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Astronomia Astrofizyka

Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Medical Sciences

Several studies have shown that absence of blood pressure variation during sleep is associated with target organ damage including organ damaged sustained as a result of cerebrovascular accidents. In the management of stroke associated with hypertension, antihypertensive medications should be carefully administered because they may cause extensive damage to the brain. Twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring is important. To investigate circadian variations in the blood pressure of stroke patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted. A sample of 30 patients who presented within 1-7 days of symptom onset and were aged 40 years or more was selected. The study participants’ blood pressures were measured by ambulatory monitoring. Personal and medical information were collected. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. The Pearson Chi square test was used to analyze differences in the circadian patterns of blood pressure according to age, sex, type of stroke and both the onset and frequency of symptoms. An independent t-test was used to analyze differences in mean blood pressure. The results revealed that hypertension is major risk factor for stroke patients with a non-fluctuating pattern of blood pressure. Nondippers were more common than dippers. Nondippers were comprised 80, 90 and 83.3% of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure groups. There were no significant differences in circadian patterns and mean blood pressure by age, sex, onset and frequency of symptoms and the type of stroke. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of blood pressure is important in the management of hypertension. 2014/10/02 - 17:46

In many south Indian hospital, patient education by a clinical pharmacist is almost nil. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of patient education on Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in asthmatics. The study also aimed to develop and validate the KAP questionnaire for asthma in south Indian set-up. Patients (n = 297) were educated on monthly basis for a period of 6 months using Global Initiative for Asthma recommended pocket guide. Impact of patient education was assessed by comparing the baseline and end visit KAP scores. On every follow-up visit, patient’s HRQoL was measured using Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The standardized cronbach’s alpha value was 0.81. The test-retest reliability was 0.89. A significant (p<0.05) improvement of KAP score was observed with respect to baseline characteristics. A significant improvement (p<0.05) in all the domains of the SGRQ score was observed from day 30 onwards. The developed KAP questionnaire was acceptable and culture fair in the tested population. Pharmacist provided patient education significantly improved patient’s KAP and HRQoL. 2014/10/02 - 17:46

Pure beta emitters have application in treatment of the patients with the malignant diseases. Imaging of pure beta emitters is possible trough bremsstrahlung imaging. If the presently available imaging devices are to be used the main problem will be setting of the energy windows and selection suitable collimator. In this study we determined the optimum energy window for bremsstrahlung imaging of P32 in liver imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. Gate Monte Carlo code was used to image the Zubal digital phantom. Activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the liver of phantom and attenuation properties of organs were defined using ICRU data. The pure spectrum of bremsstrahlung radiation from liver was simulated. The changes to this spectrum due to photoelectric and Compton interaction were determined. The useful range of bremsstrahlung radiation was determined and imaging was performed at 20 keV steps. The SNR and FWHM of the images were calculated and the optimum energy window was determined for LEGP and MEGP collimators. Analyses of energy spectrum showed the useful range of energy for bremsstrahlung images is 20-400 keV. Further analyses using the SNR and FWHM of acquired images showed that the optimum energy for both LEGP and MEGP collimators. 2014/08/14 - 16:08

Psoriasis is a very commonly seen inflammatory condition in skin clinics. It has been suggested that this disease is associated with metabolic disease, particularly abnormalities in serum lipid profile. This study sought to examine possible association between plaque-type psoriasis and some individual variables of metabolic syndrome. After being approved by an ethical committee, 53 patients with plaque-type psoriasis were recruited along with 55 age and sex-matched healthy individuals as controls. The status of smoking, alcohol consumption and lipid profile including abnormally increases serum total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and overweight/obesity were compared between the two groups. The case group was consisted of 27 males and 26 females with a mean age of 47.89±8.09 years. The controls were 35 males and 20 females with a mean age of 48.38±7.46 years. Smoking (43.4 vs. 20%, p = 0.01), increased serum total cholesterol (43.4 vs. 14.5%, p = 0.001), increased serum LDL (34 vs. 12.7%, p = 0.01) and hypertriglyceridemia (43.4 vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) were significantly higher in patients than in controls. These differences remained significant after logistic regression analysis. The two groups were comparable in terms of age (p = 0.74), sex (p = 0.18), alcohol consumption (p = 0.56), overweight/obesity (p = 0.74), hypertension (p = 0.33) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.60). In conclusion, this study showed a significant association between smoking and abnormal lipid profile with psoriasis. Screening/preventive programs are recommended in this regard. 2014/08/14 - 16:08

Since metabolic abnormalities are common in psoriasis, some investigators have suggested that the risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) may be increased in psoriatic patients. The underlying causes of this connection, however, have not been examined. This study sought to investigate common risk factors of CAD in patients with psoriasis. In a retrospective, case-control setting, profiles of 89 patients with angiographically proven CAD were reviewed. These patients were 47 cases with psoriasis and 42 controls without psoriasis. Demographic data, overweight/obesity, family history of CAD, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, increased level of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride and decreased serum level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were outcome variables which were compared between the two groups. The case group was consisted of 33 males and 14 females with a mean age of 51.04±8.79 years. The controls were 29 males and 13 females with a mean age of 57.00±9.37 years. Patients in the case group were significantly younger (p = 0.003). Increased serum LDL (59.6 vs. 38.1%, p = 0.04) and increased serum triglyceride (66 vs. 31%, p = 0.001) were significantly higher in psoriatic patients than in controls. These differences, as well as for age, remained significant after logistic regression analysis. The two groups were comparable in terms of sex (p = 0.91), overweight/obesity (p = 0.54), family history of CAD (p = 0.86), hypertension (p = 0.42), diabetes mellitus (p=0.97), smoking (p=0.28) and decreased serum level of HDL (p = 0.65). In conclusion, this study showed that patients with both CAD and psoriasis are younger than those with CAD only. Abnormal lipid profile is probably an underlying cause of the increased risk of CAD in psoriasis. 2014/08/14 - 16:08

Demodex mites are commensals of the pilosebaceous unit in human. This study aimed to investigate possible association of Demodex folliculorum with Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), melanoma, Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) and rosacea. In this case-control study, standardized skin surface biopsy samples were obtained from the cheeks of healthy individuals (n = 28); patients with BCC (n = 18), SCC (n = 13) and melanoma (n = 11) and patients with DLE (n = 28) and inflammatory rosacea (n = 34). Mite density (cm-2) and the rate of infestation (density ≥5) were compared. The rate of mite infestation (%) was comparable between the controls (21.4) and the patients with BCC (22.2, p = 0.95), SCC (18.8, p = 0.83), melanoma (9.1, p = 0.37) and DLE (17.9, p = 0.74). Infestation was significantly more frequent in the rosacea group (47.1, p = 0.04) than in the controls. While, the mean mite density (cm-2) was comparable between the control (4.07±2.06) and the groups with BCC (5.01±2.08, p = 0.68), SCC (3.17±1.29, p = 0.49) and DLE (3.26±1.04, p = 0.91); it was significantly higher in the group of rosacea (8.56±3.29, p = 0.03) and lower in the group of melanoma (1.45±0.58, p = 0.04) in comparison with the normal group. In conclusion, although Demodex folliculorum does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of BCC, SCC and DLE, it is apparently associated with rosacea and melanoma. 2014/08/14 - 16:08

Segmental instability is known as an underlying mechanism of degenerative vertebral and intervertebral disc changes. Based on a new finding an axially rotated lumbar vertebra may be occasionally spotted on lumbar magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in non-weight-bearing position. This study was performed to examine the possibility of an association between this new finding and nerve root involvement in the lumbar spine. A total of 54 lumbar MR images of patients with signs of nerve root involvement in the lumbar spine were reviewed. An axially rotated lumbar vertebra was reported when at extreme parasagittal sections the posterior borders of two successive vertebral bodies were not aligned. Association of these rotations with radiculopathy and sensory/motor involvement in the corresponding regions in the lower extremity was examined. The mean pain severity was 7.59±2.10 (min-max: 3-10). There was a significant direct correlation between VAS and the linear amount of axial rotation (r = 0.73, p<0.001). There was also a significant, reverse correlation between the linear amount of axial rotation and the mean anteroposterior diameter of the neural foramen at the side of rotation (r = -0.91, p<0.001). Radiculopathy was concordant with axial rotation of the lumbar vertebrae in 88.9% of the cases. Both the linear amount of the axial vertebral rotation and anteroposterior diameter of the neural foramen were significantly associated with deficit in tactile sensation. Axial rotation of the lumbar vertebra is possibly an underlying cause of radiculopathy/back pain and sensory deficient in the lower extremities. This association is probably mediated with the involvement of neural elements in narrowed neural foramen at the side of rotation. 2014/08/14 - 16:08

Laminectomy is a surgical treatment for lumbar stenosis. In some patients, however, back pain may recur after this operation. This study was performed to determine underlying causes of recurrent back pain after laminectomy and examine the possibility of an association between axial rotation and segmental instability after laminectomy. A total of 35 patients with previous laminectomy with and without discectomy and recurrent back pain were recruited. Etiologies of recurrent back pain were investigated. An axially rotated lumbar vertebra was reported, when at extreme parasagittal sections the posterior borders of two successive vertebral bodies were not aligned. The frequency of this image finding was compared before and after laminectomy. An axially rotated lumbar vertebra was present in two patients before operation and in four patients after it. Only two new cases with axial vertebral rotation were identified after laminectomy (p = 0.50). The underlying causes of recurrent low back pain after laminectomy were disc reherniation (57.1%), spondylolisthesis (20%), scarring (8.6%), new axial rotation (5.7%), ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (5.7%) and diastematomyelia (2.9%). According to these findings, recurrent disc herniation and spondylolisthesis are two major causes of recurrent back pain after laminectomy. Axial lumbar vertebral rotation is not associated with instability. 2014/08/14 - 16:08

The major challenge in inflammatory bowel disease is to achieve a sensitive
and specific non invasive diagnostic marker. Recently, S100A12 (Calgranulin
C) have been established to be elevated in the feces of patients with IBD. The
objective was to investigate the utility of fecal S100A12, in comparison to
fecal Calprotectin and standard inflammatory markers, as a screening and distinguishing
marker for IBD and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in patients with chronic diarrhea.
Stool samples were obtained from 173 individuals presenting with gastrointestinal
symptoms requiring endoscopy. Fecal S100A12, fecal Calprotectin and serum S100A12
levels were measured and correlated to final diagnosis and standard tests (ESR,
CRP, platelet count, albumin, perinuclear anti-neutrophil and antineutrophil
cytoplasmic antibodies. Full colonoscopy with histopathological examination
was performed. Patients diagnosed with IBD had elevated fecal S100A12 (median
49.7 mg kg-1) and Calprotectin (median 385 mg kg-1) levels
compared with the patients without IBD (n = 35, S100A12: Median 4.6 mg kg-1,
p<0.0001, Calprotectin: Median 30.5 mg kg-1; p<0.0001). Both
the sensitivity and specificity of fecal S100A12 (cutoff 8 mg kg-1)
for the detection of IBD were 93.91 and 97%, respectively whereas fecal Calprotectin
(cutoff 35 mg kg-1) gave a sensitivity of 93.96% and a specificity
of 84.2%. Both fecal markers were superior to the sensitivities and specificities
of any standard inflammatory test. Both fecal S100A12 and Calprotectin are sensitive
markers of gastrointestinal inflammation but fecal S100A12 provided exceptional
specificity in distinguishing patients with IBD from patients without IBD. 2014/06/25 - 12:51

Vitamin D is an important immune modulator that has an emerging role in inflammatory
and metabolic liver diseases. An association has been established between low
levels of vitamin D and several adverse health outcomes including upper respiratory
and enteric infections, viral hepatitis and HIV infections. It exerts protective
effects during infections by up-regulating the expression of cathelicidin and
β-defensin 2 in phagocytes and epithelial cells. Thus, vitamin D appears
to have systemic antimicrobial effects that may be crucial in a variety of both
acute and chronic illnesses. In the current study, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3)
levels were compared among 75 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection
(Group I), sixty naturally immunized individuals (Group II) and another sixty
age and sex-matched healthy controls. Routine biochemical parameters like hepatitis
markers, hepatitis B virus serology, hepatitis B virus DNA, 25-OHD3
and Parathormone levels were measured. Patients in group I had a significantly
lower 25-OHD level compared with group II and controls (13.9±4.93 vs. 22.1±6.14
and 23.15±8.28 ng mL-1, respectively p<0.001). In contrast, patients
in group I had a higher parathyroid hormone level compared with group II and
control group (103.14±24.5 vs. 75.14±23.4 and 74.1±20.15 pg mL-1,
respectively p<0.001). Also, 25-OHD levels were inversely correlated with
hepatitis B virus DNA levels. The observed diminished 25-OHD levels in patients
infected with hepatitis B virus may be an indicator of the viral replication
status and portends a poor prognosis. 2014/06/25 - 12:51

Pseudallescheria boydii could cause lethal infections involving brain,
lung, eyes and other deep tissue infections both in immune-compromised and immune-competent
patients. Mycetoma and wound infection are also caused by this fungus. Pseudallescheria
boydii usually reported as resistant to Amphotericin B in vivo. Pseudallescheria
boydii, have been implicated as potentially emerging human and veterinary
pathogen. Mycetoma and mycetomatous infections have been reported in both immuno-compromised
and immuno-competent patient caused by Pseudallescheria boydii and by
its asexual state Scedosporium apiospermum. Hence a timely diagnosis
is essential as the organism is often resistant to many antifungal drugs. A
nine year old, healthy girl who was presented with history of trauma, due to
falling down on the tiled floor, incurring a 2 mm wound on her right forearm
at school. Subsequently, the swelling was increasing dramatically in size with
a large amount of black discharge over a short period of time without any foul
smell. The black discharge was collected and sent to Microbiology Laboratory.
Culture and microscopy for bacteria were negative while potassium hydroxide
(KOH) microscopy reported positive for fungal element with septate mycelium.
Fungal culture yielded Pseudallescheria boydii. It was treated successfully
with surgical debridement under general anesthesia and systemic antifungal therapy.
Patient was initially started with liposomal Amphotericin B and shifted to voriconazole
after identification of fungus. Patient was discharged home on oral voriconazole
and showed no complications on follow up. The report is a pointer to the fact
that P. boydii can cause mycetoma, hence, an early diagnosis and treatment
of infection could avert the dangerous outcome. A late diagnosis after formation
of mycetoma could make clinical treatment a difficult task and resulted in failure
and amputation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case
of Pseudallescheria boydii causing wound infection in Saudi Arabia. 2014/06/25 - 12:51

Bladder cancer is the one of the most common genito urinary tract malignancy and
more than 90% of bladder cancer is of urothelial carcinomas that ranks fourth
among cancers occurring in males. Although, over 50% of cases are diagnosed
by biopsy at an early stage. The prognosis is sometimes difficult to assess
because of heterogeneity, multifocality and tumor recurrence. In the present
study, among 70 urinary bladder tumor patients, 61 (87%) were of Transitional Cell
Carcinoma (TCC) and 9 (13%) of adenocarcinoma. Similarly, in the observed TCC
patients, high grade is observed in 44 cases (63%) whereas low grade was in
17 cases (24%). The study also revealed among the TCC, 18 (25%) patients have
shown the muscle invasion, 61 (87%) with lamina propria invasion and 18 (25%)
patients with lymph vascular space invasion. 2014/06/25 - 12:51

Acute pancreatitis is not a new disease in Malaysia and the occurrence of the
disease has increased from year to year. Death from the infection of acute pancreatitis
is also on the rise. This is worrying situation for all Malaysians and medical
institution. Therefore, this study aims to identify the strength and significant
predisposing factors to acute pancreatitis based on the most suitable and parsimonious
model. This study used patient’s
data records between 2005 and February 2012 obtained from Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). The Chi-Square test and Mantel-Haenszel test
of homogeneity was used to determine the association among potential risk factors
to acute pancreatitis and the confounding variables in this study, respectively.
Loglinear modeling methods was performed to find the most suitable and parsimonious
model. Parameter estimates and odds ratios were used in testing the effect of
risk factors in acute pancreatitis. Results show that alcohol, diabetes, gallstone
and smoking are significantly associated with acute pancreatitis. In the loglinear
analysis, it was found that homogeneous model is the most parsimonious model
in explaining the potential risk factors to acute pancreatitis. Findings from
test of effect sizes indicate that age and race are significantly associated
between potential risk factor (diabetes, gallstone and smoking) and acute pancreatitis. 2014/05/11 - 10:55

Now-a-days prostate cancer is the second widespread cancer among men. It is important to use new techniques in radiation therapy of prostate cancer that make lower exposure to normal tissues. Notwithstanding the conformal radiotherapy methods with 3-dimensional treatment planning which are known as 3-D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT are using for radiotherapy of prostate cancer, the Co-60 Unit with conventional 2-dimensional treatment planning is still using for radiotherapy of prostate cancer in some of radiotherapy centers, particular in developing countries. Therefore, this study is designed to evaluate the method that with using of shielding blocks and 3-D treatment planning instead of 2-D planning for Co-60 unit therapy, is able to reduce the received dose by critical uninvolved organs such as bladder and rectum. Both treatment planning methods were done on a tissue-equivalent and anthropomorphic phantom in the way of equally weighted 4-field (Box method), that consist of two pairs of parallel-opposed anterioposterior and right and left lateral beams to deliver 200 cGy to isocenter point. TLD-100 dosimeters were used for measuring the absorbed doses of rectum and bladder. Cerrobend blocks for shaping each radiation field were constructed and used in 3-D treatment planning method. The experiments were repeated five times and absorbed dose values compared with paired student's T-test for a confidence level of 95%. The average of measured values of received dose by bladder and rectum in 2-D conventional treatment planning were 117.5±3.4, 120.5±4.6, 80.4±3.8 and 77±3.2 cGy, respectively in 3-D conformal treatment planning. The results show that use of cerrobend blocks in 3-D conformal treatment planning, significantly reduces the absorbed dose to critical uninvolved structures in proportion to 2-D conventional radiotherapy of prostate cancer with using Co-60 unit. 2014/05/11 - 10:55

Essential hypertension is a multifactorial complex trait. It affects around one billion people worldwide. Many genes have been incriminated in its onset. This study aimed to determine the association of the AGT T174M gene variant with essential hypertension in a sample of Algerian population of the Oran city. In this study, we involved 350 subjects, 180 hypertensives and 170 normotensives. Consents were obtained from all the participated subjects. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) combined with Restrictive Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was used to detect the T174M variant of angiotensinogen (AGT) gene. Blood pressure, body height and weight, fasting blood glucose and serum lipid were measured in all subjects. The genotypic and allelic distribution of the T174M variant of the AGT gene did not differ in hypertensives and normotensives group (OR = 1.05; 95% CI [0.583-1.932]; χ2 = 5.298; p>0.05; χ2 = 5.692; p>0.05), where the frequency of genotypes in the patient with essential hypertension was TT: 64.4%; TM: 20.5%; MM: 15% vs. TT: 55.8%; TM: 19.4%; MM: 24.7% for the controls. The allelic frequency was 0.7 vs. 0.66 for the T allele and 0.26 vs. 0.34 for the mutant allele in hypertensives and controls, respectively. This study shows that the T174M variant of the AGT gene is not associated with essential hypertension in this sample of Algerian population of the Oran city. 2014/05/11 - 10:55

To investigate the effect of sub chronic consumption of Periwinkle and Rock snail extracts on liver enzymes and blood in anaemic albino rats was the objective of this study. Twenty-five male and female albino rats were randomly used in the study and were divided into three groups. Anaemia was first introduced into twenty rats after strict corn-meal feeding for three weeks. Group one (5 rats) served as control (normal rat feed and water); group two (10 rats)-anaemic+rat feed and periwinkle extract; group three (10 rats)-anaemic+rat feed and rocksnail extracts. After three weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their blood taken for analysis. In the test for anemia, the result indicated that the rat was anaemic. There was decrease in the blood parameters (Red blood cell, White blood cell, hemoglobin, Pack cell volume) when compared with control at p<0.001. The results for serum AST, ALT and ALP level from anaemic-rock snail fed rats revealed that there was significant decrease (p<0.05) in liver enzyme level when compared with the control. This was similar with anaemic-periwinkle extract-fed rats except in ALP level which was significantly increased (p<0.05) when compared with control. Similarly, there was significant increase in the blood parameters (RBCs, WBCs, Hb Concentration and PCV) and also differential WBC counts from anaemic extracts-fed rats when compared with control rats. This result reveals that subchronic consumption of rock snail and periwinkle extracts on anemic liver enzymes shows no deleterious effect on the liver enzymes and there was also improved state of the blood cells counts. 2014/05/11 - 10:55

Salmonella spp., the most pathogenic genus of the family of Enterobacteriaceae
for man and animals, has many of its pathogenicity determinants still unknown,
although it is systematically studied for more than 100 years. This is mainly
due to the slow development of methods reliably associating the molecular characteristics
of strains or clonal lineages with their observed pathogenicity and epidemiology.
The same has hampered the effective control of animal salmonelloses, thus prevention
of human infections. However, in recent years, many new molecular methods are
developed to genetically, thus also taxonomically, define Salmonella
spp. and are also useful in better understanding the pathogenicity of the microorganism.
A better understanding of the microbe’s pathogenicity is the key to the
development of effective means, such as vaccines, for controlling animal salmonelloses,
regardless of animal species. However, due to their costs and limited molecular
information, serotyping, the classical method for many decades of placing Salmonella
isolates into similar antigenic groups, remains the tool for epidemiologically
studying the microorganism, during the surveillance of animal salmonelloses.
Serotyping, known as the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor, scheme, has produced during
the years a bulk of information contributing to conflicting opinions concerning
the nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella, thus needing constant
revision of the rules managing it. Molecular methods are expected to steadily
resolve these conflicts but they are yet far from replacing the existing system
of naming and grouping Salmonella isolates. Thus, a concise summary of
the existing scientific opinions and rules influencing still today the grouping
of the genus Salmonella, could be useful to veterinarians and others
working with the surveillance of animal salmonelloses. 2014/03/18 - 13:04

Medical image processing and classification are important in medicine. Many Magnetic
Resonance Images (MRI) are taken for an individual. To reduce the radiologist
workload and to enable more efficiency in brain tumor detection and classification.
Many Computer Aided Diagnose (CAD) systems have been developed using different
segmentation methods and classification algorithms. This study synthesizes and
discusses some studies and their results. A Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ)
classifier is used to classify MRI images into normal and abnormal. An initial
experiment consisting of normal and abnormal MRI Brain Tumor dataset from UKM
Medical Center, to observe various versions of LVQ classifiers performance is
conducted.From the extensive and informative studies and numerical experiments,
it is expected to obtain better brain tumor classification in the future using
Multi pass LVQ classifier which obtained the least standard deviation value (0.4)
and the mean accuracy rate is equal to 91%. 2014/03/18 - 13:04

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph
bacteria that has developed resistant to certain antibiotics such as beta-lactams.
Rapid and sensitive detection of MRSA strains in patients, of course, improves
the global health status. In the present study we compared the sensitivity and
specificity of a rapid Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay with a traditional
empiric therapy in MRSA detection, using a literature-derived model. Furthermore,
we tested Aloe Vera (AV) and Trachyspermum ammi L. (TAL) extracts for
evaluating their antibacterial potency against MRSA. Twenty five S. aureus
isolated from the nose and throat of totally 160 samples in 3 different groups,
including 80 healthy subjects, 40 hospital staffs and 40 inpatients. The results
of disk diffusion method showed that phenotypic antibiotic resistance percent
in S. aureus isolates were entirely classified as cloxacillin (100%),
methicillin (100%), penicillin (88%), cefixime (72%), azithromycin (56%), kanamycin
(48%), clarithromycin (48%), ampicillin (48%), erythromycin (48%), amoxicillin
(32%) and tetracyclin (8%). The distribution of antibiotic-resistant mecA gene
according to PCR was 40%. Moreover, the best Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
(MIC) and Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) were 0.3 and 0.62 for both AV
and TAL. Totally, 76% of MICs observed as cloxacillin-resistant. We concluded
that the mecA gene-PCR assay is a rapid, sensitive and clinically useful test
for early detection of MRSA. It is also recommended that more chemical investigations
on AV and TAL require for introducing these extracts as antibacterial agents
for control of MRSA. 2014/03/18 - 13:04

According to an old notion, the axis of “brain-gut-skin” plays a
significant role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This study aimed to compare
gastrointestinal dysfunction symptoms in patients with different severities
of acne vulgaris with their normal counterparts. In this cross-sectional, case-control
study, 120 adolescents and young adults were recruited from two teaching dermatological
clinics over a one-year period (2012-2013). These participants were 30 normal
subjects (controls), 30 patients with mild acne vulgaris, 30 patients with moderate
acne vulgaris and 30 patients with severe acne vulgaris. Frequency of gastrointestinal
dysfunction symptoms including halitosis, gastric reflux, abdominal bloating,
abdominal discomfort, constipation and diarrhea was compared between the controls
and the patients. Serum lipids profile was also compared between the patients
and the controls. All the four studied groups were matched for their members’
age and sex. Controls and the cases with mild acne vulgaris were comparable
in terms of the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms. Frequencies of abdominal
bloating (30% vs. 10%, p = 0.05) and constipation (36.7% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.04)
were significantly higher in the group with moderate acne comparing with the
controls. They were also significant more frequent in the patients with severe
acne comparing with the controls (40%, p = 0.01 and 46.7%, p = 0.01, respectively).
Comparing with the controls, serum lipids profile was significantly deranged
only in the cases with severe acne vulgaris. This study showed that gastrointestinal
dysfunction is associated with moderate-to-sever acne vulgaris. In addition,
serum lipids profile may be abnormal only in severe acne vulgaris. 2014/03/18 - 13:04

Green leafy vegetables make up a large portion of the vitamins and minerals for human body. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of contamination of vegetables to different parasite stages in Iran by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Multiple keywords such as vegetables, parasitic contamination, intestinal parasites and Iran used to search in SID, Magiran, Pubmed, Iranmedex, Irandoc and ISI databases. A total of 43 articles found, of which, eight articles did not have enough information and full text of 14 articles was not available. Finally, 21 studies entered in meta-analysis process. Variance of each study obtained using binomial distribution. Heterogeneity between studies checked using Cochran’s Q Test. Random Effects Model was used to pool the prevalence of parasitic contamination and intestinal parasites in the studies. Among 4359 samples the overall prevalence was estimated results of 37% for parasitic contamination of vegetables in Iran. Vegetables: Scallion, Leek, Basil, Radish, Tarragon, Parsley, Lettuce, Coriander, Spearmint and Garden crest have been studied and parasites: Eggs of Toxocara sp. (75%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (39%), Hymenolepis nana (39%), Hymenolepis diminuta (15%), Fasciola sp. (44%), Taenia spp. (26%), Trichocephal (50%), Trichostrongylus (25%), Ascaris (28%) and cyst of Entamoeba coli (47%), Entamoeba histolytica (25%), chilomastix mesnili (22%) and Giardia lamblia (43%) isolated from vegetables. Highest intensity of contamination (46%) was related to scallion. It may be concluded, despite the relative improvement of sanitary, economic, social and agricultural conditions, the parasites are common in vegetables that are frequently eaten. It is necessary to improve the public health and training methods for washing vegetables. 2014/03/18 - 13:04

The prevalence of intestinal parasites among children in developed and developing
countries is striking. We decided to survey the prevalence of intestinal parasites
among children in the day care centers of Ilam, Iran, given that this has not
been investigated in this region. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine
the prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children. For this study,
we enrolled 650 children whose parents filled out a consent form. A fresh stool
sample was obtained from each child and analyzed using direct methods, including
saline and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques. A standardized questionnaire
which included demographic information, socioeconomic status, type of drinking
water, personal hygiene, parental age and education and number of family members,
was prepared for each child. Of the 650 children, 310 were male and 340 were
female. All of them were under the age of 6 years. The overall infection rate
of intestinal parasites was 14%. The parasites identified in the samples, with
their prevalence in parentheses, include Giardia lamblia (11.7%), Hymenolepis
nana (7.84%), Ascaris lumbricoidese ggs (3.84%), Entamoeba coli
(10.76%), Blastocystis hominis (5.69%), Dientamoeba fragilis (4.30%),
Iodamoeba bütschlii (6.61%) and Entamoeba histolytica (2.92%).
Mixed infections were seen in18% of the samples. The highest and lowest prevalence
was seen with G. lamblia and E. histolytica, respectively. The
parents’ educational level was
significantly associated with prevalence of parasites (p<0.05). E.histolytica,
a deadly parasite, was found during this study. A precise survey of the causes
of these infections and the factors related to distribution of parasites, along
with periodic testing of children and their educators, health management and
staff training, is essential. 2014/03/18 - 13:04

Kombucha is a traditional beverage consumed in various parts of the world.
It is made by fermentation of sugared black tea by a consortium of yeasts and
acetic acid bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that Kombucha possesses
antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and hypocholesterolaemic
properties. Microbial composition of Kombucha association is highly variable
therefore the chemical composition of obtained beverage can vary a lot and affect
products quality. Thus, industrial production of Kombucha beverage is difficult
and defined starter culture is strongly needed for obtaining the product with
standard characteristics. In the present study individual starter cultures were
used to obtain Kombucha like fermented beverage to evaluate its physiological
effects in rat model for further development of functional beverage. Low density
cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine levels elevated by fat diet decreased
during intake of fermented beverage (2.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.). To evaluate
liver cell status alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate Transaminase
(ASAT) were assayed. It was shown that ASAT and ALAT decreased due to fermented
beverage consumption in both-normal and high fat diet group. Zero rat mortality
was observed during fermented beverage intake for 60 days (2.5-7.5 mL kg-1
b.wt.). This study on the consumption of fermented beverage obtained by use
of defined starter suggests that it could be suitable for prevention of some
metabolic disorders, like cardiovascular diseases or liver disorders, attributed
to unhealthy lifestyle like high-fat diet. However, further research on physiological
effects and possible mechanisms of action is needed and human studies would
be welcomed. 2014/03/18 - 13:04

Phytochemicals responsible for toxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities
of extracts obtained from Laportea aestuans (Gaud) were investigated.
Secondary metabolites detected were alkaloids, tannins, resins, saponins and
carbohydrate. Flavonoids, sterols, cardiac glycosides, phenols, glycosides were
however beyond detectable limit. Brine shrimp lethality test on the partition
fractions revealed that hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were toxic
with a lethal dose (LC50) less than 1000 μ mL-1 while
the crude methanol extract with LC50 greater than 1000 μ mL-1
was non-toxic. The antimicrobial assay of the crude extract and their fractions
were carried out by agar well diffusion and pour plate methods against 6 bacteria
(Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellae pneumonae, Salmonella typhi)
and 4 fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus
stolon, Penicillum notatum). All the extracts had broad spectrum
antimicrobial effect at the various concentrations when compared with gentamicin
and tioconazole (antibacterial and antifungal standards respectively). The antioxidant
activity of L. aestuans was determined by three methods; scavenging effect
on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging
effect and ferric thiocynate methods and it was revealed the fractions possessed
significant antioxidant activity when compared with antioxidant standards butylated
hydroxyl anisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol used in the assay. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

Increased Gamma-glutamyl Transferase (GGT) levels have been associated with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to determine if GGT levels are significantly increased in diabetic patients with the metabolic syndrome and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in this group of patients. This study estimated GGT, glucose, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in 60 diabetic outpatients of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) and 34 age matched controls using kinetic colorimetric method for GGT and enzymatic colorimetric method for the others. Thirty nine of the diabetic subjects were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The mean body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Glucose, Triglycerides (TG) and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) levels of the diabetic subjects were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the control group. The mean BMI, waist-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, TG, GGT and AIP levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in diabetics with the metabolic syndrome than controls. They also had a significantly higher (p<0.05) systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG and AIP level than normotensive diabetics without the metabolic syndrome. Normotensive diabetics without the metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher (p<0.05) waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and glucose levels when compared to controls. Gamma-glutamyl Transferase (GGT) levels were raised in diabetics with the metabolic syndrome and could be a marker for increased cardiovascular risk. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

The study was conducted in the laboratories of the Provincial hospital and the University of Ngaoundere. The study was to assess the frequencies and the parasites densities of Plasmodium spp. and the effects of leaves and bark extract of Commelina benghalensis/Steganotaenia araliacea on the malaria parasite. Blood was sampled from patients coming to the hospital for examination. They were submitted for treatment with the plants extract for ten days and with amodiaquine for three days. Sampling on 109 patients revealed that the infestation due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae was 73.4%. The results indicated that malaria is endemic in Ngaoundere where the average infestation is 74.3% and where Plasmodium falciparum is the main causative agent. The infestation varied from one quarter to another with elevated values in Haoussa quarter. The parasite density had the same tendency as that of the infestation. Treatment of patients with a mixture of Commelina benghalensis/Steganotaenia araliacea extract revealed a progressive reduction of infestation up to a total dispiriting of the parasites after 10 days. Five days after the beginning of treatment of patients with plants extract, the average parasite density was significantly reduced (p<0.05), whatever were the resident quarter, the sex and age of patient. When patients were treated with amodiaquine, all the parasites were eliminated 3 days after the beginning of treatment. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

Information about antimicrobial compound derived from Rhodobacteraceae bacterium
is not reported yet. The goal of this study was to get chemical structure of substance
that play an important role inhibits pathogenic bacteria growth. The investigation
of antibacterial compounds derived from ethyl acetate extract of Rhodobacteracea
bacterium from Aaptos sp., was carried out and gave rise a new antibiotic
lead compound. Ethyl acetate extract was run on normal phase open column and reverse
phase high performance liquid chromatographies. High Resolution LC-Mass-Mass,
1D and 2D NMR were used to structural analysis. In this study, reported that Rhodobacteraceae
bacterium that was isolated from sponge Aaptos sp., contained a new
antibacterial compound N-benzyl-2-methoxy-N-(2-[4-nonylphenoxy]ethanamine. This
compound was moderately inhibit against phatogenic Vibrio eltor, Bacillus
subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

Asthma is an inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of breathlessness and wheezing. Though inhaled corticosteroids play a vital role in the treatment of asthma, it alone or with long acting beta agonist cannot control asthma symptoms in most of the patients. The present study aims to assess the two controller medications in the form of oral tablets with inhaled corticosteroid combination in controlling forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in mild to moderate persistent asthma patients. A total of 108 patients with mild to moderate asthma were enrolled in this randomized controlled study from the pulmonary medicine department of a tertiary care hospital. Patients were randomized into two groups viz., Group 1 (n = 54) and Group 2 (n = 54). Group 1 patients received Montelukast and Group 2 patients received Doxofylline. Both the groups received Budesonide inhaler. Pulmonary function test was assessed at the baseline and on follow up days. No significant difference was observed with respect to socioeconomic and educational status of patients between the groups. Significant (p<0.001) improvement in percentage predicted FEV1 after 120 days treatment was observed with both Montelukast and Doxofylline treated groups. There is no statistically significance between the groups. No major adverse events were found during the study period. The study concluded that both controller medications helped in improving lung function. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

Azelaic Acid is a very effective topical medication for treating acne vulgaris.
This study aims to compare the efficacy of 10% azelaic acid gel with hydro-alcoholic
and alcohol-free bases in mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. This randomized, double
blind, clinical trial, 40 patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were
recruited from Sina Hospital from November 2009 through March 2011. They randomized
in two equal age and sex-matched groups, receiving 10% azelaic acid gel with
either hydro-alcoholic base or alcohol-free base once at night on their face
for eight consecutive weeks. All the patients were revisited on weeks 1, 2,
4, 6 and 8 after treatment and facial acne lesions were counted on each session.
Possible complications, as well as the effect of skin type were investigated.
Total, inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesion counts decreased significantly
in both groups by the end of study period. However, there was no significant
difference between the two groups in this regard (p<0.05). There were minor,
self-limited complications, including 3 cases of mild itching in both groups.
For the count of inflammatory lesions, azelaic gel with alcoholic base was significantly
more effective than azelaic gel with alcohol-free base in patients with oily
facial skin (p = 0.02). All the patients (100%) were very satisfied with their
treatments. In conclusion, both 10% azelaic gels with hydro-alcoholic and alcohol-free
bases were comparably effective against mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. In patients
with oily skin, however, 10% azelaic acid with hydro-alcoholic base was superior
to the medication with alcohol-free base in patients with oily skin. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

Both Acne vulgaris and infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP) are very
prevalent all over the world. The objective of this study was to examine possible
association between HP infection and various severities of Acne vulgaris. In
this case-control study, 100 adolescents and young adults were recruited from
two educational dermatological centers in Tabriz over a one-year period (2012-2013),
including 25 normal subjects (controls) and 75 patients with Acne vulgaris (mild
= 25, moderate = 25, severe = 25). Infection with HP was investigated using
13C-urea Breath Test (UBT). Serum level of immunoglobulin G (IgG)
against HP was also measured in all the participants. All the groups were matched
for their participants’ age and
sex. The rate of HP infection was 56% in the control group, 60% in the cases
with mild Acne vulgaris, 72% in the cases with moderate Acne vulgaris and 88%
in the cases with severe Acne vulgaris. In terms of the rate of HP infection,
there was no significant difference between the controls and the cases with
mild Acne vulgaris (p = 0.77), nor between the controls and the patients with
moderate Acne vulgaris (p = 0.24). The rate of HP infection, however, was significantly
higher in the cases with severe Acne vulgaris comparing with the controls (p
= 0.01). Mean serum level of IgG was also significantly higher in the same group
(1.87±1.62 U vs. 2.98±1.29 U, p = 0.05). Based on the findings
of the present study, a significant association was present between severe Acne
vulgaris and HP infection. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

Diminished hair diameter has been suggested as an early indicator of androgenic
alopecia. The objective of the present work is to examine hair diameter changes
after appropriate treatments in patients with androgenic alopecia, considering
other possible interfering factors such as sex, natural hair color and location
of hair sampling on the scalp. In a cross-sectional, case-control setting, 41
patients with androgenic alopecia (the case group) and 41 age and sex-matched
healthy individuals (the control groups) were recruited from a referral dermatological
center in Tabriz from September 2008 to December 2011. Patients received standard
treatments for six months. Hair diameter was measured using a standard digital
micrometer (Mitutoyo 0.001 mm, Japan) at baseline and six months later in both
groups. In the case group, the mean hair diameter increased significantly from
0.052±0.008 to 0.055±0.008 m, 6 months later (p = 0.03). In the control group,
the change of the mean hair diameter was not statistically significant in the
controls. Frontal hairs were the While the mean hair diameter in female patients
was higher, the mean change of hair diameter after treatment was significantly
more in male patients. The mean hair diameter was significantly higher in light-brown
than in dark-brown hairs of the patient’s thinnest samples, in this study. In
conclusion, although hair diameter increased significantly after treatment,
other factors such as gender, hair color and location on the scalp may also
play significant roles in this regard. 2014/01/16 - 23:55

A variety of antigens are secreted and excreted by parasites present in the
blood, faeces, urine and other fluids of the infected host. These antigens have
potential for use in immunodiagnosis and vaccine development. In an attempt
to develop a suitable vaccine against F. gigantica infection, two antigens
were isolated and purified from excretory/secretory (E/S) products as cysteine
protease and fatty acid binding proteins (CP and FABP) of the parasite by immunoaffinity
chromatography. Parasitological and immuno-logical parameters were standardized
using the sera from experimentally non-infected (group A) infected (group B),
immunized with CP (group C), immunized with CP and infected (group D), immunized
with FABP (group E) and immunized with FABP and infected (group F). The mean
worm burdens and bile egg count after challenge were reduced significantly by
37.7 and 55.5%, respectively in rabbits vaccinated with CP. In contrast, low
significant reduction in worm burdens and bile egg count were observed in rabbits
immunized with FABP after challenge (23.5 and 35.7%, respectively). All F.
gigantica infected rabbits showed an increased Igs and cytokines levels.
On the other hand, immunization of rabbits with CP or FABP induced a significant
expression of humoral antibodies (IgM, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4) and cytokines
(IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α) with higher level in case of CP than FABP.
From this study, we can deduce that F. gigantica CP is a relevant candidate
for vaccination against fascioliasis, while the level of protection used by
FABP may not appear sufficient enough to protect these ruminants against the
deleterious effects of Fasciola infection. 2014/01/16 - 01:00

Oxidative stress resulting from enhanced free radical formation and/or a defect
in antioxidant defenses has been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental
diabetic neuropathy. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of
α-lipoic acid a potent free radical scavenger on glycemic control, oxidative
stress and antioxidant enzymes of sciatic nerve in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced
diabetic neuropathy model in rats. This study was carried out on 120 male rats.
All rats were divided into six main equal groups, 20 animals each. Group 1 (control
group) received no drugs, group 2 (diabetic group) received a single dose of
streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg kg-1 i.p.) for the induction of diabetes,
group 3 (normal α-lipoic acid-treated group), group 4 (diabetic alpha-lipoic
acid-treated group), group 5 (diabetic insulin-treated group), group 6 (diabetic
alpha-lipoic acid and insulin-treated group). Eight weeks after diabetes induction
therapeutic treatment with α-lipoic acid (54 mg kg-1 b.wt. i.p.,
daily) and insulin (2 U s.c daily) were given either alone or in combination
and continued for six weeks. Equivalent volumes of saline were given subcutaneously
to the rats in the other diabetic and non diabetic control groups. Blood samples
and sciatic nerve tissues were collected from all animal groups two times at
4 and 6 weeks from the onset of treatment for determination of serum glucose
and nitric oxide in addition to sciatic nerve L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA) and
antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX) activities. The obtained results revealed
that, a significant increase in serum glucose, sciatic nerve L-MDA concentrations
and GPX activity with marked reduction in SOD and CAT activities were observed
in STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. Treatment with alpha lipoic acid,
insulin and their combination significantly decreased serum glucose and sciatic
nerves L-MDA concentrations and significantly increased serum nitric oxide concentration
as well as sciatic nerve SOD, CAT and GPX activities. These results suggest
that, α-lipoic acid treatment with insulin improved significantly the diabetes-induced
deterioration and attenuates the status of antioxidant enzymes and biomarkers
of oxidative stress produced by diabetic neuropathy and its complication in
diabetes mellitus. 2014/01/16 - 01:00

In 1995 a huge revolution occurred in Iran’s
health system, the entire medical-related education program integrated into
the Ministry of health. This paper aims to explain the beneficial and adverse
effect of the integration after 27 years of implementation. For this purpose,
responses from two Round Delphis were analyzed, addressing Iranian medical education
policymakers. This paper provides a qualitative survey carried out using the
Delphi method. Results of other studies as well as the information gathered
by means of several semi-structured interviews conducted fed into the Delphi
instrument for measuring each item importance. Participants were selected according
to their experience and their role on the integration of Medical Education and
Health Service Delivery. Statements were around the integrated system strengths
and weaknesses in five core subjects which were combined and formed 10 major
subscales. In addition, two other subscales extracted to show barriers and recommendations;
so statements were organized into 12 subscales. New integrated system was successful
in enlarging education facilities to address acute human resource shortage.
Furthermore, the results of the analyses indicated 3 most ranked statements
were "Main focus of universities is on specialty and subspecialty training",
"Many of researches are done just to be published in ISI journals" and "The
faculty members' promotion criteria are not related to integration". The study
results led us to suggest a revised approach to developing new integrated system
in which promoting the quality of education and health service delivery is emphasized
without pursuing an increase in the production capacity as a main objective. 2014/01/16 - 01:00

Using unhealthy dietary oils and fats is a major public problem in Iran and
many other countries. The objective of this study was to examine the impact
of a short-term, public educational campaign on correcting knowledge, attitude
and practice of a target population regarding dietary oils. In this knowledge,
Attitude and Practice (KAP), combined pretest and posttest, cross-sectional
study, five cities in northwestern Iran with poor-to-moderate socioeconomical
status were randomly selected. Literate, married females aged 18-45 years were
randomly selected and questioned using a standard, validated questionnaire from
September 2010 through November 2011. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the
sampled population in terms of dietary oils were assessed before (pretest, n
= 920) and after (posttest, n = 735) a six-month, public educational campaign
through the mass media and other similar methods. Domains of the questionnaire
were about type of healthy oils/fats, proper using/reusing, appropriate way
of keeping/storing and criteria for purchasing. At the post test, all the investigated
domains except for knowledge about correct action in the cases with oil color
change and attitude toward choosing between high-fat and low-fat diets were
significantly improved (p<0.01). The most dramatic change was in terms of
knowledge about the most healthiest dietary oil. The rate of unhealthy oil consumption
decreased by roughly 20% (from 70-50%) after the educational campaign in the
target population. According to the findings of the present study, a short term,
public educational campaign can correct knowledge, attitude and practice of
a target population even with a poor-to-moderate socioeconomical status regarding
healthy way of dietary oil use. The results of the present work may be found
useful by similar societies with such a problem. 2014/01/16 - 01:00

Although Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is accurate in diagnosis Anterior
Cruciate Ligament (ACL) rupture, in many cases using indirect signs are inevitable
for appropriate decision-making. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic
accuracy of complete medial meniscal tear (floating meniscus) in predicting
ACL rupture. In a cross-sectional, prospective study, 620 knee MR images were
reviewed in Tabriz Sheikholraeis Center from September 2011 to January 2013.
Cases with knee degenerative disease, articular infection, intervening fracture(s)
and previous constructive surgeries on the knee were excluded. Totally, 110
cases had floating meniscus in their MR images. ACL rupture was reported in
355 cases, including 206 cases with partial and 149 cases with total subtypes.
ACL rupture and floating meniscus coexisted in 97.3% of the studied cases. A
floating meniscus predicted the presence of a concomitant ACL rupture with sensitivity,
specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 30.1,
98.9, 97.3 and 51.4%, respectively. In conclusion, a complete medial meniscal
rupture or floating meniscus is a highly specific indicator of ACL injury in
patients with equivocal findings in their MR images. Unlike other suggested
indirect signs of ACL rupture, floating meniscus is independent of patient’s
position during MR imaging. 2014/01/16 - 01:00

The serum level of S100B has been proposed as an indicator of prognosis in
head trauma; however, there are scant reports in this regard. This study aimed
to investigate the prognostic value of serum S100B in patients with severe head
trauma. In a cross-sectional, prospective study, 72 patients with severe head
trauma (Glasgow coma scale = 8) were recruited from Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching
Center from September 2009 to December 2011. Serum level of S100B was measured
on admission, 48 h later and at discharge/decease by enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA) method. According to their in-hospital outcome, the patients were
categorized as discharged (group A, n = 42), expired due to cerebral injury
(group B, n = 16) and expired due to non-cerebral causes (group C, n = 14).
The three groups were comparable in terms of age and sex. While the mean level
of serum S100B was not significantly different between the three groups on admission
and at the time of discharge/decease, it was significantly higher in group B
(2.4±1 μU mL-1) than in groups A (1.0±0.5 μU mL-1)
and C (1.5±0.5 μU mL-1) 48 h after discharge (p = 0.001). Serum
S100B levels on all three occasions were significantly correlated with Glasgow
Coma scale in a reverse fashion. According to the Marshall grading system, the
brain trauma was of grade I, II, III, IV and V in 18, 16, 13, 13 and 12 cases,
respectively. The mean level of the serum S100B was significantly higher in
grade V only when it was measured 48 h after admission (p = 0.02). In conclusion,
serum level of S100B is a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality in
patients with severe head trauma, when it is measured after 48 h of admission.
It is also correlated with radiologic grade of the brain injury in such cases. 2014/01/16 - 01:00

Various commonly-used products have been reported to contain chemicals that could disrupt estrogen and testosterone hormone. As trade secrets, these chemicals are generally listed as fragrance to mask individual identity. In this study, the reproductive implications of two commonly used perfumes (designated as F1 and F2) in Nigeria were carried out. Sixty adult male wistar rats (12-13 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (A-F) of ten rats each. Group A and B rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of normal saline for 56 days and 112 days, respectively via whole body inhalation. Group C and D rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of a fragrance product designated as F1 for a period of 56 days and 112 days, respectively while Group E and Group F rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of a designated fragrance product F2 for a period of 56 days and 112 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed a significant (p<0.005) decrease in body weight and absolute testicular weight of the rat models exposed to fragrance when compared to the control groups. It was also observed that the concentration, mobility, livability and morphology of spermatozoa from groups C, D, E and F were significantly lower (p>0.005) when compared to values of the control group A and B. Based on the spermiographic evaluation from this study, fragrance materials could have an adverse effect on spermatozoa of the intact male wistar rats. 2014/01/16 - 01:00

Probiotics are defined as “microbial food supplements” with favorable
effects on the consumers. The selection of probiotic microorganisms depends
on a number of aspects including safety, functional and technological characteristics.
Increased incidence of microbial resistance to antibiotics has triggered renewed
efforts to develop probiotics in the treatment of gastric aliments. This review
outlines the uses of probiotics and their novel applications and developments
for healthcare. The biomedical applications of probiotics in the prophylaxis
and treatment of different disease conditions such as diarrhea, constipation,
hypercholesterolaemia, vaginitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, colon cancer,
bladder cancer, breast cancer and liver cancer are discussed. Furthermore, stimulation
immune system, weight gain improvement in premature infants, reduction of incidence
of respiratory tract infections and prevention of intestinal infections are
also highlighted and current challenges are described. 2013/09/17 - 09:00

The quest for an ideal material that could mimic and replace damaged articular cartilage tissue, has been the focus of several past and current researches. Metals, ceramics and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) have shown some success in Total Joint Replacements (TJR). However, there is still a need to develop materials that would possess the physiological, engineering and tribological properties of natural cartilage tissue and form suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering of cartilage. This is to overcome the drawbacks of total joint replacements such as excessive surgery, stress shielding, harmful wear particles, and an abnormal recovery, among others. The review touches upon the properties and structure of natural cartilage tissue, the problem of arthritis and follows it up with studies on various polymeric materials that have been considered for cartilage replacement and tissue engineering. Outcomes of these studies will be helpful in optimizing structure-property relations and further converge to an ideal material for cartilage repair. 2013/09/17 - 09:00