon
modes. The coherent phonon amplitudes satisfy a driven oscillator equation with the driving term
depending on the photoexcited carrier density. We discuss the dependence of the coherent phonon
spectrum on the nanotube chirality and type, and also on the graphene nanoribbon mod number and
class (armchair versus zigzag). We compare these results with a simpler effective mass theory where
reasonable agreemen...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/25/14/144201 2013/03/12 - 02:56

Sugar malabsorption in the bowel can lead to bloating, cramps, diarrhea and other symptoms of
irritable bowel syndrome as well as affecting absorption of other nutrients. The hydrogen breath
test is now a well established noninvasive test for assessing malabsorption of sugars in the small
intestine. However, there are patients who can suffer from the same spectrum of malabsorption issues
but who produce little or no hydrogen, instead producing relatively large amounts of methane. These
patients will avoid detection with the traditional breath test for malabsorption based on hydrogen
detection. Likewise the hydrogen breath test is an established method for small intestinal bacterial
overgrowth (SIBO) diagnoses. Therefore, a number of false negatives would be expected for patients
who solely produce methane. Usually patients produce either hydrogen or methane, and only rarely
there are significant co-producers, as typically the methane is produced at the expense of hydrogen
by micr...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1752-7163/7/2/024001 2013/03/08 - 17:40

Topological insulators have become one of the most active research areas in condensed matter
physics. This article reviews progress on the topic of electronic correlation effects in the
two-dimensional case, with a focus on systems with intrinsic spin–orbit coupling and numerical
results. Topics addressed include an introduction to the noninteracting case, an overview of
theoretical models, correlated topological band insulators, interaction-driven phase transitions,
topological Mott insulators and fractional topological states, correlation effects on helical edge
states, and topological invariants of interacting systems.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/25/14/143201 2013/03/07 - 20:59

This work makes an overview of the progress made during the last decade with regard to a novel class
of piezoelectric microwave devices employing acoustic Lamb waves in micromachined thin film
membranes. This class of devices is referred to as either thin film Lamb wave resonators or
piezoelectric contour-mode resonators both employing thin film aluminum nitride membranes. These
devices are of interest for applications in both frequency control and sensing. High quality factor
Lamb wave resonators exhibiting low noise, low loss and thermally stable performance are
demonstrated and their application in high resolution gravimetric and pressure sensors further
discussed. A specific emphasis is put on the ability of these devices to operate in contact with
liquids. Future research directions are further outlined.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0960-1317/23/4/043001 2013/03/07 - 20:59

Plasmonic photocatalysis has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic
efficiency under visible light irradiation, increasing the prospect of using sunlight for
environmental and energy applications such as wastewater treatment, water splitting and carbon
dioxide reduction. Plasmonic photocatalysis makes use of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed into
semiconductor photocatalysts and possesses two prominent features—a Schottky junction and localized
surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR). The former is of benefit to charge separation and transfer
whereas the latter contributes to the strong absorption of visible light and the excitation of
active charge carriers. This article aims to provide a systematic study of the fundamental physical
mechanisms of plasmonic photocatalysis and to rationalize many experimental observations. In
particular, we show that LSPR could boost the generation of electrons and holes in semiconductor
photocatalysts through two differe...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/76/4/046401 2013/03/04 - 11:30

The aggregation of proteins is of fundamental relevance in a number of daily phenomena, as important
and diverse as blood coagulation, medical diseases, or cooking an egg in the kitchen. Colloidal food
systems, in particular, are examples that have great significance for protein aggregation, not only
for their importance and implications, which touches on everyday life, but also because they allow
the limits of the colloidal science analogy to be tested in a much broader window of conditions,
such as pH, ionic strength, concentration and temperature. Thus, studying the aggregation and
self-assembly of proteins in foods challenges our understanding of these complex systems from both
the molecular and statistical physics perspectives. Last but not least, food offers a unique
playground to study the aggregation of proteins in three, two and one dimensions, that is to say, in
the bulk, at air/water and oil/water interfaces and in protein fibrillation phenomena. In this
review we will...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/76/4/046601 2013/03/04 - 11:30

Calculations within QCD (lattice and sum rules) find the lightest glueball to be a scalar with mass
in the range of about 1000–1700 MeV. Several phenomenological investigations are discussed which aim
at the identification of the scalar meson nonets of lowest mass and the super-numerous states if
any. Results on the flavour structure of the light scalars f 0 (500),  f 0 (980) and f 0 (1500) are
presented; the evidence for f 0 (1370) is scrutinized. A significant surplus of leading clusters of
neutral charge in gluon jets is found at LEP in comparison with MCs, possibly a direct signal for
glueball production; further studies with more energetic jets at LHC are suggested. As a powerful
tool in the identification of the scalar nonets or other multiplets, along with signals from
glueballs we propose the exploration of symmetry relations for decay rates of C = +1 heavy quark
states like χ c or χ

http://iopscience.iop.org/0954-3899/40/4/043001 2013/02/28 - 21:23

The atomic force microscope is a widely used surface scanning apparatus capable of reconstructing at
a nanometric scale resolution the 3D morphology of biological samples. Due to its unique
sensitivity, it is now increasingly used as a force sensor, to characterize the mechanical
properties of specimens with a similar lateral resolution. This unique capability has produced, in
the last years, a vast increase in the number of groups that have exploited the versatility and
sensitivity of the instrument to explore the nanomechanics of various samples in the fields of
biology, microbiology and medicine. In this review we outline the state of the art in this field,
reporting the most interesting recent works involving the exploration of the nanomechanical
properties of various biological samples.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/13/133001 2013/02/27 - 04:15

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a technique which uses an electric field to separate a mixed
sample into its constituents. Portable CE systems enable this powerful analysis technique to be used
in the field. Many of the challenges for portable systems are similar to those of autonomous in-situ
analysis and therefore portable systems may be considered a stepping stone towards autonomous
in-situ analysis. CE is widely used for biological and chemical analysis and example applications
include: water quality analysis; drug development and quality control; proteomics and DNA analysis;
counter-terrorism (explosive material identification) and corrosion monitoring. The technique is
often limited to laboratory use, since it requires large electric fields, sensitive detection
systems and fluidic control systems. All of these place restrictions in terms of: size, weight,
cost, choice of operating solutions, choice of fabrication materials, electrical power and lifetime.
In ...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-0233/24/4/042001 2013/02/23 - 06:25

Networking encompasses a variety of tasks related to the communication of information on networks;
it has a substantial economic and societal impact on a broad range of areas including transportation
systems, wired and wireless communications and a range of Internet applications. As transportation
and communication networks become increasingly more complex, the ever increasing demand for
congestion control, higher traffic capacity, quality of service, robustness and reduced energy
consumption requires new tools and methods to meet these conflicting requirements. The new
methodology should serve for gaining better understanding of the properties of networking systems at
the macroscopic level, as well as for the development of new principled optimization and management
algorithms at the microscopic level. Methods of statistical physics seem best placed to provide new
approaches as they have been developed specifically to deal with nonlinear large-scale systems. This
review aims at ...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/10/103001 2013/02/22 - 10:20

The spin Seebeck effect refers to the generation of a spin voltage caused by a temperature gradient
in a ferromagnet, which enables the thermal injection of spin currents from the ferromagnet into an
attached nonmagnetic metal over a macroscopic scale of several millimeters. The inverse spin Hall
effect converts the injected spin current into a transverse charge voltage, thereby producing
electromotive force as in the conventional charge Seebeck device. Recent theoretical and
experimental efforts have shown that the magnon and phonon degrees of freedom play crucial roles in
the spin Seebeck effect. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis for understanding the spin
Seebeck effect and briefly discuss other thermal spin effects.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/76/3/036501 2013/02/19 - 16:35

Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for
new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and
proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has
provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to
precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by
multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the
single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in
accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest
achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied
forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other
manipulations. We furthermore foc...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1758-5090/5/2/022001 2013/02/14 - 05:42

Atoms in electronically excited states are of significant importance in a large number of different
gas discharges. The spatio-temporal distribution particularly of the lower excited states, the
metastable and resonance ones, influences the overall behavior of the plasma because of their role
in the ionization and energy budget. This article is a review of the theoretical and experimental
studies on the spatial formation and temporal evolution of metastable and resonance atoms in weakly
ionized low-temperature plasmas. Therefore, the transport mechanisms due to collisional diffusion
and resonance radiation are compared step by step. The differences in formation of spatio-temporal
structures of metastable and resonance atoms in plasmas are attributed to these different transport
mechanisms. The analysis is performed by obtaining solutions of the diffusion and radiation
transport equations. Solutions of stationary and non-stationary problems by decomposition over the
eigenfunctions...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0963-0252/22/2/023001 2013/02/14 - 05:42

Two-band superconductivity has become an important topic over the past ten years. Extensive
experimental and theoretical studies started with MgB 2 and are now focused on iron-based and other
new superconductors. In this review, I describe how important thermodynamic, reversible mixed-state,
and other superconducting properties are changed by two-band superconductivity and, for comparison,
by other effects such as anisotropy in a single-band material or an energy-gap structure different
from the conventional s-wave symmetry. The work consists of three main parts, in which I review (i)
theoretical models and what they predict for experimentally accessible properties in the two-band
and other scenarios, (ii) experimental methods applied for investigating superconducting properties
and the results obtained in potential two-band materials, and (iii) materials, for which two- or
multi-band superconductivity has been suggested. It is shown that two-band effects appear in most...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-2048/26/4/043001 2013/02/11 - 14:17

Spectroscopy using tunable diode lasers is an area of research that has gone through a dramatic
evolution over the last few years, principally because of new exciting approaches in the field of
atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This article attempts to review major recent advancements in the
field of diode laser based spectroscopy. The discussion covers the developments made so far in the
field of diode lasers and illustrates comprehensively the properties of free-running diode lasers.
Since the commercially available free-running diode lasers are not suitable for high-precision
spectroscopic studies, various techniques developed so far for converting these free-running diode
lasers into true narrow linewidth tunable laser sources are discussed comprehensively herein. The
potential uses of diode lasers in different spectroscopic fields and their extensive list of
applications have also been included, which may be interesting for the novice and the advanced user
as well.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1612-202X/10/4/043001 2013/02/09 - 00:37

This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control
the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological
disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell
line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In
particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based
systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system
and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number
of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we
also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres,
electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn
about the current st...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-605X/8/2/022001 2013/02/06 - 08:42

The synapse is a crucial element in biological neural networks, but a simple electronic equivalent
has been absent. This complicates the development of hardware that imitates biological architectures
in the nervous system. Now, the recent progress in the experimental realization of memristive
devices has renewed interest in artificial neural networks. The resistance of a memristive system
depends on its past states and exactly this functionality can be used to mimic the synaptic
connections in a (human) brain. After a short introduction to memristors, we present and explain the
relevant mechanisms in a biological neural network, such as long-term potentiation and spike
time-dependent plasticity, and determine the minimal requirements for an artificial neural network.
We review the implementations of these processes using basic electric circuits and more complex
mechanisms that either imitate biological systems or could act as a model system for them.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/9/093001 2013/02/06 - 08:42

The analogies between optical and electronic Goos–Hänchen effects are established based on electron
wave optics in semiconductor or graphene-based nanostructures. In this paper, we give a brief
overview of the progress achieved so far in the field of electronic Goos–Hänchen shifts, and show
the relevant optical analogies. In particular, we present several theoretical results on the giant
positive and negative Goos–Hänchen shifts in various semiconductor or graphene-based nanostructures,
their controllability, and potential applications in electronic devices, e.g. spin (or valley) beam
splitters.

http://iopscience.iop.org/2040-8986/15/3/033001 2013/01/29 - 20:53

The topic of this article is a review of the approach to extract pressure fields from flow velocity
field data, typically obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV), by combining the experimental
data with the governing equations. Although the basic working principles on which this procedure
relies have been known for quite some time, the recent expansion of PIV capabilities has greatly
increased its practical potential, up to the extent that nowadays a time-resolved volumetric
pressure determination has become feasible. This has led to a novel diagnostic methodology for
determining the instantaneous flow field pressure in a non-intrusive way, which is rapidly finding
acceptance in an increasing variety of application areas. The current review describes the operating
principles, illustrating how the flow-governing equations, in particular the equation of momentum,
are employed to compute the pressure from the material acceleration of the flow. Accuracy aspects
are discussed i...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-0233/24/3/032001 2013/01/25 - 11:27

In this review, we describe finite superconducting networks which consist of mutually connected
superconducting wires. These are two-dimensional square and honeycomb networks and three-dimensional
tetrahedron, octahedron and C60 networks. Because of multi-connectivity, they show a wide variety of
magnetic flux structures under an external magnetic field. Also we show the effect of disorder on
the flux structures and the penetration dynamics of the fluxons.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-2048/26/3/033001 2013/01/23 - 17:28

Spin-based electronics or ‘spintronics’ has been a topic of interest for over two decades.
Electronic devices based on the manipulation of the electron spin are believed to offer the
possibility of very small, non-volatile and ultrafast devices with very low power consumption. Since
the proposal of a spin-field-effect transistor (SpinFET) by Datta and Das in 1990, many attempts
have been made to achieve spin injection, detection and manipulation in semiconductor materials
either by incorporating ferromagnetic materials into device architectures or by using external
magnetic fields. This approach has significant design complexities, partly due to the influence of
stray magnetic fields on device operation. In addition, magnetic electrodes can have
magneto-resistance and spurious Hall voltages that can complicate device performance. To date, there
has been no successful report of a working Datta–Das SpinFET. Over the last few years we have
investigated an all-electric means of manip...

http://iopscience.iop.org/2043-6262/4/1/013002 2013/01/18 - 21:35

Single-shot spectra of modulation instability (MI) and long-pulse supercontinuum (SC) are acquired
at megahertz repetition rates (using time-stretch dispersive Fourier transformation) and analysed
over a broad wavelength range. We find varied statistical distributions—including heavy-tailed,
bimodal, Gaussian-like, and hybrid forms—depending on the input parameters and selected output
wavelength. These distributions are investigated with the aid of simulations, which show that that
the redshifted energy and peak intensity of the individual events are well correlated for low
soliton number. Similar experimental and simulated single-shot spectra are also found, suggesting
that input noise conditions can be accurately identified. The library of spectra provides new
insights into noise-driven MI and long-pulse SC generation at the single-shot level.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0951-7715/26/3/R85 2013/01/18 - 01:00

It is shown that the use of the Riemann–Silberstein (RS) vector greatly simplifies the description
of the electromagnetic field both in the classical domain and in the quantum domain. In this review,
we describe many specific examples where this vector enables one to significantly shorten the
derivations and make them more transparent. We also argue why the RS vector may be considered as the
best possible choice for the photon wavefunction.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/5/053001 2013/01/18 - 01:00

Inverse limits and profinite groups are used in a quantum mechanical context. Two cases are
considered: a quantum system with positions in the profinite group ##IMG##
[http://ej.iop.org/images/1751-8121/46/4/043001/jpa448218ieqn1.gif] {${\mathbb {Z}}_p$} and momenta
in the group ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1751-8121/46/4/043001/jpa448218ieqn2.gif] {${\mathbb
{Q}}_p/{\mathbb {Z}}_p$} , and a quantum system with positions in the profinite group ##IMG##
[http://ej.iop.org/images/1751-8121/46/4/043001/jpa448218ieqn3.gif] {${\widehat{\mathbb {Z}}}$} and
momenta in the group ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1751-8121/46/4/043001/jpa448218ieqn4.gif]
{${\mathbb {Q}}/{\mathbb {Z}}$} . The corresponding Schwatz–Bruhat spaces of wavefunctions and the
Heisenberg–Weyl groups are discussed. The sets of subsystems of these systems are studied from the
point of view of partial order theory. It is shown t...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/4/043001 2013/01/16 - 06:13

The graphene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique at substrate temperatures around 300 °C by a
microwave plasma sustained by surface waves (surface wave plasma chemical vapour deposition,
SWP-CVD) is discussed. A low-temperature, large-area and high-deposition-rate CVD process for
graphene films was developed. It was found from Raman spectra that the deposited films on copper
(Cu) substrates consisted of high-quality graphene flakes. The fabricated graphene transparent
conductive electrode showed uniform optical transmittance and sheet resistance, which suggests the
possibility of graphene for practical electrical and optoelectronic applications. It is intriguing
that graphene was successfully deposited on aluminium (Al) substrates, for which we did not expect
the catalytic effect to decompose hydrocarbon and hydrogen molecules. We developed a roll-to-roll
SWP-CVD system for continuous graphene film deposition towards industrial mass production. A pair of
winder and unwinde...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/6/063001 2013/01/15 - 09:49

Biomimetics is a research field that is achieving particular prominence through an explosion of new
discoveries in biology and engineering. The field concerns novel technologies developed through the
transfer of function from biological systems. To analyze the impact of this field within engineering
and related sciences, we compiled an extensive database of publications for study with network-based
information analysis techniques. Criteria included publications by year and journal or conference,
and subject areas judged by popular and common terms in titles. Our results reveal that this
research area has expanded rapidly from less than 100 papers per year in the 1990s to several
thousand papers per year in the first decade of this century. Moreover, this research is having
impact across a variety of research themes, spanning robotics, computer science and bioengineering.
In consequence, biomimetics is becoming a leading paradigm for the development of new technologies
that will p...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-3190/8/1/013001 2013/01/10 - 00:10

The characterization of morphology in blend thin-films of conjugated polymers and functionalized
fullerenes is a critical aspect in organic photovoltaic (OPV) device research. Understanding the
links between thin-film processing conditions, film nanostructure and photocurrent generation
efficiency is necessary in order to develop this technology for commercial viability. Here, we
review recent developments of experimental studies that probe sample nanostructure formation and
modification during the processing steps commonly used in OPV device fabrication, potentially
offering a deeper insight and more rational understating of these conditions.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/76/2/022501 2013/01/10 - 00:10

The phenomenon of light's momentum was first observed in the laboratory at the beginning of the
twentieth century, and its potential for manipulating microscopic particles was demonstrated by
Ashkin some 70 years later. Since that initial demonstration, and the seminal 1986 paper where a
single-beam gradient-force trap was realized, optical trapping has been exploited as both a rich
example of physical phenomena and a powerful tool for sensitive measurement. This review outlines
the underlying theory of optical traps, and explores many of the physical observations that have
been made in such systems. These phenomena include ‘optical binding’, where trapped objects interact
with one another through the trapping light field. We also discuss a number of the applications of
‘optical tweezers’ across the physical and life sciences, as well as covering some of the issues
involved in constructing and using such a tool.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/76/2/026401 2013/01/10 - 00:10