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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Kolekcje IOP - REVIEWS

Reviews

Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between
molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition
element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical
sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the
presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of
affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in
this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon
nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite
increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting
specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection,
extreme selectivity, strong bi...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-0233/25/3/032001 2014/02/18 - 17:46

Quantum gravity is sometimes considered as a kind of metaphysical speculation. In this review, we
show that, although still extremely difficult to reach, observational signatures can in fact be
expected. The early universe is an invaluable laboratory to probe ‘Planck scale physics’. Focusing
on loop quantum gravity as one of the best candidate for a non-perturbative and
background-independent quantization of gravity, we detail some expected features.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0264-9381/31/5/053001 2014/02/13 - 16:33

Most sensors are based on ceramic or semiconducting substrates, which have no flexibility or
biocompatibility. Polymer-based sensors have been the subject of much attention due to their ability
to collect molecules on their sensing surface with flexibility. Beyond polymer-based sensors, the
recent discovery of cellulose as a smart material paved the way to the use of cellulose paper as a
potential candidate for mechanical as well as electronic applications such as actuators and sensors.
Several different paper-based sensors have been investigated and suggested. In this paper, we review
the potential of cellulose materials for paper-based application devices, and suggest their
feasibility for chemical and biosensor applications.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/25/9/092001 2014/02/13 - 16:33

We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means,
concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field
(EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way
to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered
systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect
thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies.
The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or
ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy
multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems
decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density
chang...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/26/9/093001 2014/02/13 - 16:33

Quantum information science has recently attracted a lot of attention. Its applications include
secure communication, quantum computation, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology. In these
applications, photons are one of the most important physical quanta for their tolerance to
decoherence. In this manuscript, we review the recent progress in single-photon/entangled-photon
emitters and their applications: heralded single-photon sources using parametric downconversion and
their application to quantum key distribution, highly indistinguishable heralded single-photon
sources, fiber-coupled solid-state single-photon sources, and ultrabroadband-frequency entanglement
generation.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1347-4065/53/3/030101 2014/02/13 - 16:33

We review the theoretical and experimental progress in the field of coherent electron emission from
simple molecules by the impact of energetic charged particles. We describe in detail the different
theoretical approaches to tackle the single ionization of diatomic molecules by the impact of ions
and electrons. Furthermore, we compare with experimental measurements, where available. The case of
photon impact is also considered, in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the physics involved.
An attempt is made to emphasize the phenomenology behind these molecular processes and to discuss
the advantages and drawbacks of the different theoretical approaches. Additionally, we highlight the
differences and similarities between the particular projectiles which initiate the process, namely
ions, electrons or photons.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075/47/4/042001 2014/02/04 - 23:19

Carbon nanotubes are fascinating nano-objects not only from a fundamental point of view but also
with respect to their remarkable properties, holding great potential in new materials design. When
combined with organic molecules, these properties can be enhanced or modulated in order to fulfil
the demand in domains as diverse as molecular electronics, biomaterials or even construction
engineering, to name a few. To adequately conceive these hybrid materials it is essential to fully
appreciate the nature of molecule–carbon nanotube interactions. In this review, we will discuss some
relevant fundamental and applied research done on encapsulated molecules in carbon nanotubes. We
will particularly focus on the weak and van der Waals interactions which rule the molecule–tube
coupling. Therefore a small state of the art on the theoretical methods used to describe these
interactions is presented here. Then, we will discuss various applications of molecular
encapsulation, where we will co...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/8/083001 2014/02/04 - 23:19

In this short review we present a self-contained exposition of the effective field theory method
approach to model the dynamics of gravitationally bound compact binary systems within the
post-Newtonian approximation to General Relativity. Applications of this approach to the
conservative sector, as well as to the radiation emission by the binary system are discussed in
their salient features. Most important results are discussed, as in-depths and details can be found
in the referenced papers.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0264-9381/31/4/043001 2014/01/29 - 06:52

Lanthanides represent the chemical elements from lanthanum to lutetium. They intrinsically exhibit
some very exciting photophysical properties, which can be further enhanced by incorporating the
lanthanide ion into organic or inorganic sensitizing structures. A very popular approach is to
conjugate the lanthanide ion to an organic chromophore structure forming lanthanide chelates.
Another approach, which has quickly gained interest, is to incorporate the lanthanide ions into
nanoparticle structures, thus attaining improved specific activity and a large surface area for
biomolecule immobilization. Lanthanide-based reporters, when properly shielded from the quenching
effects of water, usually express strong luminescence emission, multiple narrow emission lines
covering a wide wavelength range, and exceptionally long excited state lifetimes enabling time-gated
luminescence detection. Because of these properties, lanthanide-based reporters have found
widespread applications in variou...

http://iopscience.iop.org/2050-6120/2/1/012001 2014/01/23 - 23:00

The progress in the growth of nitride-based laser diodes (LDs) made by plasma-assisted molecular
beam epitaxy (PAMBE) is reviewed. In this work we describe the GaN and InGaN growth peculiarities,
p-type doping efficiency, and the properties of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) grown by PAMBE. We
demonstrate continuous wave (cw) LDs operating in the range from 410 to 482 nm. These LDs were grown
on low dislocation (0 0 0 1) c -plane bulk GaN substrate, which allow one to fabricate cw LDs with a
lifetime exceeding 2000 h. Also, the ultraviolet LDs at 388 nm grown on (2 0 −2 1) semipolar
substrates are discussed. The use of high active nitrogen fluxes up to2 µ m/h during the InGaN
growth was essential for pushing the lasing wavelengths of PAMBE LDs above 460 nm. Recent
advancement of InGaN growth by PAMBE allows one to demonstrate high-quality quantum QWs and
excellent morphology for thick layers. We discuss the influence of LDs design on their parameters
such as lasing thresho...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/7/073001 2014/01/23 - 23:00

In this topical review we discuss recent advances in the use of physical insight into the way
biological materials function, to design novel engineered materials ‘from scratch’, or from the
level of fundamental building blocks upwards and by using computational multiscale methods that link
chemistry to material function. We present studies that connect advances in multiscale hierarchical
material structuring with material synthesis and testing, review case studies of wood and other
biological materials, and illustrate how engineered fiber composites and bulk materials are
designed, modeled, and then synthesized and tested experimentally. The integration of experiment and
simulation in multiscale design opens new avenues to explore the physics of materials from a
fundamental perspective, and using complementary strengths from models and empirical techniques.
Recent developments in this field illustrate a new paradigm by which complex material functionality
is achieved through hier...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/26/7/073101 2014/01/23 - 23:00

Current efforts in the biomedical sciences and related interdisciplinary fields are focused on
gaining a molecular understanding of health and disease, which is a problem of daunting complexity
that spans many orders of magnitude in characteristic length scales, from small molecules that
regulate cell function to cell ensembles that form tissues and organs working together as an
organism. In order to uncover the molecular nature of the emergent properties of a cell, it is
essential to measure multiple-cell components simultaneously in the same cell. In turn, cell
heterogeneity requires multiple-cells to be measured in order to understand health and disease in
the organism. This review summarizes current efforts towards a data-driven framework that leverages
single-cell technologies to build robust signatures of healthy and diseased phenotypes. While some
approaches focus on multicolor flow cytometry data and other methods are designed to analyze
high-content image-based screens, ...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/26/7/073102 2014/01/23 - 23:00

Polymer based MEMS and microfluidic devices have the advantages of mechanical flexibility, lower
fabrication cost and faster processing over silicon based ones. Also, many polymer materials are
considered biocompatible and can be used in biological applications. A valuable class of polymers
for microfabricated devices is piezoelectric functional polymers. In addition to the normal
advantages of polymers, piezoelectric polymers can be directly used as an active material in
different transduction applications. This paper gives an overview of piezoelectric polymers based on
their operating principle. This includes three main categories: bulk piezoelectric polymers,
piezocomposites and voided charged polymers. State-of-the-art piezopolymers of each category are
presented with a focus on fabrication techniques and material properties. A comparison between the
different piezoelectric polymers and common inorganic piezoelectric materials (PZT, ZnO, AlN and
PMN–PT) is also provided in te...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0964-1726/23/3/033001 2014/01/21 - 21:31

In this work we briefly review recent investigations concerning the growth morphology of thin
metallic films on the Mo(110) and Ni 3 Al(111) surfaces, and Fe and copper phthalocyanine (C 32 H 16
N 8 Cu) on the Al 2 O 3 /Ni 3 Al(111) surface. Comparison of Ag, Au, Sn, and Pb growth on the
Mo(110) surface has shown a number of similarities between these adsorption systems, except that
surface alloy formation has only been observed in the case of Sn and Au. In the Pb/Mo(110) and Pb/Ni
3 Al(111) adsorption systems selective formation of uniform Pb island heights during metal thin film
growth has been observed and interpreted in terms of quantum size effects. Furthermore, our studies
showed that Al 2 O 3 on Ni 3 Al(111) exhibits a large superstructure in which the unit cell has a
commensurate relation with the substrate lattice. In addition, copper phthalocyanine chemisorbed
weakly onto...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-8984/26/5/053001 2014/01/21 - 21:31

Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction
and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly
interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological
knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical
framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease
epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the
recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can
be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far
greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical
aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics:
heterogeneously structured populatio...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0034-4885/77/2/026602 2014/01/21 - 21:31

Radiation dose in x-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a topic of high interest due to the
increasing numbers of CT examinations performed worldwide. This review aims to present an overview
of current concepts for both scanner output metrics and for patient dosimetry and will comment on
their strengths and weaknesses. Controversial issues such as the appropriateness of the CT dose
index (CTDI) are discussed in detail. A review of approaches to patient dose assessment presently in
practice, of the dose levels encountered and options for further dose optimization are also given
and discussed. Patient dose assessment remains a topic for further improvement and for international
consensus. All approaches presently in use are based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Estimates for
effective dose are established, but they are crude and not patient-specific; organ dose estimates
are rarely available. Patient- and organ-specific dose estimates can be provided with adequate
accuracy and...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9155/59/3/R129 2014/01/18 - 11:10

We review the principles, techniques and results from primary acoustic gas thermometry (AGT). Since
the establishment of ITS-90, the International Temperature Scale of 1990, spherical and
quasi-spherical cavity resonators have been used to realize primary AGT in the temperature range 7 K
to 552 K. Throughout the sub-range90 K < T < 384 K, at least two laboratories measured ( T − T 90 ).
(Here T is the thermodynamic temperature and T 90 is the temperature on ITS-90.) With a minor
exception, the resulting values of ( T − T 90 ) are mutually consistent within 3 × 10 −6 T . These
consistent measurements were obtained using helium and argon as thermometric gases inside cavities
that had radii ranging from 40 mm to 90 mm and that had walls made of copper or aluminium or
stainless steel. The AGT values of ( T − T 90 ) fall on a smooth curve that is outside ± u (

http://iopscience.iop.org/0026-1394/51/1/R1 2014/01/17 - 08:19

A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the
volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva
(359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently
healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common
convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical
class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance,
a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The
numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack
of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are
few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number
of vola...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1752-7163/8/1/014001 2014/01/14 - 19:41

Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed.
The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in
realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator
waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase
shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was
developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon
waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical
isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port
optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar
ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1468-6996/15/1/014602 2014/01/14 - 19:41

The development of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices over the past decade has attracted growing interest.
LOC devices aim to achieve the miniaturization, integration, automation and parallelization of
biological and chemical assays. One of the applications, the ability to effectively and accurately
manipulate and separate micro- and nano-scale particles in an aqueous solution, is particularly
appealing in biological, chemical and medical fields. Among the technologies that have been
developed and implemented in microfluidic microsystems for particle manipulation and separation
(such as mechanical, inertial, hydrodynamic, acoustic, optical, magnetic and electrical
methodologies), dielectrophoresis (DEP) may prove to be the most popular because of its label-free
nature, ability to manipulate neutral bioparticles, analyse with high selectivity and sensitivity,
compatibility with LOC devices, and easy and direct interface with electronics. The required spatial
electric non-uniformities for...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/6/063001 2014/01/10 - 08:50

As a new class of smart materials, shape memory polymers and their composites (SMPs and SMPCs) can
respond to specific external stimulus and remember the original shape. There are many types of
stimulus methods to actuate the deformation of SMPs and SMPCs, of which the thermal- and
electro-responsive components and structures are common. In this review, the general mechanism of
SMPs and SMPCs are first introduced, the stimulus methods are then discussed to demonstrate the
shape recovery effect, and finally, the applications of SMPs and SMPCs that are reinforced with
fiber materials in aerospace are reviewed. SMPC hinges and booms are discussed in the part on
components; the booms can be divided again into foldable SMPC truss booms, coilable SMPC truss booms
and storable tubular extendible member (STEM) booms. In terms of SMPC structures, the solar array
and deployable panel, reflector antenna and morphing wing are introduced in detail. Considering the
factors of weight, recovery ...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0964-1726/23/2/023001 2014/01/10 - 08:50

Coatings such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride (TiN) are employed in joint implants
due to their excellent tribological properties. Recently, graphite-like carbon (GLC) and tantalum
(Ta) have been proven to have good potential as coating as they possess mechanical properties
similar to bones—high hardness and high flexibility. The purpose of this systematic literature
review is to summarize the coating techniques of these four materials in order to compare their
mechanical properties and tribological outcomes. Eighteen studies published between January 2000 and
February 2013 have met the inclusion criteria for this review. Details of their fabrication
parameters, material and mechanical properties along with the tribological outcomes, such as
friction and wear rate, were identified and are presented in a systematic way. Although experiment
conditions varied, we conclude that Ta has the lowest wear rate compared to DLC, GLC and TiN because
it has a lower wear rate...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1468-6996/15/1/014402 2014/01/08 - 11:39

This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and
spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about
tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are
invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug
development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1 H, 31 P, chemical exchange saturation
transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13 C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level
dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven
effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9155/59/2/R65 2013/12/30 - 14:56

A large range of high-value manufactured parts require structures to be produced over large areas
(metres squared) at high-resolution (micrometres and smaller). Such manufacturing puts demands on
the metrology that is required to assure product quality. High-speed, in-line metrology solutions
are required to operate over large ranges with high-resolution. In this review, the use of optical
super-resolution techniques to enhance the dynamic range of surface topography measuring instruments
to allow them to be used in high dynamic range manufacturing scenarios will be highlighted. A brief
discussion of optical super-resolution will be given, followed by a presentation of applications
that may be able to benefit from optical super-resolution techniques, from the fields of
microelectronics, structured surfaces and roll-to-roll manufacturing.

http://iopscience.iop.org/2051-672X/2/2/023001 2013/12/23 - 13:22

Luminescent metal nanoclusters that consist of only several, to tens of, metal atoms and which
possess sizes comparable to the Fermi wavelength of electrons have recently attracted significant
attention. This new class of luminescent materials not only provides the missing link between atomic
and nanoparticle behaviors in metals but also they present abundant novel information for the
development of new applicable material systems to meet urgent needs in many areas (such as
ultrasensitive sensors for heavy metals, bioimaging, as well as information technology) mainly
because of their attractive characteristics, including ultra-small size, good dispersibility,
excellent biocompatibility and photostability. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the
controlled synthesis and application of luminescent metal nanoclusters, with a particular emphasis
on Pt, Mo, Bi and alloy clusters. We also speculate on their future and discuss potential
developments for their use in sensors,...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1468-6996/15/1/014205 2013/12/20 - 22:37

The majority of robotic vehicles that can be found today are bound to operations within a single
media (i.e. land, air or water). This is very rarely the case when considering locomotive
capabilities in natural systems. Utility for small robots often reflects the exact same problem
domain as small animals, hence providing numerous avenues for biological inspiration. This paper
begins to investigate the various modes of locomotion adopted by different genus groups in multiple
media as an initial attempt to determine the compromise in ability adopted by the animals when
achieving multi-modal locomotion. A review of current biologically inspired multi-modal robots is
also presented. The primary aim of this research is to lay the foundation for a generation of
vehicles capable of multi-modal locomotion, allowing ambulatory abilities in more than one media,
surpassing current capabilities. By identifying and understanding when natural systems use specific
locomotion mechanisms, when t...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-3190/9/1/011001 2013/12/17 - 14:24

Emerging fluorescence and bioluminescence tomography approaches have several common, yet several
distinct features from established emission tomographies of PET and SPECT. Although both nuclear and
optical imaging modalities involve counting of photons, nuclear imaging techniques collect the
emitted high energy (100–511 keV) photons after radioactive decay of radionuclides while optical
techniques count low-energy (1.5–4.1 eV) photons that are scattered and absorbed by tissues
requiring models of light transport for quantitative image reconstruction. Fluorescence imaging has
been recently translated into clinic demonstrating high sensitivity, modest tissue penetration
depth, and fast, millisecond image acquisition times. As a consequence, the promise of quantitative
optical tomography as a complement of small animal PET and SPECT remains high. In this review, we
summarize the different instrumentation, methodological approaches and schema for inverse image
reconstructions for opt...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9155/59/1/R1 2013/12/17 - 14:24

Lasers with ultra-low operating energy are desired for use in chip-to-chip and on-chip optical
interconnects. If we are to reduce the operating energy, we must reduce the active volume.
Therefore, a photonic crystal (PhC) laser with a wavelength-scale cavity has attracted a lot of
attention because a PhC provides a large Q -factor with a small volume. To improve this device's
performance, we employ an embedded active region structure in which the wavelength-scale active
region is buried with an InP PhC slab. This structure enables us to achieve effective confinement of
both carriers and photons, and to improve the thermal resistance of the device. Thus, we have
obtained a large external differential quantum efficiency of 55% and an output power of −10 dBm by
optical pumping. For electrical pumping, we use a lateral p–i–n structure that employs Zn diffusion
and Si ion implantation for p-type and n-type doping, respectively. We have achieved
room-temperature continuous-wave o...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/2/023001 2013/12/13 - 13:47

During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical,
magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas
including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the
application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because
nanoparticles in the size range of 2–100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular
level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations
have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can
they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to
regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms
as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress.
This review will present recent app...

http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/25/1/012001 2013/12/12 - 12:26

Micro hot embossing of thermoplastic polymers is a promising process to fabricate high precision and
high quality features in micro/nano scale. This technology has experienced more than 40 years
development and has been partially applied in industrial production. Three modes of micro hot
embossing including plate-to-plate, roll-to-plate and roll-to-roll have been successively developed
to meet the increasing demand for large-area patterned polymeric films. This review surveys recent
progress of micro hot embossing in terms of polymeric material behavior, embossing process and
corresponding apparatus. Besides, challenges and innovations in mold fabrication techniques are
comprehensively summarized and industrial applications are systematically cataloged as well.
Finally, technical challenges and future trends are presented for micro hot embossing of
thermoplastic polymers.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0960-1317/24/1/013001 2013/12/12 - 12:26

We review some connections between quantum information and statistical mechanics. We focus on three
sets of results for classical spin models. First, we show that the partition function of all
classical spin models (including models in different dimensions, different types of many-body
interactions, different symmetries, etc) can be mapped to the partition function of a single model.
Second, we give efficient quantum algorithms to estimate the partition function of various classical
spin models, such as the Ising or the Potts model. The proofs of these two results are based on a
mapping from partition functions to quantum states and to quantum circuits, respectively. Finally,
we show how classical spin models can be used to describe certain fluctuating lattices appearing in
models of discrete quantum gravity.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075/46/24/243001 2013/12/05 - 19:42

Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely
control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as
biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to
the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology
holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic
biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples
and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials.
In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic
nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically
impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1468-6996/15/1/014401 2013/12/04 - 05:15

Electro-absorption from GeSi heterostructures is receiving growing attention as a high performance
optical modulator for short distance optical interconnects. Ge incorporation with Si allows strong
modulation mechanism using the Franz–Keldysh effect and the quantum-confined Stark effect from bulk
and quantum well structures at telecommunication wavelengths. In this review, we discuss the current
state of knowledge and the on-going challenges concerning the development of high performance GeSi
electro-absorption modulators. We also provide feasible future prospects concerning this research
topic.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1468-6996/15/1/014601 2013/12/04 - 05:15

The special mechanical properties of nanoparticles allow for novel applications in many fields,
e.g., surface engineering, tribology and nanomanufacturing/nanofabrication. In this review, the
basic physics of the relevant interfacial forces to nanoparticles and the main measuring techniques
are briefly introduced first. Then, the theories and important results of the mechanical properties
between nanoparticles or the nanoparticles acting on a surface, e.g., hardness, elastic modulus,
adhesion and friction, as well as movement laws are surveyed. Afterwards, several of the main
applications of nanoparticles as a result of their special mechanical properties, including
lubricant additives, nanoparticles in nanomanufacturing and nanoparticle reinforced composite
coating, are introduced. A brief summary and the future outlook are also given in the final part.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/47/1/013001 2013/12/04 - 05:15

I review the major research activities of my groups at the National University of Information
Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics (St Petersburg) and Nonlinear Physics Center (Canberra,
Australia) in the field of electromagnetic metamaterials operating at microwave and optical
frequencies.

http://iopscience.iop.org/2043-6262/5/1/013001 2013/11/28 - 18:23

Some aspects of the thermodynamics and mechanics of solid surfaces, in particular with respect to
surface stress and surface energy, are reviewed. The purpose is to enlighten the deep differences
between these two physical quantities. We consider successively the case of atomic flat surfaces and
the case of vicinal surfaces characterized by surface stress discontinuities. Finally, experimental
examples, concerning Si surfaces, are described.

http://iopscience.iop.org/2043-6262/5/1/013002 2013/11/28 - 18:23

Reduction of the bit size in conventional magnetic recording media is becoming increasingly
difficult due to the superparamagnetic limit. Bit patterned media (BPM) has been proposed as a
replacement technology as it will enable hard disk areal densities to increase past 1 Tb in −2 .
Block copolymer directed self-assembly (BCP DSA) is the leading candidate for forming BPM due to its
ability to create uniform patterns over macroscopic areas. Here we review the latest research into
two different BCP DSA techniques: graphoepitaxy and chemoepitaxy (or chemical prepatterning). In
addition to assessing their potential for forming high density bit patterns, we also review current
approaches using these techniques for forming servo patterns, which are required for hard disk drive
(HDD) operation. Finally, we review the current state of UV nanoimprint lithography, which is the
favoured technique for enabling mass production of BPM HDDs.

http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/50/503001 2013/11/27 - 09:33

Logarithmic operators and logarithmic conformal field theories are reviewed. Prominent examples
considered here include c = −2 and c = 0 logarithmic conformal field theories. c = 0 logarithmic
conformal field theories are especially interesting since they describe some of the critical points
of a variety of longstanding problems involving a two dimensional quantum particle moving in a
spatially random potential, as well as critical two dimensional self-avoiding random walks and
percolation. Lack of classification of logarithmic conformal field theories remains a major
impediment to progress towards finding complete solutions to these problems.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/49/494003 2013/11/20 - 23:29

We review some of the developments in logarithmic conformal field theory from the vertex algebra
point of view. Several important examples of vertex operator (super)algebras of the triplet type are
discussed, including their representation theory. Particular emphasis is put on C 2 -cofiniteness of
these vertex algebras, a description of Zhu’s algebras and the construction of logarithmic modules.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/49/494005 2013/11/20 - 23:29

In this article, we review some aspects of logarithmic conformal field theories (LCFTs) which can be
inferred from the characters of irreducible submodules of indecomposable modules. We will mainly
consider the ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1751-8121/46/49/494007/jpa469489ieqn1.gif] {$\mathcal
{W}(2,2p-1,2p-1,2p-1)$} series of triplet algebras and a bit logarithmic extensions of the minimal
Virasoro models. Since in all known examples of LCFTs the vacuum representation of the maximally
extended chiral symmetry algebra is an irreducible submodule of a larger, indecomposable module, its
character provides a lot of non-trivial information about the theory such as a set of functions
which spans the space of all torus amplitudes. Despite such characters being modular forms of
inhomogeneous weight, they fit in the ADET -classification of fermionic sum representations. Thus,
they show that LCFTs naturally have to be taken into account when attempting to c...

http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/49/494007 2013/11/20 - 23:29