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Astronomia Astrofizyka

Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology

In present study the organophosphate was administered orally at the dose of 15 mg kg-1 of body weight to Swiss albino mice for 45 days to observe the effect on kidney of mice. The mice were then administered orally with Azolla filiculoides at the dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight per day for 30 days. The Kidney Function Test (KFT), lipid peroxidation and histopathology of kidney tissue were evaluated in respective treated groups. The study reveals that profenofos causes deleterious effect on biochemical parameters, as there was immense increase in the kidney function test levels. The histopathological observations also revealed high degree of degeneration in renal cells. But, after Azolla filiculoides administration for 30 days there was amelioration in the kidney function test levels as well as restoration in the nephrocytes reveals nephro-protective effect. The findings suggest that the Azolla filiculoides is the suitable antidote against arsenic induced toxicity and possesses nephroprotective activity. 2014/07/29 - 00:08

The present study aimed to evaluate the pattern of poisoning at a tertiary care hospital in South India and to study the socio-demographic profile of the same. Patients who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Center were included in the study. Patients were studied for a period of eight months retrospectively to record the incidence, age, sex, domicile distribution, education, occupation, marital and socioeconomic status. Type of poisoning, various reasons and nature of poisoning were noted. Ethical clearance was obtained before the study and then, data was collected. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total number of poisoning cases was 261. Demographic details were examined. The type of poisons was founded to be organophosphates, oleander seeds, snake bite, nail polish, rodenticide, alcohol (methanol), antifungal drugs, antipsychotic drugs, ant killer, endosulphan, food, hair dye, kerosene and miscellaneous. The study concludes that poisoning is a communal cause of hospital admissions. The most poisoning cases were observed with pesticides handled by the farmers in the agriculture fields. 2014/07/29 - 00:08

This study evaluates the testicular degeneration induced by Rhodinol-based incense using testicular histology, sperm characteristics, as well as testicular oxidative status bio-markers. Twenty four male adult albino rats (10-12 weeks old) weighing 200-230 g were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of six rats each. Group A served as the control group and the animals in this group were exposed to 1 g of natural solid air freshner. Groups B, C and D, were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 g of rhodinol-based incense smoke, respectively for 30-40 min every day for 62 days. All the exposures were via whole body inhalation. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after. The results obtained from this study showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the gross anatomical parameters of absolute and relative testicular weights in rats exposed to 2 g and 3 g rhodinol based incense when compared to the control group. The rhodinol-based incense exposed groups of rats also demonstrated a reduction of basal seminiferous epithelia, testicular atrophy, germinal aplasia and hypo-spermatozoa formation. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology and a significant (p<0.05) increase in total abnormal sperm morphology in group of animals exposed to 2 and 3 g rhodinol-based incense when compared to the control group. In addition, groups of animals exposed to 2 and 3 g rhodinol-based incense demonstrated a derangement in their oxidative status when compared to the control group as evidence by the significant (p<0.05) decreased in activities of superoxide peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, reduced glutathione and significant (p<0.05) increase malondialdehyde (a product of lipid perioxidation). Taken together, it was concluded that rhodinol-based incense produces testicular derangement in testicular histology, sperm parameters and oxidative status in albino rats. This derangement may be mediated at least in part through the oxidative pathway. 2014/05/28 - 10:29

Preparations from M. indica are commonly used for herbal concoctions.
This study aimed at investigating the effect of methanol extract of M. indica
on female sex hormones and ovary in Chinchilla rabbits with the view to finding
its pharmacodynamics. A total of 24 female Chinchilla rabbits aged 10 to 14
weeks was used for this study. The experimental groups designated group A (control),
B, C and D. Group A, B, C and D were orally administered the doses of 00, 500,
1000 and 1,500 mg kg-1 body weight of the methanol M. indica
extract, respectively. Serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone were
estimated using the microplate enzyme immunoassay method. Result showed significant
increase in the serum concentration of estradiol in a dose dependent manner
(p<0.05) while insignificant increase and insignificant decreases in progesterone
were observed in group B and treated groups C and D (p>0.05), respectively
when compared with the control group. Significant increase in weight gain and
significant decreases in weight gain were observed in group B and treated groups
C and D (p<0.05), respectively when compared with control group. Insignificant
decreases in the relative weight of the ovary were observed in the treated groups
B and C (p>0.05) while significant decrease was also observed in the ovaries
of treated group D (p<0.05) when compared with the control group. Microscopy
revealed cystic spaces and oedema in the ovary of group D- a dose dependent
effect. Hence, M. indica has the potential to affect serum concentration
of female sex hormones. 2014/05/28 - 10:29

This study was established to investigate the toxic effects of potassium dichromate
on sex hormones of female albino rats and the possible protective effects of
rice bran oil. This study was carried out on thirty weanling mature female albino
rats weighing between 120 and 140 g, divided randomly into 3 groups. Rats in
the 1st group were used as a control (group C ), the 2nd group of rats (group
E) received Potassium dichromate (20 mg kg-1, I/P) for 5 months,
while the 3rd group, group B, received both Potassium dichromate solution (20
mg kg-1, I/P) and rice bran oil (20 mg kg-1), with 1 h
in between for 5 months. Blood samples were collected from retro orbital venous
sinus in lithium heparin tubes every 30 days. Sexual hormones were determined
by ELISA technique. The study showed that potassium dichromate affects the levels
of sex hormones and that the rice bran oil has great effects in the prevention
of the toxic effects of potassium dichromate on sex hormones. 2014/05/28 - 10:29

Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxin. The present study was carried to evaluate the protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid and melatonin against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative stress to erythrocytes in rats. One hundred male albino rats were divided into five groups containing 20 rats each. Group I: (control) administered distilled water. Group II: (Cadmium exposed group) received cadmium chloride (4.4 mg kg-1 b.wt. of 1/20th of LD50) orally and once per day over a period of 10 weeks. Group III: (Cadmium+Alpha-lipoic acid treated group) received cadmium chloride (4.4 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and treated daily with alpha-lipoic acid (54 mg kg-1 b.wt./i.p). Group IV: (Cadmium+Melatonin treated group) received cadmium chloride (4.4 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and treated daily with melatonin (10 mg kg-1 b.wt./orally). Group V: (Cadmium+alpha-lipoic acid and melatonin treated group). Heparinized blood used for Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and hemoglobin determination. Plasma used for determination of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activities and urea, creatinine, total cholesterol and phospholipids concentrations. Moreover, erythrocyte hemolysate were processed for the determination of L-Malondialdhyde (L-MDA), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione-s-transferaseand (GST) and reduced Glutathione (GSH). Also, liver and kidney specimens were excised for histopathological examination and for cadmium residues determination. The obtained results revealed that, a significant increase in plasma ALT , AST and GGT activities, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol and phospholipids concentrations and erythrocyte L-MDA level, SOD activity ,Liver and kidney cadmium residue were observed in cadmium intoxicated rats. However, administration of alpha-lipoic acid, melatonin and their combination in cadmium intoxicated rats exhibited a significant decreased in all mentioned parameters. On the other hand, a significant decreased in erythrocyte CAT, GST and G-6-PDH activities, GSH and hemoglobin concentrations were observed in cadmium intoxicated rats. Meanwhile, alpha-lipoic acid and melatonin administrations alone and in combination in cadmium intoxicated rats resulted in significant increase in all mentioned parameters. The histopathological studies in the liver and kidney of rats also supported that alpha-lipoic acid and melatonin markedly reduced the Cd induced pathological changes and preserved the normal histological architecture of the liver and kidney tissues.It could be concluded that, the potential of alpha-lipoic acid and melatonin as a powerful agents and may be useful as an antioxidants in combating free radical-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury that is a result of cadmium toxicity. Also, these compounds have a protective antioxidant effect and could be also applicable as a cytoprotective against oxidative stress of tissue damage mediated by heavy metals intoxication. 2014/04/13 - 01:18

This study aims to explore amelioration of the renal toxicity induced by one
of the commonly used antineoplastic agent, Cisplatin (CDDP). The therapeutic
application of CDDP is limited by the induction of nephro-toxicity as a result
of severe oxidative stress in renal tissues. The present study demonstrates
that administration of astaxanthine (AST), a carotenoid, prevented the nephro-toxicity
induced by CDDP by reducing oxidative stress in renal tissues. The renal toxicity
was monitored by estimating levels of serum-biochemical parameters such as urea
and creatinine. The oxidative stress in renal tissues were determined as depletion
of antioxidant parameters and cellular DNA damage. The cellular DNA damages
in kidney and tumor tissues were analysed using comet assay. Histopathological
examinations were carried out to monitor the CDDP-induced alterations in the
tissues of tumor and kidney. Histopathological studies revealed that administration
of CDDP to tumor bearing mice caused morphological alterations in tumor and
renal tissues. Also there was increase in the levels of serum- creatinine and
urea, in these animals apart from cellular DNA damage and oxidative damage in
the tissues. Administration of AST, following CDDP treatment, restored the serum
parameters and prevented the morphological alterations in the renal tissues
without protecting the tumor tissue. The comet assay results demonstrated that
AST administration protected the cellular DNA from CDDP induced damages in the
kidney cells without affecting the damage in tumor cells. The studies suggest
the beneficial use of AST as an adjuvant to ameliorate the toxicity in Cisplatin-chemotherapy. 2014/04/13 - 01:18

Cardiovascular diseases like hypertension and Myocardial Infarction (MI) are the most important determinants for high mortality rate globally with a prevalence of 12.2% deaths as estimated by the World Health Organization. An Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, such as enalapril is the commonly used synthetic drug for treating high blood pressure, but may cause side effects like kidney toxicity or diarrhea. Therefore, there exists a need for alternative therapy. Bovine Colostrum (BC) containing several growth and immune factors triggers nearly fifty beneficial processes in newborns showing no side effects. Besides many clinical applications, there is no credible evidence of colostrum showing cardio-protective effect against MI. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of BC alone or in combination with enalapril against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. A dose finding toxicity study with BC (500, 1,000 or 2,000 mg kg-1, p.o.) did not reveal any overt adverse symptoms or mortality in rats dosed for 14 day consecutive days. Adult Wistar albino rats were weighed and randomly divided in seven groups where each group consists of six rats. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted group and group VII were fed with ACE inhibitor enalapril 0.25 mg kg-1. Group III and V were given different doses of colostrum 250 and 500 mg kg-1, respectively, whereas group IV and VI received various doses of colostrum along with ACE inhibitor enalapril to observe the pharmacodynamic interaction. Results obtained from the in vitro DPPH free radical scavenging method and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity by TBARS method indicated that BC possesses significant free radical scavenging activity and causes marked inhibition of lipid peroxidation. In biochemical serum estimation, the activity of various cardiac enzymes such as Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Creatine Kinase (CK) were determined. The serum levels altered by isoproterenol showed significant restoration by the administration of BC along with enalapril as compared with enalapril alone, suggesting that colostrum seems to have beneficial cardio-protective effects in rats. Additional studies are warranted to verify the results of these preliminary findings. 2014/04/13 - 01:18

The effects of the H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine on the male
reproductive system have been well studied and shown to cause several untoward
effects. The present study evaluates the influence of vitamin C (VTC) on the
testicular effects of cimetidine in the rat. Different animal groups (n = 6)
were orally administered cimetidine (30 or 60 mg kg-1 day-1);
VTC (50 mg kg-1 day-1) plus cimetidine and vehicle (1
mL kg-1 day-1) for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed and
their testes were removed. Sperm was collected from the epididymis and analyzed.
Histology of testis was also performed using standard methods. Cimetidine caused
significant (p<0.05) and dose-dependent reductions in sperm count and motility,
without an effect on sperm morphology and viability. Cimetidine also caused
alterations in the histology of the testis with marked degeneration of seminiferous
epithelium, vacuolization and maturation arrest of spermatogenic cells. Furthermore,
cimetidine failed to produce any significant effect on semen parameters in VTC-treated
animals. Also, there was no alteration in the histology of testis in VTC-treated
animals, compared to control. From the results, cimetidine alters testicular
function which may be inhibited or protected by VTC. 2014/04/13 - 01:18

The study aim is to investigate the Anti diabetic an anti dyslipidemic activity of Cleome gynandra plant extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effects of orally administered ethanolic extract of Cleome gynandra on serum glucose and lipid profiles activity were examined in diabetic control and Cleome gynandra treated diabetic rats. While the activity of the blood glucose and lipid profiles, in the serum were assessed. The drugs were administered over a period of 7 days treatment. The Cleome gynandra was significantly (p<0.05) reduced the serum glucose, elevated dyslipidemia levels, SGOT and SGPT levels, in alloxan induced group, Metformin treated group, EECG-I group, EECG-II groups but increased the serum HDL status in all the ethanolic extract Cleome gynandra treated groups, compared with normal control and diabetic control. The present investigation suggested that ethanolic extract of Cleome gynandra was inhibits blood glucose levels and dyslipidemea in diabetes rats. 2014/04/13 - 01:18

The main goal of this study was to determine the acute toxicity and irritancy
of the leaf of essential oil of Vitex simplicifolia Oliv. (Verbenaceae)
growing in Burkina Faso and whose therapeutic use is multiple. The acute toxicity
of the essential oil was determined by Litchfield method. Skin and eye irritancy
was performed by Draize method. The acute toxicity of essential oil was evaluated
to give a LD50 = 2830.77±299.22 mg kg-1 and showed
that the essential oil of Vitex simplicifolia is slightly toxic. Skin
and eye irritation was evaluated and showed that essential oil of this plant
is slightly irritating with a primary irritation index PI = TEO/16 = 0.75, an
Acute Ocular Index, Ac.O.I. =12.83, an Average Ocular Index, Av.O.I.
of less than 5 after 48 h. The results suggest that the leaf essential oil of
Vitex simplicifolia Oliv. possessed slightly toxic and slightly irritancy
activities. It could be used as natural potential ingredient for pharmaceutical
industry. 2014/04/13 - 01:18

The disease-modifying antirheumatic drug leflunomide is associated with hepatic
toxicity as a side effect. This study aimed to lesser hepatic toxicity of leflunomide
by using silymarin in combination with leflunomide to avoid the hepatic toxicity
resulting from using leflunomide in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs
were orally administered after arthritis was induced by subplantar injection
of 0.1 mL Freund's complete adjuvant. Oral administration of leflunomide and
silymarin inhibited the dermal hypersensitivity of adjuvant-induced arthritis
and significantly reduced the paw oedema in comparison to the control group.
This combination normalized serum nitric oxide concentration. Leflunomide caused
a significant elevation of the serum liver enzymes activity Glutamate-Oxalate
Transaminase and Glutamate-pyruvate Transaminase which were improved by silymarin
co-treatment. These results revealed that silymarin has positive effect on adjuvant-induced
arthritis and marked antioxidant activity which minimized the toxic effect of
leflunomide on the liver. In conclusion silymarin could be used in combination
with leflunomide to minimize its toxic effect on liver. 2013/12/29 - 09:29

Bauhinia forficata, known as “pata-de-vaca”, is used in folk medicine as antidiabetic. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of the aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves (AEBF) and investigated its antihypertensive effect in conscious normotensive and Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract was performed by colorimetric tests. The Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and Heart Rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and hypertensive rats through a catheter inserted in abdominal aorta via femoral artery. Aortic catheter was connected to a pressure transducer coupled to an amplifier-recorded apparatus. Phytochemical screening of the AEBF showed the presence of phenols, flobabenic tannins, flavonols, flavanones, alkaloids and saponins. In normotensive rats, it was observed that AEBF (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1, i.v.) induced hypotension and tachycardia that were not changed after indomethacin administration but were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated L-NAME. After treatment with atropine, only tachycardia was attenuated. In Goldblatt hypertensive rats, acute treatment with AEBF (400 mg kg-1; v.o.) was able to reduce 12% of the MAP (n = 6), while that HR was not affected. In summary, this study found possible benefits of this plant on the cardiovascular system. The results demonstrate that the Aqueous Extract of Bauhinia forficata (AEBF) present antihypertensive effect that seems to involve releasing of NO. 2013/12/29 - 09:29

The present study was designed to investigate outcomes and predictors of mortality in cases of acute anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning. One hundred cases diagnosed to have acute Organophosphate (OP) toxicity and admitted to Poison Control Center (PCC) were included in the study. Two sheets, one before and the other 24 h after therapy were used for each patient. These sheets included (1) Sociodemographic, (2) Clinical and (3) Investigations; thereafter 5 mL of venous blood were collected on admission after the diagnosis but before any medications were given. Another sample was obtained 24 h later after medications. Serum was used for estimation of pseudocholine esterase level, liver and renal function tests, tests for acute pancreatitis, serum electrolytes, fasting and postprandial glucose levels. Intoxicated cases were mainly males, less than 20 years, residing in urban areas, cause was mainly suicide; delay time correlates with severity; cholinesterase levels negatively correlated with severity. There was powerful, inverse, significant correlation between cholinesterase levels and glucose, lipase, creatinine, Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST). Morality rate was 7%; one in the moderate group and 6 cases in the severe group (24%). Serum cholinesterase, delay time, sodium, glucose, amylase, lipase, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase, measured on the first day can be used as predictors of mortality in studied cases. Delayed time is the powerful single predictor, followed by lipase and alkaline phosphatase. The delay time was the most useful single predictor of mortality in the present study. 2013/12/29 - 09:29

Lead is a toxic metal for which it is hard to avoid exposure, due to its widespread
distribution in the environment. Numerous activities involving lead and its
products are carried out in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate
the status of prenatal lead exposure and birth outcomes. It included 100 pregnant
females in their third trimester of pregnancy that underwent blood sampling
for lead concentration in the cord blood at delivery; and these levels were
estimated to be lower or higher than 10 μg dL-1. Adverse maternal
outcome and Neonatal anthropometric measurements were correlated with cord plasma
lead levels. There was significant decrease of hemoglobin, gestational age at
delivery, gestational weight, height and head circumference in cases with higher
lead in comparison to cases with lower lead. In addition, there was increase
of previous abortions, Cesarean Section (CS), Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes
(PPROM) and preterm delivery, in cases with higher lead in comparison to lower
lead. There positive correlation between gravidity and abortion with lead concentration.
On the other hand, there was inverse correlation between baby weight and lead
concentration. There is an association between cord blood lead concentration
and adverse pregnancy outcome. It was associated with increased rate of CS,
PPROM and preterm labor and decreased anthropometric measurement of the neonate. 2013/12/29 - 09:29

Aggression is a common adverse effect in Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) abusers. The present study aimed to investigate possible interaction between nandrolone decanoate and amino acids on behavior and neurotransmitters. Rats received repeated injections of nandrolone (10 mg kg-1, i.m., once weekly), amino acids mixture (0.8 g kg-1, p.o., once daily) and their combination for eight weeks. Defensive aggression, open field and hot plate tests were measured at the end of experiments. Serotonin (5-HT), Dopamine (DA), Norepinephrine (NE) and glutamate were measured in specific brain regions. Analysis of data showed that nandrolone, amino acids and their combination increased aggression and differentially affected brain neurotransmitters. Nandrolone decreased rearing, while amino acids decreased ambulation, increased rearing and grooming frequencies. Taken together, our data indicate that treatment with nandrolone decanoate, amino acids mixture and their combination may induce neurochemical alterations in brain regions regulating aggressive behavior. 2013/08/04 - 13:56

Poisoning by various substances is very common. The present study aimed to evaluate the pattern of poisoning admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Center. Cases were studied for a period of one year prospectively to record the incidence, age, sex, domicile distribution, education, occupation, marital and socioeconomic status. Type of poisoning with various reasons and nature of poisoning were noted. Ethical clearance was obtained and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total number of poisoning cases was 224. The various types of poisons found were alcohol, antifungal drugs, antipsychotic drugs, rodenticide, organophosphates, ant killer, endosulphan, food, hair dye, kerosene, multi tablets, nail polish, oleander seeds, petrol, pain killer, Savlon liquid, scorpion bite, thinner, benzodiazepine. Maximum numbers of poisoning were of suicidal cases. Majority of poisoning cases admitted were due to organophosphates followed by oleander seeds. The study concludes that poisoning is a communal cause of hospital admissions. The most poisoning cases were observed with pesticides handled by the farmers in the agriculture fields. Strict policies against the sale and availability of pesticides must be brought in the future and poison control center, patient counseling may have a better fruitful effect in controlling the number of poisoning cases. 2013/08/04 - 13:56

This study was carried out to evaluate the potential effect of aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius) seeds on the histology of kidneys, lungs and intestines of Wistar rats. Aqueous extract of A. precatorius seeds was administered for fourteen days through intraperitoneal route (i.p) to age matched Wistar rats. The rats were grouped into four with five rats per group. The control group was administered 3 mL kg-1 distilled water while the treatment groups were administered 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg kg-1 of aqueous extract of A. precatorius seeds. The animals were sacrificed after fourteen days. The kidneys, lungs, small and large intestine were removed, weighed and preserved in 10% formalin solution and embedded in paraffin wax. Tissues from these organs were stained for assessment of tissue morphology. Pathological changes were observed in the tissues of the treatment groups while no change was observed in the control group. The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined to be 0.35 mg kg-1 (i.p). The results showed that intraperitoneal administration of aqueous extract of A. precatorius seeds may cause slight changes to these organs and caution should be exhibited in its use in traditional medicine. 2013/08/04 - 13:56

In the systematic screening programme for cytotoxic compound from marine actinomycetes, the compound furan-2-yl acetate (F2A) from Streptomyces VITSDK1 spp. The structure of the compound was unequivocally determined by spectral studies. It was previously found that F2A has potential antiviral activity against fish nodavirus. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of F2A was studied using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which showed the IC50 values were less than 15 μg mL-1 against various tumor cell lines, whereas it was >25 μg mL-1 against non-tumor cell lines. F2A inhibited the cell proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cytotoxic mechanism was determined in HeLa cells. The morphological analysis, Hoechst staining and DNA fragmentation studies revealed the apoptosis mediated cell death. The cytosolic protein analysis of F2A treated HeLa cells by immunoblotting showed the mitochondrial cytochrome c release, increased expression of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with PARP cleavage. There was no change in the caspase-8 levels. The Bcl-2 was found to be down regulated and Bax was up regulated in the F2A treated cells. Further, the apoptosis induction and cell death was found to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. A molecular docking study of F2A with 28 selected cancer drug target enzymes provides some insight on mode of activity of the compound. The findings showed that the F2A exhibits selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells at a lower concentration via apoptosis. 2013/06/26 - 02:32

Different parts of Croton zambesicus have been identified traditionally to possess various medicinal uses in Africa, such as for treatment of hypertension, dysentery, fever, convulsions, malaria and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of methanol and aqueous extracts of C. zambesicus seeds at a dose of 75 mg kg-1/day and 300 mg kg-1/day in Wistar rats. The body, biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were assessed for the treated animals as well as those in the control group. The result of this study showed that, the extracts of C. zambesicus present significant beneficial effects on erythropoiesis and lowering cholesterol level which confirms the use of this plant in ethnomedical practice. But, these extracts at the doses administered were found to cause varies body weight changes and significant increase in ALT, AST and ALP activities as well as pathological changes such as fatty changes and necrosis in liver and kidney and the lymphocytic infiltration in intestinal lamina are all indicate that the plant extracts has the potential to cause toxicity and intestinal damage at dose dependant manner. But the exact chemical compound(s) responsible for these effects in the plant extracts still remains speculative. 2013/06/26 - 02:32

Plants are considered potent candidate for safe and efficient therapeutic agents.
In present study, crude extracts of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated
for its ability to inhibit the growth of dental (bacterial) pathogens i.e.,
Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 1144), Streptococcus mutans (MTCC
890), Streptococcus salivarius (MTCC 1938), Lactobacillus acidophilus
(MTCC 447), Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) and their isolates.
Collected stems of T. cordifolia were properly washed and shade dried
at room temperature, crushed and extracted in petroleum ether (PET), chloroform
(CHCl3), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (H2O) by using Soxhlet
apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was examined by agar well
diffusion method at 200 mg mL-1 sample concentration. Phytochemical
analysis was done for plant extract. The result of antibacterial activity was
found that MeOH extract of T. cordifolia was most effective against all
tested bacterial pathogens. Maximum antibacterial activity was observed against
S. sanguinis (23 mm) and lowest activity against S. salivarius
(17 mm). The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids,
tannins, phenols, saponins, glycosides, amino acids and steroids which might
be accountable for its antimicrobial potential. The results validate the traditional
uses of T. cordifolia in treatment of dental diseases. 2013/06/26 - 02:32

Carica papaya methanol leaf extract (CPMLE) is used widely in West Africa as anti-malarial and antimicrobial. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of (CPMLE) on fertility in male Wistar rats using sperm counts and percentage of defective sperm cells as markers. Acute toxicity test was performed. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt., respectively with the extract. Group 4 served as control (10 mL kg-1 distilled water). After 28 days of treatment, serum biochemical parameters including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Total Bilirubin (TB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), triglycerides, total protein and albumin and histopathological study of the testes, kidney, heart and liver were assayed. Acute toxicity results showed that CPMLE produced no mortalities at the dose of 1500 mg kg-1. However, there were CNS signs as well as diuresis. CPMLE significantly (p<0.01) produced dose dependent decreases in sperm counts and increased the percentage of defective sperm cells. There were significant (p<0.05) increases in AST and BUN. Histopathological studies showed mild kidney and cardiac hyperaemia, slight hepatic degeneration and severe necrosis of the germinal epithelium of the testes. These show that CPMLE can produce some defects to fertility and may be used to control birth rate. 2013/06/26 - 02:32

Andrographis paniculata and Silybum marianum are well known medicinal
plants. However, to prove their efficacy for clinical utilization more scientific
data are needed. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to investigate
the anticancer potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. paniculata
and S. marianum and their combination (1:1). The sulphorhodamine B (SRB)
assay was used to assess growth inhibition of human tumor. Five human cancer
cell lines i.e., human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervix (SiHa), Colon
(HT-29), Ovary cancer cell line (ovcar-5) and Liver (HepG2) were used for the
above study. The results obtained suggest that S. marianum hydroalcoholic
extract showed the best cytotoxic activity against all given cell lines with
percentage inhibition of 21.34, 32.30, 46.56, 59.58, 36.20 for MCF 7, SiHa,
HT-29, Ovcar-5 and HepG2, respectively. While, A. paniculata hydroalcoholic
extract was found most effective against Ovcar-5 with 51.12% inhibition. The
combination of both the plants (1:1) showed an intermediate result for all the
cell line but, it was found to be most effective against HepG2 with 42.76% inhibition.
The results obtained in the study indicate that A. paniculata and S.
marianum possess significant anticancer activity and have the therapeutic
potential to prevent the cancerous diseases. 2013/06/26 - 02:32

Adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy in rodents is an experimental model commonly used for studies of chronic human renal diseases. The molecular associations involved in renal apoptosis linked to hypoxia and cell stress response in this model are not completely known. The aim of this study was to determine the associations among the expression patterns of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), the heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and the Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha (HIF-1α) linked to apoptosis in renal cortex in the nephrotic syndrome progression induced by ADR administration. Male BALB/c mice were treated with a single dose of ADR (11 mg kg-1; i.v.). Tubulointerstitial nephrosis was monitored by histopathological assessment and by biochemical determinations on 7, 15 and 30 days following drug exposure. These results were evaluated in conjunction with renal expression of iNOS, Hsp60 and HIF-1α. Cortical apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. The increment of renal apoptotic cells in tubulointerstitial areas was accompanied by the decrease in Bcl-xL/Bax ratio and the enhancement of the active caspase-3 and Hsp60 expressions from day 7 onwards. iNOS and HIF-1α increased concomitant with the renal apoptosis and the tubule interstitial injury. Taking the previous information into account, data indicate that the over expression of renal HIF-1α, iNOS and Hsp60 are concurrent with the apoptotic events triggered by ADR. These results contribute to additional knowledge of the molecular complex events involved in the context of ADR-induced nephropathy progression. 2013/02/23 - 16:30

The wild cosmos (Cosmos caudatus Kunth, Asteraceae) is one of the vegetables mostly consumed by rural people of Central and East Java Provinces of Indonesia and those of the Malay Peninsula. Yet, it has not been widely used medicinally. The leaf has distinctive taste as well as odor and contains high level of flavonoid, especially flavonol and flavon glycosides which have potent antioxidant activity. In this study, in an attempt to explore the antihypertensive effect, wild cosmos leaf aqueous extract was tested in rats treated with adrenaline and sodium chloride. The frequency of heart rate and amplitude of stroke volume were measured using the non-invasive tail cuff method. The extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 showed similar potency to that of 9 mg kg-1 atenonol, in lowering both parameters, induced by adrenaline. However, after sodium chloride, the extract only suppressed the amplitude and this effect was comparable to that of 0.45 mg kg-1 hydrochlorothiazide and 13.5 mg kg-1 captopril. Besides cardiac effects, the extract also demonstrated diuretic activity which was comparable to that of 1.8 mg kg-1 furosemide. Taken together, results of present study suggest that wild cosmos leaf extract have antihypertensive effect which may be related, at least in part, to the decreased cardiac output and induction of diuresis. The results may further indicate that consumption of wild cosmos leaf in diet is beneficial for hypertensive patients. 2013/02/23 - 16:30

Indonesia as tropical country is endemic to various infectious diseases, including that affecting the skin due to fungi infection. In nature, the eggshell, present as hard or soft shell, protects the embryo from microorganism infection. Turtle produces soft shells, which is very unique in that it does not contain albumin. In nature, the turtle eggshell has to cope with high humidity, so it is assumed that turtle soft shell has potent antifungal activity. This study investigated the potency of the eggshell extract from green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) as an antifungal against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Protein extraction was carried out with dialysis followed by lyophilization and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Antifungal activity assay was conducted by Dilution Plating method with nystatin as a standard drug. The possible mechanism of antifungal activity was assessed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fungal growth was inhibited by 8% w/v or 8x104 ppm extract, equivalent to 0.53 ppm nystatin against Candida albicans, 0.55 ppm against Microsporum gypseum, 0.36 ppm against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 0.35 ppm against Aspergillus brasiliensis. The SDS-PAGE showed that the turtle eggshell extract had 6 proteins with molecular weight 20; 45, 50, 66, 80 and 116 kDa. This study showed that 8% w/v green turtle eggshell extract has inhibitory activity against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus brasiliensis, as also proven by SEM results. Taken together, the present results showed that turtle eggshell extract has antifungal potency that could be developed as antifungal drug. 2013/02/23 - 16:30

Nephelium lappaceum is a tropical fruit native to Malaysia. The rind
of N. lappaceum, is having extremely high antioxidant and free radical
scavenging activities. The ethanol extract from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum
was evaluated for acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats.
In the acute study, a single oral administration of N. lappaceum rind
extract (50, 200, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1) was administered to rats
for 14 days. In the sub chronic toxicity study, the extract was administered
to rats (500, 2000 mg kg-1) for 28 days. There was no mortality,
or adverse effects observed in rats. There was no significant difference observed
in relative organ weights and the biochemical analysis (serum urea, creatinine,
ALP, AST and total protein). Histological observation of liver and kidney also
did not reveal any significant changes. In conclusion, present study showed
that the lethal dose of ethanol extract of Nephelium lappaceum rind is
more than 2000 mg kg-1 and there is a huge margin of safety for the
therapeutic use. No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOEL) of the extract is considered
to be up to 2000 mg kg-1 day-1 for 28 days in rats. 2013/02/23 - 16:30

Pesticide formulations are complex mixtures and the toxicity information on active ingredients alone is not sufficient to evaluate the risk of adverse health effects of commercial pesticides. So, the present work was conducted to study the haemato-biochemical effects of technical and formulated cypermethrin (25.0 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and deltamethrin (1.70 mg kg-1 b.wt.), in male rats given repetitive oral doses for 90 consecutive days. There was high significant decrease (p≤0.01) in body weight gain of cypermethrin and significant decrease (p≤0.05) in deltamethrin treated rats. The relative liver and kidney weights were significantly change in the treatments of formulated and technical cypermethrin and deltamethrin compared to the control. Deltamethrin as technical or formulated form caused significant changes (p≤0.01) in haemoglobin, packed cell value and Red Blood Cell (RBC), while formulated and technical cypermethrin caused significant decrease (p≤0.05) in PCV % and formulated cypermethrin induced significant decrease (p≤0.01) in White Blood Cell (WBC) compared to control value. Treatments with formulated and technical cypermethrin and deltamethrin caused significant increase (p≤0.01) in serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) activities and formulated cypermethrin seemed to induce higher AST elevation (200.67 IU L-1) and formulated deltamethrin induce higher ALT elevation (105.07 IU L-1) as compared with the untreated group (21.30 and 25.50 IU L-1, respectively). Technical cypermethrin and deltamethrin caused highly significant (p≤0.01) decreased in serum glucose. On the other hand all of the tested insecticides induced significant decreases (p≤0.05) in serum total protein and increase (p≤0.05-0.01) in creatinine and uric acid concentrations. The partial differences of hematological and biochemical effects obtained with pure and commercial deltamethrin and cypermethrin indicate that commercial formulations may contain additional hazardous compounds. Therefore, it is important in assessing the real human hazard from pesticides to investigate not only the active principle but also the commercial formulations used in agriculture. 2012/12/20 - 15:44

The plant Cuscuta californica was traditionally used to treat liver,
spleen and gallbladder disorders such as jaundice and to support liver function
in other Western herbalism. The present study was conducted to evaluate hepatoprotective
effect of methanolic extracts of Cuscuta californica at doses of 100,
200 and 400 mg kg-1 day-1 and aqueous extract at dose
400 mg kg-1 day-1 orally for 5 days against carbon tetrachloride
(CCl4)- induced liver damage in rats. After injection of CCl4
on 3rd day and administration of 100 mg kg-1 methanol extract for
5 days slightly increased the liver enzymes and decreased bilirubin concentration.
At 200 and 400 mg kg-1 methanol extract and 400 mg kg-1
aqueous extract there was a damage and necrosis in the liver. The characteristic
trait of extracts of plant is its toxicity on liver, kidney and changes on growth
rate. This toxicity was accompanied by increase in the activity of aspartate
transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT),
decreased concentration of albumin in serum and granulocytes and increased value
of lymphocytes in blood. This study revealed that the plant C. californica
did not showed any hepatoprotective activity but slight hepatotoxicity to the
treated animals. 2012/12/20 - 15:44

World Health Organization emphasized the necessity of evaluating toxic hazard
of the formulated pesticides. So, in current study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic
potential of technical and formulated tribenuron-methyl herbicide were investigated
in male rat bone-marrow cells, using the Structural Chromosomal Aberration (SCA)
and micronucleus (MN) test systems. Technical and formulated tribenuron-methyl
were administrated to rats as single or repeated oral doses of 5 (NOAEL), 25,
50 and 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. for 21 days at 48 h intervals. Results showed
that repetitive dose of formulated tribenuron-methyl (100 mg a.i. kg-1
b.wt.) induced significant decrease in the mitotic activity. After repetitive
doses, the frequency of total chromosomal aberrations was statistically significant
(p≤0.05-0.01) at two higher doses, 50 and 100 mg a.i. kg-1 b.wt.
of formulated tribenuron-methyl as well as significant increase (p≤0.05)
at high dose (100 mg a.i. kg-1 b.wt.) of technical tribenuron-methyl.
The frequency of MN was statistically significant at two higher doses, 50 (p≤0.05)
and 100 (p≤0.01) mg a.i. kg-1 b.wt. of formulated tribenuron-methyl.
Our results reveal that tribenuron-methyl has a clastogenic/genotoxic potential
as measured by the bone marrow CA and MN tests in rats. The partial differences
of the genotoxic effects obtained with pure and commercial tribenuron-methyl
indicate that commercial formulations may contain additional hazardous compounds.
Therefore, it is important in assessing the real human hazard from pesticides
to investigate not only the active principle but also the commercial formulations
used in agriculture. 2012/12/20 - 15:44

The association of long-term exposure to inorganic lead with harmful effects
on thyroid function has not been well studied yet. The present cross-sectional
study has investigated 195 male workers in a battery recycling factory in Iran.
Thyroid function parameters were evaluated in relation to Blood Lead Level (BLL)
and chelatable lead then compared in two subgroups of blood lead level based
on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards(<40 and
≥40 μg dL-1) and two subgroup of chelatable lead. Mean of
BLL in study subjects was 43.44 μg dL-1 (14.2-85.6). No correlation
between blood lead level and chelatable lead was found with thyroid indices.
There was no statistically significant difference in thyroid indexes between
workers with BLL<40 and workers with BLL ≥40. Similarly, no statistically
significant difference was seen in thyroid indices between workers with chelatable
lead ≥705 μg dL-1 and workers with chelatable lead >705
μg dL-1. No evidence of linear correlation between blood lead
level, chelatable lead and thyroid function parameters was observed after adjustment
for potential confounders (age, BMI, cigarette smoking, duration of exposure).
In contrast to some studies with evidence of thyroid dysfunction in occupational
lead exposure, this study showed no thyroid dysfunction in different levels
of blood lead level up to 85 μg dL-1. 2012/12/20 - 15:44

Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction that spoil for man’s
annihilation. Their use and control constitute a major concern of international
relations. Yet, the existing literature contains materials that are fragmented
and often dated. This review is aimed at harmonising and updating existing literature
on various important aspects of nuclear weapons, including types, delivery methods,
strategy, governance/control/law, disarmament, controversy and non-military
uses. It recommends that world leaders should make sincere efforts to demilitarise
the applications of nuclear weapons, if it is practically impossible to eliminate
them. 2012/09/15 - 06:01

This study was aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities of the stem bark of African locust bean tree. The stem barks of African locust bean tree were extracted with methanol to obtain methanol extract. The antipyretic, acute toxicity, chemical constituents, antioxidant properties as well as the trace metallic content of this extract were determined. The extract was also subjected to column chromatography to obtain four fractions, these fractions were preliminary tested for antiplasmodial potency and methanol fraction which gave the most potent effect was fully evaluated. Flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponins, sterols, phenols and reducing sugars as well as Mg, Ni, Ca, Fe, Zn, Na, K and Cu were detected in the extract. It also showed a strong free radical scavenging activity on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). An oral median lethal dose (LD50) greater than 5 g kg-1 in mice was established for the crude extract and a significant dose dependent antipyretic and inhibition of parasitaemia in suppressive, curative and prophylactic tests. The antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities of the extract were tracked to the methanol fraction when evaluated with rodent malaria model Plasmodium berghei berghei and clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. studies have established sufficient evidence collaborating the antimalarial activities of the stem bark of African locust bean tree, though the active principles are yet to be identified, further studies to elucidate these are ongoing. 2012/09/15 - 06:01

Ethanol extracts of seeds, pulp, bark or whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora Roberty were investigated for their individual anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. These extracts were evaluated using formalin-induced paw lick in Wistar rats, acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate and tail flick tests in mice. Each experiment consisted of thirty animals randomly, but equally divided into six groups of 100, 200, 400 or 800 mg kg-1 b.wt. of extract pre-treated, indomethacin (10 mg kg-1 b.wt.) pre-treated and a control group administered with distilled water (10 mL kg-1 b.wt.). Values were expressed as Mean±Standard Error of Mean (SEM). The data were analyzed using one way ANOVA and difference of means were considered significant at p<0.05. The different extracts showed varying degrees of same pattern of anti-inflammatory or analgesic effect on the rats or mice. Itching of the paws persisted significantly longer in control or indomethacin treated-rats than in seed, pulp, bark or whole fruit extract treated-rats for both phases of formalin-induced paw licks. All the extracts effectively reduced abdominal writhing but not as effective as indomethacin. The extract treated rats tolerated thermal induced pain longer than the control or indomethacin treated rats, with very significant difference for the bark and the whole fruit groups. All the fruit parts exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The bark extract was the most potent extract of the three component parts of the fruit, followed by the pulp and then seed extracts. The bark exhibited the strongest bioactivity and invariably may contain the largest concentration of the bioactive anti-inflammatory/analgesic compound(s) in the fruit of Lagenaria breviflora. 2012/09/15 - 06:01

This study was designed to assess the antibacterial activity of stem bark extract of Vitellaria paradoxa and its effect on haematological and biochemical parameters. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of stem bark of Vitellaria paradoxa at a concentration of 50 mg mL-1 were tested on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes using agar well-dilution method. The 12 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the ethanol extract was administered for 28 days to a group of rats to assess its effects on the hematological indices, serum levels of creatinine and urea and activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The LD50 of the ethanol extract was determined to be 115 mg kg-1 b.wt. in mice. All the bacteria were susceptible except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes that showed resistance to both aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract was observed to exhibit more antibacterial activity at equivalent dose compared to aqueous extract. All hematological parameters were not significantly altered except the platelet count which was significantly (p<0.05) reduced. Serum levels of creatinine, urea, ALT, AST and ALP were significantly higher (p<0.05) in treated rats compared with control. 2012/09/15 - 06:01

Medicinal plants have been traditionally used for the treatment and prevention of peptic ulcer. The present study was designed to investigate antioxidant and antiulcer potential of methanolic fruit extract of Prunus domestica. Antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging method. The extract showed maximum scavenging activity i.e., 82.12±0.654 and 79.43±0.876 at 200 μg mL-1. Further the extract was evaluated for its anti-ulcerogenic activity by pyloric ligation model. The extract showed significant inhibition of ulcer i.e., 70.58% at 200 mg kg-1. The present study concludes that Prunus domestica fruit posses potent antioxidant and anti-ulcerogenic effect. 2012/09/15 - 06:01

Tetrapyrrolic macrocycles bearing carboxylic acid groups have received considerable
interest as photosensitizing agent for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). It is necessary
to consider the toxic potency of those compounds. The present study was designed
to predict the toxicities of tetrapyrrolic compounds using Ecological Structure
Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) and Toxtree, for further use in design and synthesis
of photosensitizers. The ECOSAR prediction showed that tetrapyrrolic macrocycles
with more carboxylic acid groups or hydroxyl groups showed lower toxic potency
than those with fewer carboxylic acid groups or hydroxyl groups. Toxicities
estimation using Toxtree to human and based on the Cramer rules, Verhaar, Structural
Alerts for Reactivity in Toxtree (START) biodegradability, eye irritation/corrosion
and skin irritation/corrosion, all of the compounds fell into class 3, 5, 2,
1 and 1, respectively. Application of the Benigni-Bossa method showed that all
studied compounds had structural alerts for genotoxic carcinogenicity. Cytochrome
P-450 mediated drug metabolism was positive for all site of metabolism except
for PPIX-1OH and PPIX-2OH. Most of the studied tetrapyrrolic compounds fell
into unreactive group of compounds by Michael addition classification, except
for purpurin 7 and rhodin g7. Skin sensitization evaluation of all
compounds were alert to Michael acceptor, except for BPhe a-OH. Moreover, Kroes
Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) decision tree had negligible risk for
all compounds. 2012/06/26 - 20:58

In the present study Acacia catechu-Catechin (CTN) was evaluated for
antiamnesic and antioxidant activity using various in vivo models. Scopolamine
and natural aging were used to induce experimental amnesia in mice. The tested
does of CTN (40, 20 and 10 mg kg-1) significantly enhanced the learning
capacity and retention of memory in Passive Shock Avoidance and Spatial Water
cage exteroceptive behavioural models. Pre-treatment with CTN restored the increased
levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione due to scopolamine and
natural aging. A dose dependent CTN (40, 20 and 10 mg kg-1) antioxidant
activity of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione
(GSH) in whole brain was seen, which were comparable to Standard Piracetam (400
mg kg-1). Hence, it is worthwhile to explore the potential of this
Acacia catechu-Catechin in the management of Neurodegenerative disorders
of the type Alzheimer’s disease. 2012/06/26 - 20:58

Recent studies on N-nitrosamines in seafood focus on compounds being formed
during various processing methods without consideration of the N-nitrosamines
already present in the fresh meats and seafood. The purpose of this study was
to determine the concentration of N-nitrosamines in various compartments of
commercially-available red swamp crayfish. Crayfish samples were purchased from
a wholesale dealer. Samples were washed in tap water and boiled for 7-10 min
at 100°C. Crayfish were dissected into shell, head (hepatopancreas and green
gland) and tail meat. N-nitrosamines were extracted using standard solid-phase
extraction protocol with Extrelut and Florisil cartridges. N-nitrosamines were
identified and quantified using GC-FID. Results indicated the presence of N-nitrosodimethylamine
(3.37±0.51 ng g-1), N-nitrosodiethylamine (4.91±1.30
ng g-1), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (48.94±2.01 ng g-1)
and N-nitrosopiperidine (13.60±2.02 ng g-1), N-nitrosodipropylamine
(12.52±2.55 ng g-1), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (4.83±0.53
ng g-1). This study has major implications since crayfish are consumed
seasonally and in large amounts there may be a potential risk of exposure to
N-nitrosamines. 2012/06/26 - 20:58

In the present investigation, an attempt was made to prepare nanoparticle by
using a medicinally important plant Andrographis paniculata. Because
now the biologically synthesized nanoparticle have been widely used in the field
of medicine. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used to synthesis the silver
nanoparticle by using leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. The synthesized
silver nanoparticle from 1 mM AgNO3 solution through the leaf extract
were characterized using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, XRD, SEM and FTIR. X-ray
diffraction and SEM analysis showed the average particle size of 28 nm with
cubic and hexagonal shape and it confirmed the formation of nanoparticle in
the sample. The synthesized silver nanoparticle can be used for various applications
due to its eco-friendliness, non toxic and compatibility for pharmaceutical
and other applications. 2012/06/26 - 20:58