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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Kolekcje IOP - REVIEWS

Reviews

On erosion issues associated with the leading edge of wind turbine blades

The increasing developments in wind turbine technology, coupled with an unpredictable operating
environment, present significant challenges regarding erosion issues on the leading edge of the
blade tips. This review examines the potential degradation posed by the different environmental
variables, with specific emphasis on both rain droplet and hailstone impact on the blade leading
edge. Drawing on both the insights from experimental results and recent field data from the
literature, the mechanisms of leading edge erosion are discussed. Meteorological tools that may
enable rain and hailstone erosion prediction are addressed, as well as potential experimental and
numerical approaches that may provide insight into the nature of impact and erosion on the blade
surface.

2013/09/05 - 03:39

Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications

In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological
synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching
characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic
devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale
implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing
applications with synaptic devices is presented.

2013/09/03 - 15:15

Memristor, Hodgkin–Huxley, and Edge of Chaos

From a pedagogical point of view, the memristor is defined in this tutorial as any 2-terminal device
obeying a state-dependent Ohm’s law . This tutorial also shows that from an experimental point of
view, the memristor can be defined as any 2-terminal device that exhibits the fingerprints of
‘pinched’ hysteresis loops in the v – i plane. It also shows that memristors endowed with a
continuum of equilibrium states can be used as non-volatile analog memories. This tutorial shows
that memristors span a much broader vista of complex phenomena and potential applications in many
fields, including neurobiology. In particular, this tutorial presents toy memristors that can mimic
the classic habituation and LTP learning phenomena. It also shows that sodium and potassium
ion-channel memristors are the key to generating the action potential in the Hodgkin–Huxley
equations, and that they are the key to resolving several unresolved anomalies associated with
the...

2013/09/03 - 15:15

Everything SAXS: small-angle scattering pattern collection and correction

For obtaining reliable nanostructural details of large amounts of sample—and if it is
applicable—small-angle scattering (SAS) is a prime technique to use. It promises to obtain
bulk-scale, statistically sound information on the morphological details of the nanostructure, and
has thus led to many a researcher investing their time in it over the last eight decades of
development. Due to pressure from scientists requesting more details on increasingly complex
nanostructures, as well as the ever improving instrumentation leaving less margin for ambiguity,
small-angle scattering methodologies have been evolving at a high pace over the past few decades. As
the quality of any results can only be as good as the data that go into these methodologies, the
improvements in data collection and all imaginable data correction steps are reviewed here. This
work is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of all data corrections, to aid the small-angle
scatterer to decide which are rel...

2013/08/29 - 18:52

Electrode polarization in dielectric measurements: a review

In this review, we present an overview of the state of the art concerning the fundamental properties
of electrode polarization (EP) of interest in the measurement of high conductivity samples and its
implications for both dielectric (DS) and impedance spectroscopy (IS). Initially a detailed
description of what constitutes EP is provided and the problems that it induces. Then, we review
some of the more popular models that have been used to describe the physical phenomena behind the
formation of the ionic double layer. Following this we shall enumerate the common strategies used
historically to correct its influence on the measured signals in DS or in IS. Finally we also review
recent attempts to employ fractal electrodes to bypass the effects of EP and to offer some physical
explanation as to the limitations of their use.

2013/08/28 - 11:05

Quantum cosmology and late-time singularities

The development of dark energy models has stimulated interest to cosmological singularities, which
differ from the traditional Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. We review a broad class of
phenomena connected with soft cosmological singularities in classical and quantum cosmology. We
discuss the classification of singularities from the geometrical point of view and from the point of
view of the behavior of finite size objects, crossing such singularities. We discuss in some detail
quantum and classical cosmology of models based on perfect fluids (anti-Chaplygin gas and
anti-Chaplygin gas plus dust), of models based on the Born–Infeld-type fields and of the model of a
scalar field with a potential inversely proportional to the field itself. We dwell also on the
phenomenon of the phantom divide line crossing in the scalar field models with cusped potentials.
Then we discuss the Friedmann equations modified by quantum corrections to the effective action of
the models under consi...

2013/08/23 - 04:04

Strategies for integration of lasers on silicon

There is a need for closer integration of lasers with silicon electronics in order to realize
low-cost, energy-efficient transceivers in high-bandwidth short-reach interconnects for use in data
centres, upcoming supercomputer architectures and in fibre-to-the-home applications. As silicon is
an inefficient light emitter, it is necessary to integrate a direct bandgap material onto a suitable
platform in order to provide the light signal. Powerful photonic integrated circuits can then be
realized based on state-of-the-art CMOS wafers or on silicon-on-insulator platforms. We review the
different approaches to large-scale integration of light sources with these platforms covering
monolithic integration, wafer bonding and epitaxial layer transfer. Transfer printing is
demonstrated to be a very effective strategy being scalable and, in conjunction with etched facet
reflectors, capable of lithographic alignment in a planar fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate
that with a substrate ...

2013/08/21 - 13:56

Towards a monolithically integrated III–V laser on silicon: optimization of multi-quantum well growth on InP on Si

High-quality InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the isolated areas of indium phosphide on
silicon necessary for realizing a monolithically integrated silicon laser is achieved. Indium
phosphide layer on silicon, the pre-requisite for the growth of quantum wells is achieved via
nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG) technique from a defective seed indium phosphide layer on
silicon. This technique makes use of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) from closely spaced (1 µm)
e-beam lithography-patterned nano-sized openings (∼300 nm) by low-pressure hydride vapor phase
epitaxy. A silicon dioxide mask with carefully designed opening patterns and thickness with respect
to the opening width is used to block the defects propagating from the indium phosphide seed layer
by the so-called necking effect. Growth conditions are optimized to obtain smooth surface morphology
even after coalescence of laterally grown indium phosphide from adjacent openings. Surface
morphology and optical ...

2013/08/21 - 13:56

Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics

Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now
possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 μm elements with high
definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting
interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these
artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel
emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are
arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first
focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in
particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating
phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including
emergent magn...

2013/08/16 - 16:45

Automated segmentation of pulmonary structures in thoracic computed tomography scans: a review

Computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice for imaging the lungs in vivo . Sub-millimeter
isotropic images of the lungs can be obtained within seconds, allowing the detection of small
lesions and detailed analysis of disease processes. The high resolution of thoracic CT and the high
prevalence of lung diseases require a high degree of automation in the analysis pipeline. The
automated segmentation of pulmonary structures in thoracic CT has been an important research topic
for over a decade now. This systematic review provides an overview of current literature. We discuss
segmentation methods for the lungs, the pulmonary vasculature, the airways, including airway tree
construction and airway wall segmentation, the fissures, the lobes and the pulmonary segments. For
each topic, the current state of the art is summarized, and topics for future research are
identified.

2013/08/16 - 16:45

Dye-doped silica-based nanoparticles for bioapplications

This paper presents our recent research results on synthesis and bioapplications of dye-doped
silica-based nanoparticles. The dye-doped water soluble organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL)
nanoparticles (NPs) with the size of 15–100 nm were synthesized by modified Stöber method from
methyltriethoxysilane CH 3 Si(OCH 3 ) 3 precursor (MTEOS). Because thousands of fluorescent dye
molecules are encapsulated in the silica-based matrix, the dye-doped nanoparticles are extremely
bright and photostable. Their surfaces were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and
biocompatible chemical reagents. The highly intensive luminescent nanoparticles were combined with
specific bacterial and breast cancer antigen antibodies. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can
identify a variety of bacterium, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, through antibody–antigen
interaction and recognition. A highly sensitive breast cancer cell detection has been achieved with
th...

2013/08/15 - 06:44

Modelling amyloid fibril formation kinetics: mechanisms of nucleation and growth

Amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils are self-assembling protein nanostructures, of interest for their
robust material properties and inherent biological compatibility as well as their putative role in a
number of debilitating mammalian disorders. Understanding fibril formation is essential to the
development of strategies to control, manipulate or prevent fibril growth. As such, this area of
research has attracted significant attention over the last half century. This review describes a
number of different models that have been formulated to describe the kinetics of fibril assembly. We
describe the macroscopic implications of mechanisms in which secondary processes such as secondary
nucleation, fragmentation or branching dominate the assembly pathway, compared to mechanisms
dominated by the influence of primary nucleation. We further describe how experimental data can be
analysed with respect to the predictions of kinetic models.

2013/08/15 - 06:44

Various shape memory effects of stimuli-responsive shape memory polymers

One-step dual-shape memory polymers (SMPs) recover their original (permanent) shape upon small
variation of environmental conditions such as temperature, electric field, light, magnetic field,
and solvent/chemicals. For advanced applications such as aerospace and medical devices, complicated,
multiple-step, spatially controllable, and two-way shape memory effects (SMEs) are required. In the
past decade, researchers have devoted great effort to improve the versatility of the SME of SMPs to
meet the needs of advanced applications. This paper is intended to review the up-to-date research
endeavors on advanced SMEs. The problems facing the various SMPs are discussed. The challenges and
opportunities for future research are discussed.

2013/08/14 - 05:10

Novel fluorescent carbonic nanomaterials for sensing and imaging

Small brightly fluorescent carbon nanoparticles have emerged as a new class of materials important
for sensing and imaging applications. We analyze comparatively the properties of nanodiamonds,
graphene and graphene oxide ‘dots’, of modified carbon nanotubes and of diverse carbon nanoparticles
known as ‘C-dots’ obtained by different methods. The mechanisms of their light absorption and
luminescence emission are still unresolved and the arguments are presented for their common origin.
Regarding present and potential applications, we provide critical comparison with the other types of
fluorescence reporters, such as organic dyes and semiconductor quantum dots. Their most prospective
applications in sensing (based on the changes of intensity, FRET and lifetime) and in imaging
technologies on the level of living cells and whole bodies are overviewed. The possibilities for
design on their basis of multifunctional nanocomposites on a broader scale of theranostics are
outlined.

2013/08/13 - 04:39

Parton momentum and helicity distributions in the nucleon

We review the current status of spin-averaged and spin-dependent parton distribution functions
(PDFs) of the nucleon. After presenting the formalism used to fit PDFs in modern global data
analyses, we discuss constraints placed on the PDFs by specific data types. We give representative
examples of unpolarized and polarized PDFs and their errors, and list open questions in global
quantum chromodynamics fitting. Finally, we anticipate how future facilities, with fixed-target and
collider experiments, may impact our knowledge of PDFs and reduce their uncertainties.

2013/08/06 - 18:46

The meaning of interior tomography

The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for the collection of un-truncated
projections and the reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical
foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to
theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and
practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for
x-ray computed tomography. Then, it was elevated to have the status of a general imaging principle.
Finally, a novel framework known as ‘omni-tomography’ is being developed for a grand fusion of
multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features.

2013/08/02 - 16:22

Microinjection molding of microsystem components: new aspects in improving performance

Microinjection molding (µIM) is considered to be one of the most flexible, reliable and cost
effective manufacturing routes to form plastic micro-components for microsystems. The molding
machine, mold tool fabrication, material selection and process controlling in this specific field
have been greatly developed over the past decades. This review aims to present the new trends
towards improving micro-component performance by reviewing the latest developments in this area and
by considering potential directions. The key concerns in product and mold designing, essential
factors in simulation, and micro-morphology and resultant properties are evaluated and discussed. In
addition, the applications, variant processes and outlook for µIM are presented. Throughout this
review, decisive considerations in seeking improved performance for microsystem components are
highlighted.

2013/08/01 - 17:08

Sheaths in laboratory and space plasmas

The sheaths that occur at surfaces in laboratory and space plasmas are reviewed with an emphasis on
numerical models that can be solved with modest computational resources. The surfaces in plasma may
be the interior walls of confinement devices or inserted probes. Fluid and kinetic models are
presented in some detail, and particle-in-cell models are discussed briefly. The numerical methods
find the spatial profile of the potential, the particle densities near the surfaces and the current
to the surfaces. Maxwellian electrons and cold ions are assumed at the outset and subsequently the
models are expanded to encompass (1) multiple electron populations, (2) multiple ion species, (3)
finite ion temperature, (4) surfaces that emit electrons such as heated cathodes or emissive probes
and (5) surfaces that emit plasma as in the Q-machine. These complications may produce nonmonotonic
sheaths in which the first derivative of the potential changes sign or double layers in which the
second...

2013/07/31 - 13:59

Study on terahertz emission and optical/terahertz pulse responses with superconductors

Recent progress in terahertz technology has enabled precise investigation of the ultrafast dynamics
of excited carriers, nonequilibrium state and nonlinear response of superconductors, resulting in
the proposal of novel optoelectronic device applications based on such ultrafast perturbation of
supercarriers in the terahertz frequency region. In this paper, we focus on exploratory research in
the field of superconductor terahertz science and technology, and present a review of
superconducting terahertz sources and the response of superconductors excited by ultrashort
electromagnetic pulses, including optical pulses and high-intensity THz pulses.

2013/07/29 - 19:48

Charge-ordering transition in (TMTTF) 2 X explored via dilatometry

Charge-ordering phenomena have been highly topical over the past few years. A phase transition
towards a charge-ordered state has been observed experimentally in several classes of materials.
Among them, many studies have been devoted to the family of quasi-one-dimensional organic
charge-transfer salts (TMTTF) 2 X, where (TMTTF) stands for tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene and X for
a monovalent anion (X = PF 6 , AsF 6 and SbF 6 ). However, the relationship between the electron
localization phenomena and the role of the lattice distortion in stabilizing the charge-ordering
pattern is poorly documented in the literature. Here we present a brief overview of selected
literature results, with emphasis placed on recent thermal expansion experiments probing the
charge-ordering transition of these salts.

2013/07/29 - 19:48

Advances in first-principles modelling of point defects in UO 2 : f electron correlations and the issue of local energy minima

Over the last decade, a significant amount of work has been devoted to point defect behaviour in UO
2 using approximations beyond density functional theory (DFT), in particularDFT + U and hybrid
functionals for correlated electrons. We review the results of these studies from calculations of
bulk UO 2 properties to the more recent determination of activation energies for self-diffusion in
UO 2 , as well as a comparison with their experimental counterparts. We also discuss the efficiency
of the three known methods developed to circumvent the presence of metastable states, namely
occupation matrix control, U -ramping and quasi-annealing.

2013/07/29 - 19:48

Anisotropic hydrodynamics for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

The recently developed framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is reviewed. Detailed discussion of
the thermodynamic properties of locally anisotropic systems of particles is given. Dynamic equations
determining the space–time evolution of highly-anisotropic fluid are presented. The main features of
the model are discussed and the relation to standard hydrodynamic frameworks is shown. Using
realistic modeling of the initial conditions and the freeze-out process we apply the model to the
ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. Various possible
scenarios of the anisotropy evolution inspired by microscopic models are analyzed. With the assumed
form of the entropy source term, the impact of large momentum-space anisotropies in the early stages
of evolution on the observables typically measured in the experiment is shown.

2013/07/26 - 05:23

Novel technologies and configurations of superconducting magnets for MRI

A review of non-traditional approaches and emerging trends in superconducting magnets for MRI is
presented. Novel technologies and concepts have arisen in response to new clinical imaging needs,
changes in market cost structure, and the realities of newly developing markets. Among key trends
are an increasing emphasis on patient comfort and the need for ‘greener’ magnets with reduced helium
usage. The paper starts with a brief overview of the well-optimized conventional MR magnet
technology that presently firmly occupies the dominant position in the imaging market up to 9.4 T.
Non-traditional magnet geometries, with an emphasis on openness, are reviewed. The prospects of MgB
2 and high-temperature superconductors for MRI applications are discussed. In many cases the
introduction of novel technologies into a cost-conscious commercial market will be stimulated by
growing needs for advanced customized procedures, and specialty scanners such as orthopedic or head
imagers ca...

2013/07/20 - 05:51

Double field theory: a pedagogical review

Double field theory (DFT) is a proposal to incorporate T-duality, a distinctive symmetry of string
theory, as a symmetry of a field theory defined on a double configuration space. The aim of this
review is to provide a pedagogical presentation of DFT and its applications. We first introduce some
basic ideas on T-duality and supergravity in order to proceed to the construction of generalized
diffeomorphisms and an invariant action on the double space. Steps towards the construction of a
geometry on the double space are discussed. We then address generalized Scherk–Schwarz
compactifications of DFT and their connection to gauged supergravity and flux compactifications. We
also discuss U-duality extensions and present a brief parcours on worldsheet approaches to DFT.
Finally, we provide a summary of other developments and applications that are not discussed in
detail in the review.

2013/07/18 - 17:01

Liquid tunable microlenses based on MEMS techniques

The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for
miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses,
tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using
micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens
generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the
recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses
are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses
involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven and those integrated within
microfluidic systems.

2013/07/17 - 17:52

In vivo proton range verification: a review

Protons are an interesting modality for radiotherapy because of their well defined range and
favourable depth dose characteristics. On the other hand, these same characteristics lead to added
uncertainties in their delivery. This is particularly the case at the distal end of proton dose
distributions, where the dose gradient can be extremely steep. In practice however, this gradient is
rarely used to spare critical normal tissues due to such worries about its exact position in the
patient. Reasons for this uncertainty are inaccuracies and non-uniqueness of the calibration from CT
Hounsfield units to proton stopping powers, imaging artefacts (e.g. due to metal implants) and
anatomical changes of the patient during treatment. In order to improve the precision of proton
therapy therefore, it would be extremely desirable to verify proton range in vivo , either prior to,
during, or after therapy. In this review, we describe and compare state-of-the art in vivo proton
rang...

2013/07/17 - 17:52

Advanced giant magnetoresistance technology for measurement applications

Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors are considered one of the first real applications of
nanotechnology. They consist of nm-thick layered structures where ferromagnetic metals are
sandwiched by nonmagnetic metals. Such multilayered films produce a large change in resistance
(typically 10 to 20%) when subjected to a magnetic field, compared with a maximum change of a few
per cent for other types of magnetic sensors. This technology has been intensively used in read
heads for hard disk drives and now increasingly finds applications due to the high sensitivity and
signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally these sensors are compatible with miniaturization and thus offer
a high spatial resolution combined with a frequency range up to the 100 MHz regime and simple
electronic conditioning. In this review, we first discuss the basics of the underlying
magnetoresistance effects in layered structures and then present three prominent examples for future
applications: in the field of current sen...

2013/07/16 - 16:11

Molecular modeling of protein materials: case study of elastin

Molecular modeling of protein materials is a quickly growing area of research that has produced
numerous contributions in fields ranging from structural engineering to medicine and biology. We
review here the history and methods commonly employed in molecular modeling of protein materials,
emphasizing the advantages for using modeling as a complement to experimental work. We then consider
a case study of the protein elastin, a critically important ‘mechanical protein’ to exemplify the
approach in an area where molecular modeling has made a significant impact. We outline the
progression of computational modeling studies that have considerably enhanced our understanding of
this important protein which endows elasticity and recoil to the tissues it is found in, including
the skin, lungs, arteries and the heart. A vast collection of literature has been directed at
studying the structure and function of this protein for over half a century, the first molecular
dynamics study of elasti...

2013/07/13 - 08:45

Advances in the theory of III–V nanowire growth dynamics

Nanowire (NW) crystal growth via the vapour–liquid–solid mechanism is a complex dynamic process
involving interactions between many atoms of various thermodynamic states. With increasing speed
over the last few decades many works have reported on various aspects of the growth mechanisms, both
experimentally and theoretically. We will here propose a general continuum formalism for growth
kinetics based on thermodynamic parameters and transition state kinetics. We use the formalism
together with key elements of recent research to present a more overall treatment of III–V NW
growth, which can serve as a basis to model and understand the dynamical mechanisms in terms of the
basic control parameters, temperature and pressures/beam fluxes. Self-catalysed GaAs NW growth on Si
substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is used as a model system.

2013/07/13 - 08:45

Atoms and molecules in intense laser fields: gauge invariance of theory and models

Gauge invariance was discovered in the development of classical electromagnetism and was required
when the latter was formulated in terms of the scalar and vector potentials. It is now considered to
be a fundamental principle of nature, stating that different forms of these potentials yield the
same physical description: they describe the same electromagnetic field as long as they are related
to each other by gauge transformations. Gauge invariance can also be included into the quantum
description of matter interacting with an electromagnetic field by assuming that the wavefunction
transforms under a given local unitary transformation. The result of this procedure is a quantum
theory describing the coupling of electrons, nuclei and photons. Therefore, it is a very important
concept: it is used in almost every field of physics and it has been generalized to describe
electroweak and strong interactions in the standard model of particles. A review of quantum
mechanical gauge invaria...

2013/07/09 - 18:51

Engineering novel optical lattices

Optical lattices have developed into a widely used and highly recognized tool to study many-body
quantum physics with special relevance for solid state type systems. One of the most prominent
reasons for this success is the high degree of tunability in the experimental setups. While at the
beginning quasi-static, cubic geometries were mainly explored, the focus of the field has now
shifted toward new lattice topologies and the dynamical control of lattice structures. In this
review we intend to give an overview of the progress recently achieved in this field on the
experimental side. In addition, we discuss theoretical proposals exploiting specifically these novel
lattice geometries.

2013/07/05 - 09:47

Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed

The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new
scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape
evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology
(especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such
findings is often newly available decimeter resolution ‘bare Earth’ geodetic images, derived from
airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a
half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the
invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units,
chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it
possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense
vegetation or shallow water. To il...

2013/07/05 - 09:47

Microsystems for cell-based electrophysiology

Among the electrophysiology techniques, the voltage clamp and its subsequent scaling to smaller
mammalian cells, the so-called patch clamp, led to fundamental discoveries in the last century,
revealing the ionic mechanisms and the role of single-ion channels in the generation and propagation
of action potentials through excitable membranes (e.g. nerves and muscles). Since then, these
techniques have gained a reputation as the gold standard of studying cellular ion channels owing to
their high accuracy and rich information content via direct measurements under a controlled membrane
potential. However, their delicate and skill-laden procedure has put a serious constrain on the
throughput and their immediate utilization in the discovery of new cures targeting ion channels
until researchers discovered ‘lab-on-a-chip’ as a viable platform for the automation of these
techniques into a reliable high-throughput screening functional assay on ion channels. This review
examines the innovati...

2013/07/04 - 05:48

Nanocapsules for drug delivery through the skin barrier by tissue-tolerable plasma

For many years, several attempts have been made to enhance skin penetration by chemical, physical or
mechanical manipulation to reduce the barrier function of the skin. The present study demonstrates
the possibility of penetration enhancement for 400 nm sized nanocapsules loaded with a model drug
consisting of a fluorescent dye by the application of tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP). Therefore, the
stability of the nanocapsules and their penetration through the skin barrier prior to and in
combination with TTP application was evaluated. The results revealed that the penetration of the
nanocapsules could be effectively enhanced when applied in combination with TTP, hence delivering
the model drug unaffected by plasma into deeper skin layers. The stability testing showed no
significant structural changes of the nanocapsules after contact with TTP. Thus, the present study
introduces a new strategy for the penetration enhancement of substances by the combined utilization
of nanocapsules ...

2013/07/02 - 23:00

Element synthesis in the supernova environment and neutrino oscillations

Neutrino–nucleus reaction processes play important roles in the synthesis of 7 Li, 11 B, 138 La, 180
Ta and other elements in explosive environments realized in supernovae. We have constructed new
shell-model Hamiltonians based on recent progress in the physics of exotic nuclei. The shell
evolutions toward drip-lines and the spin responses of nuclei are found to be remarkably improved by
the new Hamiltonians. Proper tensor components in the Hamiltonians are shown to be important for the
improvements. We then applied these Hamiltonians to calculate the neutrino–nucleus reaction cross
sections, and obtained more precise theoretical estimates of supernova nucleosynthesis of 7 Li, 11 B
and 55 Mn etc, including the neutrino processes. Finally, we propose a new method for determining
the neutrino oscillation parameter, the mixing angle θ 13 , and the mass hierarchy, by making use of
the strong dependence of ...

2013/06/27 - 11:43

Ferromagnetic enhanced inductive plasma sources

The subject of this paper is the review of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources enhanced with
ferromagnetic cores, FMICP, found in various applications, including plasma fusion, space
propulsion, light sources, plasma chemistry and plasma processing of materials. The history of
FMICP, early attempts for their realization, some recent developments and examples of successful
FMICP devices are given here. A comparative study of FMICPs with conventional ICPs demonstrates
their certain advantages in power transfer efficiency, power factor and their ability to operate
without rf plasma potentials at low plasma densities and with small gaps, while effectively
controlling plasma density profile.

2013/06/26 - 08:58

Unconventional states of bosons with the synthetic spin–orbit coupling

The spin–orbit coupling with bosons gives rise to novel properties that are absent in usual bosonic
systems. Under very general conditions, the conventional ground state wavefunctions of bosons are
constrained by the ‘no-node’ theorem to be positive definite. In contrast, the linear dependence of
the spin–orbit coupling leads to complex-valued condensate wavefunctions beyond this theorem. In
this paper, we review the study of this class of unconventional Bose–Einstein condensations focusing
on their topological properties. Both the 2D Rashba and 3D ##IMG##
[http://ej.iop.org/images/0953-4075/46/13/134001/jpb460638ieqn1.gif] {$\vec{\sigma }\cdot \vec{p}$}
-type Weyl spin–orbit couplings give rise to Landau-level-like quantization of single-particle
levels in the harmonic trap. Interacting condensates develop the half-quantum vortex structure
spontaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and exhibit topological spin textures of the
skyrmion type. In particu...

2013/06/25 - 09:13

Unconventional applications of wire bonding create opportunities for microsystem integration

Automatic wire bonding is a highly mature, cost-efficient and broadly available back-end process,
intended to create electrical interconnections in semiconductor chip packaging. Modern production
wire-bonding tools can bond wires with speeds of up to 30 bonds per second with placement accuracies
of better than ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/0960-1317/23/8/083001/jmm462139ieqn1.gif]
{$\mathrm{2\;\unicode{xb5}\mathrm{m}}$} , and the ability to form each wire individually into a
desired shape. These features render wire bonding a versatile tool also for integrating wires in
applications other than electrical interconnections. Wire bonding has been adapted and used to
implement a variety of innovative microstructures. This paper reviews unconventional uses and
applications of wire bonding that have been reported in the literature. The used wire-bonding
techniques and materials are discussed, and the implemented applications are presented. They include
the real...

2013/06/22 - 08:06

Structure, energetics, and electronic states of III–V compound polytypes

Recently several hexagonal polytypes such as 2H, 4H, and 6H have been discovered for conventional
III–V semiconductor compounds in addition to the cubic 3C zinc-blende polytype by investigating
nanorods grown in the [111] direction in different temperature regimes. Also III-mononitrides
crystallizing in the hexagonal 2H wurtzite structure under ambient conditions can be deposited in
zinc-blende geometry using various growth techniques. The polytypic crystal structures influence the
local electronic properties and the internal electric fields due to the spontaneous polarization in
non-cubic crystals. In this paper we give a comprehensive review on the thermodynamic, structural,
and electronic properties of twelve Al, Ga, and In antimonides, arsenides, phosphides, and nitrides
as derived from ab initio calculations. Their lattice parameters, energetic stability, and
characteristic band structure energies are carefully discussed and related to the atomic geometries
of t...

2013/06/19 - 23:30

Low-voltage circuit breaker arcs—simulation and measurements

As one of the most important electrical components, the low-voltage circuit breaker (LVCB) has been
widely used for protection in all types of low-voltage distribution systems. In particular, the
low-voltage dc circuit breaker has been arousing great research interest in recent years. In this
type of circuit breaker, an air arc is formed in the interrupting process which is a 3D transient
arc in a complex chamber geometry with splitter plates. Controlling the arc evolution and the
extinction are the most significant problems. This paper reviews published research works referring
to LVCB arcs. Based on the working principle, the arcing process is divided into arc commutation,
arc motion and arc splitting; we focus our attention on the modelling and measurement of these
phases. In addition, previous approaches in papers of the critical physical phenomenon treatment are
discussed, such as radiation, metal erosion, wall ablation and turbulence in the air arc.
Recommendations for air ...

2013/06/19 - 00:25