Skip to Content

Instrukcja korzystania z Biblioteki


Ukryty Internet | Wyszukiwarki specjalistyczne tekstów i źródeł naukowych | Translatory online | Encyklopedie i słowniki online


Astronomia Astrofizyka

Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Kolekcje IOP - REVIEWS


Living organisms are made of cells that are capable of responding to external signals by modifying
their internal state and subsequently their external environment. Revealing and understanding the
spatio-temporal dynamics of these complex interaction networks is the subject of a field known as
systems biology. To investigate these interactions (a necessary step before understanding or
modelling them) one needs to develop means to control or interfere spatially and temporally with
these processes and to monitor their response on a fast timescale (< minute) and with single-cell
resolution. In 2012, an EMBO workshop on ‘single-cell physiology’ (organized by some of us) was held
in Paris to discuss those issues in the light of recent developments that allow for precise
spatio-temporal perturbations and observations. This review will be largely based on the
investigations reported there. We will first present a non-exhaustive list of examples of cellular
interactions and developmen... 2013/06/15 - 08:24

Lunar laser ranging has provided many of the best tests of gravitation since the first Apollo
astronauts landed on the Moon. The march to higher precision continues to this day, now entering the
millimeter regime, and promising continued improvement in scientific results. This review introduces
key aspects of the technique, details the motivations, observables, and results for a variety of
science objectives, summarizes the current state of the art, highlights new developments in the
field, describes the modeling challenges, and looks to the future of the enterprise. 2013/06/15 - 08:24

We review the main results that have been obtained in quantum cosmology from the perspective of the
de Broglie–Bohm quantum theory. As it is a dynamical theory of assumed objectively real trajectories
in the configuration space of the physical system under investigation, this quantum theory is not
essentially probabilistic and dispenses the collapse postulate, turning it suitable to be applied to
cosmology. In the framework of minisuperspace models, we show how quantum cosmological effects in
the de–Broglie-Bohm approach can avoid the initial singularity, and isotropize the Universe. We then
extend minisuperspace in order to include linear cosmological perturbations. We present the main
equations which govern the dynamics of quantum cosmological perturbations evolving in non-singular
quantum cosmological backgrounds, and calculate some of their observational consequences. These
results are not known how to be obtained in other approaches to quantum theory. In the general case
of ... 2013/06/12 - 11:38

We present an updated review of Lorentz invariance tests in effective field theories (EFTs) in the
matter as well as in the gravity sector. After a general discussion of the role of Lorentz
invariance and a derivation of its transformations along the so-called von Ignatovski theorem, we
present the dynamical frameworks developed within local EFT and the available constraints on the
parameters governing the Lorentz breaking effects. In the end, we discuss two specific examples: the
OPERA ‘affaire’ and the case of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity. The first case will serve as an example,
and a caveat, of the practical application of the general techniques developed for constraining
Lorentz invariance violation to a direct observation potentially showing these effects. The second
case will show how the application of the same techniques to a specific quantum gravity scenario has
far-reaching implications not foreseeable in a purely phenomenological EFT approach. 2013/06/08 - 09:12

MRI-based medical image analysis for brain tumor studies is gaining attention in recent times due to
an increased need for efficient and objective evaluation of large amounts of data. While the
pioneering approaches applying automated methods for the analysis of brain tumor images date back
almost two decades, the current methods are becoming more mature and coming closer to routine
clinical application. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview by giving a brief
introduction to brain tumors and imaging of brain tumors first. Then, we review the state of the art
in segmentation, registration and modeling related to tumor-bearing brain images with a focus on
gliomas. The objective in the segmentation is outlining the tumor including its sub-compartments and
surrounding tissues, while the main challenge in registration and modeling is the handling of
morphological changes caused by the tumor. The qualities of different approaches are discussed with
a focus on methods tha... 2013/06/07 - 09:57

The local instabilities of a nonlinear dynamical system can be characterized by the leading singular
vectors of its linearized operator. The leading singular vectors are perturbations with the greatest
linear growth and are therefore key in assessing the system’s predictability. In this paper, the
analysis of singular vectors for the predictability of weather and climate and ensemble forecasting
is discussed. An overview of the role of singular vectors in informing about the error growth rate
in numerical models of the atmosphere is given. This is followed by their use in the initialization
of ensemble weather forecasts. Singular vectors for the ocean and coupled ocean–atmosphere system in
order to understand the predictability of climate phenomena such as ENSO and meridional overturning
circulation are reviewed and their potential use to initialize seasonal and decadal forecasts is
considered. As stochastic parameterizations are being implemented, some speculations are made
abou... 2013/06/07 - 09:57

The role of disclinations in the processing, microstructure and properties of bulk nanostructured
materials is reviewed. Models of grain subdivision during severe plastic deformation (SPD) based on
the disclination concept, a structural model of the bulk nanostructured materials processed by SPD
are presented. The critical strength of triple junction disclinations is estimated. Kinetics of
relaxation of triple junction disclinations and their role in the grain boundary diffusion are
studied. 2013/06/04 - 18:46

Natural crystals of topaz, Al 2 (F 1− x (OH) x ) 2 SiO 4 were found to be an attractive Raman gain
material and a subject for the investigation of different χ (3) -nonlinear optical effects. We
present several manifestations of photon–phonon interactions related to SRS and RFWM processes
initiated by picosecond excitations at room and cryogenic (≈9 K) temperature. Among them are
octave-spanning Stokes and anti-Stokes generation in the visible and near-IR spectral range,
combined SRS-active phonon modes, cross-cascaded up-conversion, χ (3) ↔χ (3) lasing, as well as THG
via self-sum frequency parametric generation. All recorded Raman-induced lasing lines are identified
and attributed to the promoting χ (3) -vibration transitions. Based on the experimental data,
theoretical simulations employing Fourier analysis are performed to demonstrate the potential of
wide SRS frequency combs in te... 2013/06/04 - 18:46

This paper reviews some basic mathematical results on Lyapunov exponents, one of the most
fundamental concepts in dynamical systems. The first few sections contain some very general results
in nonuniform hyperbolic theory. We consider ( f , μ), where f is an arbitrary dynamical system and
μ is an arbitrary invariant measure, and discuss relations between Lyapunov exponents and several
dynamical quantities of interest, including entropy, fractal dimension and rates of escape. The
second half of this review focuses on observable chaos , characterized by positive Lyapunov
exponents on positive Lebesgue measure sets. Much attention is given to SRB measures, a very special
kind of invariant measures that offer a way to understand observable chaos in dissipative systems.
Paradoxical as it may seem, given a concrete system, it is generally impossible to determine with
mathematical certainty if it has observable chaos unless strong geometric conditions are satisfied;
ca... 2013/06/04 - 18:46

The concept of Lyapunov exponent has long occupied a central place in the theory of Anderson
localization; its interest in this particular context is that it provides a reasonable measure of
the localization length. The Lyapunov exponent also features prominently in the theory of products
of random matrices pioneered by Furstenberg. After a brief historical survey, we describe some
recent work that exploits the close connections between these topics. We review the known solvable
cases of disordered quantum mechanics involving random point scatterers and discuss a new solvable
case. Finally, we point out some limitations of the Lyapunov exponent as a means of studying
localization properties. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A:
Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to
applications’. 2013/06/04 - 18:46

A review of the results obtained for hard disk fluids confined to a quasi-one-dimensional (QOD)
system is presented. One of the main achievements in recent years has been determining the
hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes (HLMs) as covariant stable and unstable manifolds defined by k -vector
analogues of the zero-exponent subspace of conserved quantities. The tangent space dynamics allows
an interpretation of the HLMs as reduced hydrodynamic fields over the perturbations and is expanded
upon in this paper. The time evolution of these modes is governed by the dynamics of conjugate pairs
of stable and unstable directions. Each pair is seen to interact in a subspace almost completely
separated from other vectors; the modes undergo a rotation until they are collinear with the stable
or unstable manifold. The angle distributions between these covariant stable and unstable HLMs are
also determined, and tangencies are not observed for a generic chaotic trajectory. This article is
p... 2013/06/04 - 18:46

This work reviews the authors’ contributions to the Lyapunov analysis of extended dynamical systems.
Hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes (HLMs), the special Lyapunov vectors (LVs) associated with near-zero
Lyapunov exponents exhibiting long wavelength structures and slow oscillations, have recently been
observed in many extended systems with continuous symmetry, such as hard sphere systems, dynamic XY
models, Lennard-Jones fluids, coupled map lattices and partial differential equations. They are of
potential importance for the connection between nonlinear dynamics and its coarse-grained
description. In the first part of this paper, we review our recent results on Lyapunov modes in an
extended system, which includes the universality of HLMs in Hamiltonian and dissipative systems, the
condition for the appearance of significant or ‘vague’ modes and the appearance of branch splitting
in the Lyapunov spectra of diatomic Hamiltonian systems. In particular, most results on HLMs
obtained via or... 2013/06/04 - 18:46

In dynamical systems, the growth of infinitesimal perturbations is well characterized by the
Lyapunov exponents. In many situations of interest, however, important phenomena involve finite
amplitude perturbations, which are ruled by nonlinear dynamics out of tangent space, and thus cannot
be captured by the standard Lyapunov exponents. We review the application of the finite size
Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) for the characterization of non-infinitesimal perturbations in a variety of
systems. In particular, we illustrate their usage in the context of predictability of systems with
multiple spatio-temporal scales of geophysical relevance, in the characterization of nonlinear
instabilities, and in some aspects of transport in fluid flows. We also discuss the application of
the FSLE to more general aspects such as chaos-noise detection and coarse-grained descriptions of
signals. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and
Theoretical dev... 2013/06/04 - 18:46

In order to understand the effects of strain on the superconducting properties in composite Nb 3 Sn
wires and cables, the three-dimensional (3D) strain is very important. Quantum beams such as neutron
and synchrotron radiation enable us to quantify the detailed internal strain in any direction
nondestructively. Therefore, quantum beams are recognized as a powerful tool to evaluate the 3D
strain inside composite materials. The internal strain states of Nb 3 Sn strands in thick conduits
such as cable-in-conduit conductors can also be detected because of the large penetration depth of
neutrons. Because of advances in neutron and synchrotron radiation facilities, recent studies have
examined the internal strains in composite superconducting wire and cable conductors. This paper
reviews recent studies on 3D strains and their effects on the superconducting properties of Nb 3 Sn
wires and cable conductors, along with some experimental data. Other applications... 2013/05/29 - 14:46

In recent years the outbreak of re-emerging and emerging infectious diseases has been a significant
burden on global economies and public health. The growth of population and urbanization along with
poor water supply and environmental hygiene are the main reasons for the increase in outbreak of
infectious pathogens. Transmission of infectious pathogens to the community has caused outbreaks of
diseases such as influenza ( A/H 5 N 1 ), diarrhea (Escherichia coli), cholera (Vibrio cholera), etc
throughout the world. The comprehensive treatments of environments containing infectious pathogens
using advanced disinfectant nanomaterials have been proposed for prevention of the outbreaks. Among
these nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with unique properties of high antimicrobial
activity have attracted much interest from scientists and technologists to develop nanosilver-based
disinfectant products. This article aims to... 2013/05/15 - 06:55

By reaching through shrouding blastwaves, efficiently discovering off-axis events and probing the
central engine at work, gravitational wave (GW) observations will soon revolutionize the study of
gamma-ray bursts. Already, analyses of GW data targeting gamma-ray bursts have helped constrain the
central engines of selected events. Advanced GW detectors with significantly improved sensitivities
are under construction. After outlining the GW emission mechanisms from gamma-ray burst progenitors
(binary coalescences, stellar core collapses, magnetars and others) that may be detectable with
advanced detectors, we review how GWs will improve our understanding of gamma-ray burst central
engines, their astrophysical formation channels and the prospects and methods for different search
strategies. We place special emphasis on multimessenger searches. To achieve the most scientific
benefit, GW, electromagnetic and neutrino observations should be combined to provide greater
discriminating po... 2013/05/15 - 06:55

In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the statistics of record-breaking events in
stochastic processes. Along with that, many new and interesting applications of the theory of
records were discovered and explored. The record statistics of uncorrelated random variables sampled
from time-dependent distributions was studied extensively. The findings were applied in various
areas to model and explain record-breaking events in observational data. Particularly interesting
and fruitful was the study of record-breaking temperatures and their connection with global warming,
but also records in sports, biology and some areas in physics were considered in the last years.
Similarly, researchers have recently started to understand the record statistics of correlated
processes such as random walks, which can be helpful to model record events in financial time
series. This review is an attempt to summarize and evaluate the progress that has been made in the
field of record stati... 2013/05/14 - 09:07

After a recent series of rapid and exciting developments, the long search for the Majorana
fermion—the elusive quantum entity at the border between particles and antiparticles—has produced
the first positive experimental results, but is not over yet. Originally proposed by E Majorana in
the context of particle physics, Majorana fermions have a condensed matter analogue in the
zero-energy bound states emerging in topological superconductors. A promising route to engineering
topological superconductors capable of hosting Majorana zero modes consists of proximity coupling
semiconductor thin films or nanowires with strong spin–orbit interaction to conventional s-wave
superconductors in the presence of an external Zeeman field. The Majorana zero mode is predicted to
emerge above a certain critical Zeeman field as a zero-energy state localized near the order
parameter defects, namely, vortices for thin films and wire ends for the nanowire. These Majorana
bound states are expected to m... 2013/05/11 - 03:37

A review of reported tissue optical properties summarizes the wavelength-dependent behavior of
scattering and absorption. Formulae are presented for generating the optical properties of a generic
tissue with variable amounts of absorbing chromophores (blood, water, melanin, fat, yellow pigments)
and a variable balance between small-scale scatterers and large-scale scatterers in the
ultrastructures of cells and tissues. 2013/05/11 - 03:37

A small number of naturally occurring, proton-rich nuclides (the p-nuclei) cannot be made in the s-
and r-processes. Their origin is not well understood. Massive stars can produce p-nuclei through
photodisintegration of pre-existing intermediate and heavy nuclei. This so-called γ -process
requires high stellar plasma temperatures and occurs mainly in explosive O/Ne burning during a
core-collapse supernova. Although the γ -process in massive stars has been successful in producing a
large range of p-nuclei, significant deficiencies remain. An increasing number of processes and
sites has been studied in recent years in search of viable alternatives replacing or supplementing
the massive star models. A large number of unstable nuclei, however, with only theoretically
predicted reaction rates are included in the reaction network and thus the nuclear input may also
bear considerable uncertainties. The current status of astrophysical models, nuclear input and
observational c... 2013/05/11 - 03:37

The basic ideas of the B -spline R -matrix (BSR) approach are reviewed, and the use of the method is
illustrated with a variety of applications to atomic structure, electron–atom collisions and
photo-induced processes. Special emphasis is placed on complex, open-shell targets, for which the
method has proven very successful in reproducing, for example, a wealth of near-threshold resonance
structures. Recent extensions to a fully relativistic framework and intermediate energies have
allowed for an accurate treatment of heavy targets as well as a fully nonperturbative scheme for
electron-impact ionization. Finally, field-free BSR Hamiltonian and electric dipole matrices can be
employed in the time-dependent treatment of intense short-pulse laser–atom interactions. 2013/05/09 - 19:37

Recently, the database for the breakup of a deuteron in collision with a proton has been
significantly enriched in the domain of medium energies. High precision experimental data for the
cross section, vector (proton)-analyzing power and vector- and tensor (deuteron)-analyzing powers
were collected with detection systems covering a large part of the phase space of the 1 H( ##IMG##
[] {vec d} , pp)n and 2 H( ##IMG##
[] {vec p} , pp)n reactions. A series of experiments were
carried out with deuteron beams with energies of 100, 130 and 160 MeV and proton beams with energies
of 135 and 190 MeV, each of them providing a few hundred data points per observable, obtained on
systematic grids of kinematical variables within the studied angular range... 2013/05/09 - 19:37

Fano resonances and optical vortices originate from two types of interference phenomena. Usually,
these effects are considered to be completely independent, and in many cases Fano resonances are
observed without any link to vortices, as well as vortices with a singular phase structure that are
not accompanied by Fano resonances. However, this situation changes dramatically when we study light
scattering at the nanoscale. In this paper, we demonstrate that Fano resonances observed for light
scattering by nanoparticles are accompanied by the singular phase effects usually associated with
singular optics, and we introduce and describe optical vortices with characteristic core sizes well
below the diffraction limit. 2013/05/03 - 23:20

In recent years, numerous brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) based on motor-imagery have been proposed
which incorporate features such as adaptive classification, error detection and correction, fusion
with auxiliary signals and shared control capabilities. Due to the added complexity of such
algorithms, the evaluation strategy and metrics used for analysis must be carefully chosen to
accurately represent the performance of the BCI. In this article, metrics are reviewed and
contrasted using both simulated examples and experimental data. Furthermore, a review of the recent
literature is presented to determine how BCIs are evaluated, in particular, focusing on the
relationship between how the data are used relative to the BCI subcomponent under investigation.
From the analysis performed in this study, valuable guidelines are presented regarding the choice of
metrics and evaluation strategy dependent upon any chosen BCI paradigm. 2013/05/03 - 23:20

The assortment of fluorescence reporters is changing dramatically. Traditionally explored intrinsic
fluorescence of biological macromolecules and cellular pigments and of externally introduced organic
dyes are presently in strong competition with new nanomaterials. Among them are conjugated polymers,
semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots), up-converting nanocrystals, magic-size clusters of silver
and gold, nanodiamonds and carbon dots. They demonstrate diverse photophysical behavior and allow
one to obtain diverse information when used in analytical tools or when they form images in
biological systems. Based on them, functional nanocomposites displaying a variety of useful
features, thus extending dramatically the information content of output data, can be constructed. We
describe their properties and compare them with those of small-molecular emitters, such as organic
dyes. With their aid, one can modulate over a wide range the wavelengths of excitation and emission,
the life... 2013/05/02 - 06:38

The advent of the laser has placed stringent requirements on the fabrication, performance and
quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications. Their
high-power performance is generally governed by three distinct steps, firstly the absorption of
incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms); secondly, followed
by a temperature increase and response governed primarily by thermal properties and finally the
element’s thermo-optical and thermomechanical response, e.g., distortion, stress, birefringenous
fracture, etc. All of which needs to be understood in the design of efficient, compact, reliable and
versatile high-power systems, under a variety of operating conditions such as pulsed, continuous
wave, rep-rated or burst mode of varying duty cycles. 2013/04/30 - 20:34

The accelerated expansion of space during the cosmological inflation period leads to trans-Planckian
issues which need to be addressed. Most importantly, the physical wavelength of fluctuations which
are studied at the present time by means of cosmological observations may well originate with a
wavelength smaller than the Planck length at the beginning of the inflationary phase. Thus,
questions arise as to whether the usual predictions of inflationary cosmology are robust considering
our ignorance of physics on trans-Planckian scales, and whether the imprints of Planck-scale physics
are at the present time observable. These and other related questions are reviewed in this paper. 2013/04/26 - 01:31

The U-238 series of radionuclides is of relevance in a variety of environmental contexts ranging
from the remediation of former uranium mining and milling facilities to the deep geological disposal
of solid radioactive wastes. Herein, we review what is known concerning the behaviour of
radionuclides from the U-238 decay chain in soils and plants. This review is intended to provide a
single comprehensive source of information to anyone involved in undertaking environmental impact
assessment studies relating to this decay chain. Conclusions are drawn relating to values and ranges
of distribution coefficients appropriate to uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium in different
soil types and under various environmental conditions. Similarly, conclusions are drawn relating to
plant:soil concentration ratios for these elements for different plant and soil types, and
consideration is given to the distribution of these elements within plants following both root
uptake and foliar app... 2013/04/25 - 01:39

The aim of this tutorial is to present the basic mathematical techniques required for an accurate
description of cold trapped atoms, both Bose and Fermi. The term cold implies that considered
temperatures are low, such that quantum theory is necessary, even if temperatures are finite. The
term atoms means that the considered particles are structureless, being defined by their masses and
mutual interactions. Atoms are trapped in the sense that they form a finite quantum system, though
their number can be very large, allowing for the use of the methods of statistical mechanics. This
tutorial is the first of several, giving general mathematical techniques for both types of particle
statistics. The following tutorials will be devoted separately to Bose atoms and Fermi atoms.
Carefully explaining basic techniques is important in order to avoid the numerous misconceptions
which propagate in the literature. 2013/04/24 - 01:29

We review the electronic properties of bilayer graphene, beginning with a description of the
tight-binding model of bilayer graphene and the derivation of the effective Hamiltonian describing
massive chiral quasiparticles in two parabolic bands at low energies. We take into account five
tight-binding parameters of the Slonczewski–Weiss–McClure model of bulk graphite plus intra- and
interlayer asymmetry between atomic sites which induce band gaps in the low-energy spectrum. The
Hartree model of screening and band-gap opening due to interlayer asymmetry in the presence of
external gates is presented. The tight-binding model is used to describe optical and transport
properties including the integer quantum Hall effect, and we also discuss orbital magnetism, phonons
and the influence of strain on electronic properties. We conclude with an overview of electronic
interaction effects. 2013/04/20 - 12:03

Contactless methods of conductivity measurement are becoming increasingly important due to the
progress being made in materials technology and the development of new materials intended for use in
the electronics industry, including graphene, GaN and SiC. Despite the fact that they are conducting
materials, some of them, like GaN and SiC, cannot be measured with the conventional four-point probe
technique. Contactless measurement techniques offer fast and non-destructive methods to measure such
materials. Selection of the appropriate method from the available techniques makes it possible to
measure materials over a resistivity range of more than 20 decades, from 10 −9 to 10 12 Ω cm. This
review gives an overview of the history of conductivity measurement, describes contactless
measurement methods and discusses the most recent achievements in the field. Direct current, radio
frequency, microwave and time domain measurement techniques are discussed in this review... 2013/04/19 - 16:02

Antimonide semiconductors are suitable for low-power electronics and long-wavelength optoelectronic
applications. In recent years research on antimonide nanowires has become a rapidly growing field,
and nano-materials have promising applications in fundamental physics research, for tunnel
field-effect transistors, and long-wavelength detectors. In this review, we give an overview of the
field of antimonide nanowires, beginning with a description of the synthesis of these
nano-materials. Here we summarize numerous reports on antimonide nanowire growth, with the aim to
give an overall picture of the distinctive properties of antimonide nanowire synthesis. Secondly, we
review the data on the physical properties and emerging applications for antimonide nanowires,
focusing on applications in electronics and optics. 2013/04/19 - 16:02

We show that the first order magneto-structural phase transitions observed in various classes of
magnetic solids are often accompanied by useful multi-functional properties, namely giant
magneto-resistance, magneto-caloric effect and magneto-striction. We highlight various
characteristic features associated with a disorder influenced first order phase transition namely
supercooling, superheating, phase-coexistence and metastability, in several magnetic materials and
discuss how a proper understanding of the transition process can help in fine tuning of the
accompanied functional properties. Magneto-elastic coupling is a key element in this first order
phase transition, and methods need to be explored for maximizing the contributions from both the
lattice and the magnetic degree of freedom while simultaneously minimizing the thermomagnetic
hysteresis loss. An analogy is also drawn with the first order phase transition observed in
dielectric materials and vortex matter of type-II ... 2013/04/19 - 16:02

In spite of being highly suited for advanced plasma performance operation of tokamaks, as
demonstrated over at least two decades of fusion plasma research, carbon is not currently considered
as an integrating element of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) for the active phase of ITER. The
main reason preventing its use under the very challenging scenarios foreseen in this phase, with
edge-localized modes delivering several tens of MW m −2 to the divertor target every second or less,
is the existing concern about reaching the tritium inventory value of 1000 g used in safety
assessments in a time shorter than the projected lifetime of the divertor materials eroded by the
plasma, set at 3000 shots. Although several mechanisms of tritium trapping in carbon components have
been identified, co-deposition of the carbon radicals arising from chemically eroded
chlorofluorocarbons in remote areas appears to play a dominant role. Several possible ways to keep
control of the tritiu... 2013/04/16 - 00:25

Currently about 3000 different nuclei are known with about another 3000–4000 predicted to exist. A
review of the discovery of the nuclei, the present status and the possibilities for future
discoveries are presented. 2013/04/12 - 08:49

Nanophotonics has been extensively studied with the aim of unveiling and exploiting light–matter
interactions that occur at a scale below the diffraction limit of light, and recent progress made in
experimental technologies—both in nanomaterial fabrication and characterization—is driving further
advancements in the field. From the viewpoint of information, on the other hand, novel
architectures, design and analysis principles, and even novel computing paradigms should be
considered so that we can fully benefit from the potential of nanophotonics. This paper examines the
information physics aspects of nanophotonics. More specifically, we present some fundamental and
emergent information properties that stem from optical excitation transfer mediated by optical
near-field interactions and the hierarchical properties inherent in optical near-fields. We
theoretically and experimentally investigate aspects such as unidirectional signal transfer, energy
efficiency and networking effects... 2013/04/12 - 08:49

Silicate bioceramics, as a new family of biomaterials, have received significant attention in their
application to hard tissue regeneration. Some silicate bioceramics have shown excellent apatite
mineralization in simulated body fluids and their ionic products have been shown to enhance the
proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and gene expression of stem cells. In this paper, we
review the advances in the research of silicate system bioceramics, including preparation methods,
mechanical strength, apatite mineralization, dissolution and in vitro and in vivo biological
properties. The biological properties and the corresponding mechanism have been highlighted. A look
forward to the application of silicate bioceramics to bone regeneration is further suggested. 2013/04/10 - 03:11

Resonant (elastic) soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) offers a unique element, site and valence specific
probe to study spatial modulations of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom in solids on the
nanoscopic length scale. It is not only used to investigate single-crystalline materials. This
method also enables one to examine electronic ordering phenomena in thin films and to zoom into
electronic properties emerging at buried interfaces in artificial heterostructures. During the last
20 years, this technique, which combines x-ray scattering with x-ray absorption spectroscopy, has
developed into a powerful probe to study electronic ordering phenomena in complex materials and
furthermore delivers important information on the electronic structure of condensed matter. This
review provides an introduction to the technique, covers the progress in experimental equipment, and
gives a survey on recent RSXS studies of ordering in correlated electron systems and at interfaces. 2013/04/05 - 21:44

Topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but a metallic surface. In the simplest case,
the surface electronic structure of a three-dimensional (3D) TI is described by a single
two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone. A single 2D Dirac fermion cannot be realized in an isolated 2D
system with time-reversal symmetry, but rather owes its existence to the topological properties of
the 3D bulk wavefunctions. The transport properties of such a surface state are of considerable
current interest; they have some similarities with graphene, which also realizes Dirac fermions, but
have several unique features in their response to magnetic fields. In this review we give an
overview of some of the main quantum transport properties of TI surfaces. We focus on the efforts to
use quantum interference phenomena, such as weak anti-localization and the Aharonov–Bohm effect, to
verify in a transport experiment the Dirac nature of the surface state and its defining properties.
In addition to expla... 2013/04/04 - 13:58

The experimental revolution in ultracold atomic gas physics over the past decades has brought
tremendous amounts of new insight to the world of degenerate quantum systems. Here we compare and
contrast the developments of cold atomic gases with the physics of nuclei since many concepts,
techniques, and nomenclatures are common to both fields. However, nuclei are finite systems with
interactions that are typically much more complicated than those of ultracold atomic gases. The
similarities and differences must therefore be carefully addressed for a meaningful comparison and
to facilitate fruitful crossdisciplinary activity. We first consider condensates of bosonic and
paired systems of fermionic particles with the mean-field description, but take great care to point
out potential problems in the limit of small particle numbers. Along the way we review some of the
basic results of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) and Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) theory, as well
as the BCS–BEC cross... 2013/03/29 - 11:28