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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Social Sciences

While involved in organising an empowerment seminar for the Igbo rural youths, the authors investigated resilience among rural adolescents and young adults. Three hundred and twenty nine (329) adolescents (n = 162) and young adults (n = 167), comprising 159 males and 170 females, were participants. They completed the 14-item Resilience scale and provided some relevant demographic information. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in resilience on account of age, gender and level of education. Young adults had significantly higher resilience scores than adolescents. No significant difference was found in resilience scores of males and females. Participants with higher education had significantly higher resilience scores than those with lower education. Of all the interaction effects tested, only age * gender * education had a significant interaction effect on resilience. Discussion of the findings were based on the literature, realities of life in contemporary Igbo society and the authors’ observations.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.86.96 2014/07/19 - 19:26

Many students believe that drinking alcohol is part of the collegiate experience and showing that one consumes alcohol is an important part of establishing that one fits into this atmosphere. Facebook is one means in which college students present the appearance of social conformity in order to gain peer approval; yet, in accordance with Privacy Calculus Theory, students also need to weigh the potential cons of non-peer disapproval for drinking disclosures. However, for the process of Privacy Calculus theory to work with regards to peer acceptance, students need to obtain feedback from their peers in order to accurately assess the pros and cons of different levels of disclosure. Seven separate focus groups involving a total of 46 students at a small, private college in Pennsylvania were conducted to explore whether college students perceive limitations in appropriateness for Facebook drinking posts and, subsequently if they do anything to peers to express disapproval if this line is crossed. Findings suggest that college students consider Facebook posts about underage drunken behavior and about drunken vomiting inappropriate because non-peer Facebook friends, such as family, may see the posts; and, additionally, in the case of vomiting, because sharing such behavior is deemed unnecessary and excessive. However, findings also suggest that students ignore these inappropriate posts without offering any sanctioning comments to their peers and in many instances actually find these posts “entertaining” even though these students form negative opinions of the discloser. This questions how well Facebook works towards helping late adolescents understand the approved behaviors of their cohort and, in accordance with Privacy Calculus Theory, how accurately peers can evaluate the pros and cons of disclosure.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.77.85 2014/07/19 - 19:26

Training physicians who are expert in many medical aspects is the most improtant mission of medical universities. One of these aspects, is professional behavior achievement. One of the important goals in training of ethics, is recognition of conflicts in different parts of ethics and having logical viewpoint for resolving and analyzing these conflicts. This descriptive and analytical study was done to evaluate the efficacy of medical ethics education in medical students´ professional attitudes improvement. One hundred and two medical students were selected randomly in different steps of education and were questioned and their opinions correlation with stage of education and gender were evaluated. There was a significant difference between female viewpoint (in roles of ethic course which is presented in preclinical step in professional attitude improvement) (P = 0.009) and also a significant difference was seen in the viewpoint score between student stage with intern stage (P = 0.031). Medical students in educational student stage believe ethic course improve medical professionalism. Since there is no special course to train medical students in professionalism, some interventions are required in this field to improve this aspect of physicians' professional life.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.74.76 2014/07/13 - 10:36

The northern coast of Java island Indonesia inherited old cities that hold important role in the spread of Islam. It has a strong correlation with the legend of Walisanga that were acted around the 16th century. The Ancient city of Kudus plays an important role in spreading Islam in the coastal line of Java. Kudushas witnessed the glory of the first Islamic Sultanate in Java. Sunan Kudus was very skillful in transforming Hindu teachings into Islamic teachings. They developed a settlement on the west side of Gelis River, thus the name “Kudus Kulon” (West Kudus). The social-economy independence of Kudus makes it relatively stable to change. The ethnical dynamics of coastal cities have major influence in the Muslim settlement in Kudus Kulon, this is visible from, among them, the building orientations and the spatial arrangement. However, the pressure of modernization-capitalization of the surrounding neighborhood results to several changes. This review is necessary considering the tradition of living of the Muslim community in that city has been here for centuries and has been the identity of the environment. The research will contribute to enrich to the architectural theory especially for a place of local wisdom. The locus of this research is in KampungKauman Kudus Kulon. The research method is historical and ethnographic. The purpose of this research is to understand the theme of tradition of living in the Muslim community of Kudus Kulon. The result of the research is the four concepts include: (1) Center and Orientation, (2) Controlled access; (3) Space of agreements; and (4) High level privacy. The changes that happen in the elements that fill the spaces caused by the shift of idealism as a result of the demanding situation. This result is beneficial to the strengthening of the local identity.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.63.73 2014/07/09 - 23:12

This study investigates the use of mobile phones and tablets for learning purposes among university students in Vietnam. For this purpose, the research is based on relevant technology acceptance literature and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is proposed to analyze the adoption of mobile devices and smart phones by Vietnam students for accessing course materials, searching the web for information related to their discipline, sharing knowledge, conducting assignments etc. Employing structural equation modeling (SEM) technology, the model was assessed based on the data collected from 301 participants using a survey questionnaire. These results validate the power of TAM constructs and its appropriateness for predicting acceptance of mobile learning. Usefulness had the highest path coefficients and was a strong predictor of behavioral intention and attitude to use and thus actual use. The proposed TAM model also can improve the understanding of students’ motivation by suggesting what external factors are the most important in enhancing students acceptance of mobile learning.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.51.62 2014/07/05 - 09:52

The purpose of this study is to provide some background information on autism and how physical activity may be helping individuals with autism. Increasing rates of autism have been noted: Many researchers are involved in finding treatment methods that can help autistic children. Some studies have provided evidence that physical exercise and playing organized sport has been shown to be a beneficial intervention for the treatment of autistic individuals. The development of both motor and social skills has been seen to improve from physical exercise, which presents a challenge to individuals with autism.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.46.50 2014/06/29 - 16:15

With the importance of aesthetics in current preschool curriculum, children’s aesthetics development and deloading learning plays a special attention to the relationship between technology instruments and the three critical early childhood education activities, namely music teaching and learning, visual arts and children’s pretend play in early childhood education. A rigorous literature review in Dewey, Steiner and Vygotsky explore the argument that technology instruments play a crucial role in children’s daily lives. After carefully elaborating the relevant literature, this study arrives at three major conclusions firstly, indeed technology instruments in music teaching facilitate the quality and efficiency in the young children’s learning motivation. Secondly, technology instruments in visual arts facilitate the quality and efficiency in the learning motivation of children and finally, technology instruments of music facilitate children’s performance in their pretend play, especially in terms of emotional expression, emotional regulation, emotional utilization and interpersonal relationships. Further, the study reveals that during the application of technology instrument in children’s music, visual-arts and pretend play, adults’ scaffolding and assistance is no doubt necessary during children’s learning and development process.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.39.45 2014/04/28 - 14:13

This study provides practical “nuts and bolts” advice on developing and teaching a new online course for first-time online instructors. The advice is predominantly based on the observations and experiences of two instructors who developed and taught online courses for the first time on the “maiden voyage” of a newly established online MBA program and subsequent online teaching experiences. The lessons learned the “hard way” are discussed so instructors who are developing and teaching online courses for the first time within the context of a new program can avoid some “learning curve” problems.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.33.38 2014/04/25 - 19:27

A drug issue is a problem at both national and international levels. The root causes of the problems lie inside and outside the humans. To solve the problems in a sustainable way, it is essential to get cooperation from many parties. The research aimed to study the situations and prevention and solution of drugs in the border villages, to construct the model to prevent and solve the drug issues and to evaluate the model for preventing and solving the drugs prevalent in the border villages. The work was a qualitative research. It analyzed documentary data and those from the field study gained by surveying, observing, interviewing, focus group and workshop. Twenty border villages in Khemarat district were used as the samples which derived by a specific random sampling. The research found that (1) as regards the drug situations, the drugs were prevalent in Khemarat. There were two guidelines to deal with the situation: Internal factor or participation from all; external factors or the cooperation between the state and the community residents. (2) Considering the guidelines for constructing the model for preventing drugs, there were four types of measures: (1) Integration from all sectors, (2) objectives in constructing the model which consisted of two items: 2.1 promotion and support for the state officials’ performance, 2.2 observation and protection of the community members from drugs. (3) The process of constructing the model was composed of the following: Finding a leader, communication to effect changes, multilateral communication in society, community participation in solving the problems, linking ideas from a variety of people, public forum to exchange the ideas, feedback on problems, turning burdens into energy, progress in people’s participation. (4) evaluation of the state officials’ and the community’s participation. (3) Given the suitability and practicality of the model, the model in question was found to be suitable and also found to be feasible in preventing and solving the drug issue were 89.6 percentage and 83.9 percentage. A further research should be conducted on the cooperation between the state and private sectors in planning to prevent and solve the drug issues along Thai-Lao border villages. As for the application of the model in the study, the model can be formalized as a main policy for the Interior Ministry. It is also possible to be made as a handbook to be distributed to the state agencies, the private organizations, the communities and the border villages.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.26.32 2014/04/18 - 19:27

The objective of this study is to examine how coping strategies and perceived social stigmatization predicts the psychological wellbeing of female partners of prisoners in Ibadan, Nigeria. Using the purposive sampling techniques, a total of one hundred and nine (109) female partners of prisoners in Ibadan participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged between 20 years to 65 years. Data collection was through the use of questionnaires. 2×2×2 ANOVA and T-test was used to test the hypothesis. Findings indicates that coping strategies (problem focused and emotion focused) and perceived social stigmatization jointly predicted psychological well-being with (F (1, 101) = 13.50; p<0.001). Also there was significant difference between the psychological wellbeing of partners with low (X = 72.76, SD = 10.28) perceived social stigmatization and High (× = 66.39, SD = 7.37) perceived social stigmatization, (t = 3.65; df = 107; p<0.05).

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.15.25 2014/04/04 - 16:02

This study aims to investigate the parental attitudes towards young children’s learning English in kindergarten at an early age. The subjects of the research survey are comprised of 189,792 young children enrolled in Taiwan kindergartens as the population. This number underwent stratified random sampling using a ratio of 0.5%, yielding a total of 949 samples. The number of valid questionnaires recovered was 709 and the valid response rate was 76.2%. The results of the subsequent analysis of the data are indicated as follows: Parents living in central and northern Taiwan with educational backgrounds of graduate school or higher tend to disagree in their attitudes towards young children learning English at an early age as compared to the attitudes of parents living in southern Taiwan with high school degrees. Parents agreeing more with secular parenting concepts tend to concur more in their attitudes towards young children learning English at an early age. The views of parents living in various regions with different educational backgrounds towards young children learning English at an early age are primarily affected by their views on secular parenting concepts. Specific research implications of these findings are discussed in the latter part of this article.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.7.14 2014/03/21 - 19:31

Agency (related to intentionality and the importance of choices) and free will (“could have done otherwise”) have been confounded in previous psychological research, with assessments and manipulations of free will often including items related to agency. Therefore, correlates previously associated with free will may, to some extent, be based on agentic assumptions. In this study 152 college students from a central Texas university, participating in on-line research using Qualtrics, read one of four essays that separately manipulated agency and free will in a 2×2 design. After reading the essays, participants completed assessments of blame, agency and free will. As hypothesized, the free will measure, but not the agency measure, significantly predicted blame, F (1,128) = 4.09, p<0.05. Although the manipulations were not successful in impacting the levels of agency or free will, the potential for experimentally manipulating the factors independently was illustrated. Free will and agency were moderately correlated, r (132) = 0.55, p<0.001, indicating that, in the understanding of laypersons, the two concepts are to some extent connected and likely related to low levels of deterministic beliefs in the U.S. culture.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2014.1.6 2014/02/15 - 21:41

To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists, literatures, social workers, humanitarian workers, sportsman and sportswomen, athletes, singers, actors, actresses from history and from the current time. Their zodiac signs were found from their birth days. The number of celebrities for each of the zodiacs was found for each of the sample sizes. Bar plots and scatter plots were made with the zodiacs as the x and the number of celebrities as the y variables. For academic interests for the high school juniors as well as for the illustrative uses in mathematics textbooks, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line for each sample were found. Also, the probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs in each of the sample sizes were calculated. Besides, the correlation coefficients between the variables were calculated. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in each of the sample sizes and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample size was increased to 200 by including 100 more celebrities and later to 300 by including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.164.172 2014/02/14 - 16:23

The playtime and recreation plays an important role in child development. “Surplus energy” Spencer says That Both the man and the animal have the excess energy That are used in the activity fun. As we descended into the educational development Spencer Noted there was a decrease of fun Because The energy was used to meet basic needs. He Noted That in the higher animals there is a greater conservation of energy That Is Expressed in the activity fun. In 1900 Carl Cross argued That the recreational activity is a kind of exercise used to develop the individual’s mental and motor activities. A sort of pre-exercise To ensure that structures are innate Certain transformed into complex structures and more December Especially Those Which are most suitable to environmental changes. The recreational activities are growing and changing together with the child’s psychological and intellectual development, even if they REMAIN a milestone in the life of every person regardless of his age. Through the game as Schiller reminds us, “the man is fully human Only When he plays”, through the game as everyone keeps his mind free from any thought, I know it has to be atto download his emotions and his instinct. The Game Becomes meaningful to the child’s intellectual development, as When he plays, he Managed to surprise Himself by surprise and acquires new ways That allow them to interact with the outside world. In the game, the child Develops Their intellectual capabilities, emotional and relational. Becomes an instrument for the child Because it helps to develop creativity, helps him to experience cognitive abilities, so he can get in touch with his peers, gives life to the development of his personality.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.159.163 2014/01/30 - 04:53

The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does people’s awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide the general public to be attentive and participate in the operations of non-profit organizations? These questions require in-depth investigation. This study bases on the experiments and concepts of fairness measurement in information integration theory to comprehend the integrated model of social stratification in the public. By means of analyzing the awareness and orientation of the public to the constitution of social stratification which lead the public to identify themselves with the visions of non-profit organizations and the motion of participating non-profit matters to provide the interrelated recommendations of proceeding non-profit matters to non-profit organizations and the government. Comparing the cognitive algebraic functions of input information and outcome information of various groups in the social strata, the only difference is that if the input information is education background and the outcome information profession prestige. Empirically, non-profit organizations promoting and encouraging people to engage in occupational aid related activities could find different methods available.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.151.158 2014/01/23 - 20:11

Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1) family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2) Chinese Language; (3) Performing Arts and (4) Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.136.145 2014/01/10 - 05:13

This study aims to evaluate the influence of participation in society-based cooperatives on social health of female households, which is an important factor in the life of these women. The statistical society of this research is all female headed households who have visited the Social Services Center of Region 3 of Tehran Municipality since early 2011. The participation of female headed households in group activities such as formation of cooperatives has shown strong effects on improving social health index. Among the indices of social health such as participation, integration and actualization, social acceptance is more matured indicating the influence of such activities on the growth of positive feeling on others and environment and it has an important role in developing the process of empowerment.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.146.150 2014/01/10 - 05:13

Rivers and stream corridors provide a variety of valuable resources including aquatic habitats for fish and other organism, riparian habitats for fish and other organism, riparian habitats for vegetation and terrestrial wildlife. They also provide potential recreational and nature tourism activities. In order to fully identify potential recreational and activities, assessment of recreation resource element should be carried out. The objective of this study was to plan for nature tourism activities using river-based resources and recreational assessment of Sungai Dinding, Manjung, Perak. Uniqueness ratio of each zone for was measured along a 7 km stretch of Sungai Dinding. The highest uniqueness ratio value was Zone 5 with the total value of 13.20. Zone 3 and 1 ranked the second and third respectively with the total value of 9.59 and 8.79. In the physical and chemical category, Zone 5 has the highest score with the value of 6.23. The highest uniqueness value scored in this area is the width of the river during low flow and bank height. Several recreational and nature tourism activities were suggested as a result of the assessment. Building of facilities such as jetties and fishing docks are proposed to enhance recreational experience to the people who want to enjoy the many activities in Sungai Dinding. This approach helps natural resource managers to plan for nature tourism activities.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.127.135 2014/01/05 - 13:37

Rivers and stream corridors provide a variety of valuable resources including aquatic habitats for fish and other organism, riparian habitats for fish and other organism, riparian habitats for vegetation and terrestrial wildlife. They also provide potential recreational and nature tourism activities. In order to fully identify potential recreational and activities, assessment of recreation resource element should be carried out. The objective of this study was to plan for nature tourism activities using river-based resources and recreational assessment of Sungai Dinding, Manjung, Perak. Uniqueness ratio of each zone for was measured along a 7 km stretch of Sungai Dinding. The highest uniqueness ratio value was Zone 5 with the total value of 13.20. Zone 3 and 1 ranked the second and third respectively with the total value of 9.59 and 8.79. In the physical and chemical category, Zone 5 has the highest score with the value of 6.23. The highest uniqueness value scored in this area is the width of the river during low flow and bank height. Several recreational and nature tourism activities were suggested as a result of the assessment. Building of facilities such as jetties and fishing docks are proposed to enhance recreational experience to the people who want to enjoy the many activities in Sungai Dinding. This approach helps natural resource managers to plan for nature tourism activities.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.127.135 2014/01/05 - 13:37

The education of the girl-child has suffered many setbacks both in the past and at the present. As a result some girls are denied access while others are forced to drop out-of-school especially in rural Ghana. This study therefore examined the effects of marriage arrangements on girl-child education in Bolni, a rural community in the Nanumba North District of the Northern Region, Ghana. The study adopted a quantitative method of research design and employed questionnaire in collecting data. Eighty respondents were sampled for the study. The study used simple regression analysis to determine the relationship between marriage arrangements and girl-child education while t-test was used to validate the hypotheses. Exchange, Betrothal and preferred marriage arrangements all had relationships with girl-child education and the effects of such relationships were inimical to their ability to access school or remain in school. Hence the increase in the number of girls involved in a marriage arrangement led to a corresponding increase in the number of girls who were either denied access to or dropped out from school. It is recommended that, school social workers, community workers and gender activists should educate parents to do away with such marriages and invest in their girls’ education.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.119.126 2013/11/05 - 17:12

This was a study conducted to identify the challenges that children in rural areas encounter in education. Most of these challenges affect the educational aspirations and dreams of these children. These issues were explored in group and in-depth interviews with the children, parents and teachers at Agortikope village. Some of the major issues discovered centered on financial difficulties, inadequate learning and teaching materials, poor infrastructure, teacher absenteeism, amongst others. The Human Capital theory which stresses the significance of education and training as the key to development and participation in the new global economy guided the study. The participants for the study were 17. About 12 pupils from classes 4 to 6 and 2 teachers, 2 parents of the participants and the headmaster of the school. The studies revealed one major thing; that these children have dreams, goals and aspirations but are also uncertain of achieving them because of all the challenges that they face.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.112.118 2013/11/01 - 18:43

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Van Hiele’s phases of learning using tangrams on 3rd grade primary school students’ levels of geometric thinking at the first (visual) and second (analysis) level. The study further investigated if high, moderate and low ability students acquire better mastery in geometric thinking at the end of tangram activities. Pre-test and post-test single group experimental design was employed in the study. A total of 221 students enrolled in Grade Three during the 2013 educational year formed the sample. The students learned Two-dimensional geometry and Symmetry through the Van Hiele’s phases of learning using tangram. A geometric thinking test was administered to students before and after the intervention. The intervention took place for 3 hours. Paired samples t-tests comparing the mean scores of geometric thinking pre-test and the post-test were computed to determine if a significant difference existed. One-way Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was conducted to compare the students’ pretest and posttest mean scores across the three groups: high, moderate and low ability students. The results found that there were significant differences between pre-test and post-test in students’ geometric thinking. It was also found that Van Hiele’s phases of learning using tangrams was able to significantly promote geometric thinking in the van Hiele’s first (visual) and second (analysis) level among high, moderate and low ability students. Low ability students were observed to have the greatest improvement score compared to moderate and high ability students. Thus, the Van Hiele’s phases of learning using tangram can be applied in primary school mathematics to help students achieve better level of geometric thinking.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.101.111 2013/10/02 - 12:44

This study was conducted to ascertain the contribution of women in the oil industry. It also looked at the opportunities available and the barriers that prevent women from attaining higher heights in the oil industry. Findings from the study show several factors (institutional, cultural, social and personal) that prevent women from being employed in the oil industry. The study has implication for policy formulation. It brings to the fore, the fact that governments must institute affirmative action policies to bridge the gap between men and women at all level of the Ghanaian society.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.94.100 2013/09/24 - 07:37

Police work is a masculine job that needs physical strength and force and thus it is male-dominated working environment in Taiwan as in other countries. Under gender mainstreaming, Taiwan’s society has gradually adhere the basic female human rights for equitable employment, with one example being that the Special Examination for Police canceled limits on quotas for females in order to offer equal opportunity employment. However, police often have to face uncertain dangerous situations and so under real operation conditions, if policewomen are exposed to dangerous situations, does this meet the requirements of “protection of maternity” in R.O.C. Constitution? This study finds that females generally perform better in the examination and hence the number of Taiwan’s policewomen is set to significantly increase in the future. If this situation continues, then the fact that policewomen request equal employment on the one hand and request being protected on the other hand may affect the operations of police authorities. This study aims to explore: Whether or not women are suitable to engage in police work?

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.89.93 2013/09/04 - 17:12

As well as having a positive impact on our health, physical activity is useful for increasing self-confidence. In Malaysia, many physical programs have been organized, including the physical activities module included in Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN; the national services program). Unlike other modules, the physical activities module in PLKN is quite different due to the longer period it takes to accomplish the module. The main objective of the physical module in PLKN is to enhance the trainees’ self-confidence and this study aims to discover the effectiveness of the module in this regard; i.e., how much self-confidence do trainees gain and is there any difference in their self-confidence before and after joining the module? This is a quantitative study in which a total of 362 trainees from Putra-Putri Training Camp at Alor Gajah, Malacca were selected as respondents based on multi-stage sampling. The analysis shows that the majority of trainees had a moderate level of self-confidence both pre- and post-test. However, the results demonstrate that the physical module did enhance the trainees’ self-confidence based on the significant difference identified in the mean score between the pre- and post-test. It is recommended that PLKN in Malaysia should be implemented over a longer period; this would provide opportunities for new and challenging activities to be added to the program.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.67.72 2013/08/21 - 08:41

The mobile telecommunication companies uphold their service quality and change their marketing core strategies to retain their existing customers by enhancing and optimizing the customer loyalty. Therefore, it becomes significant for telecom companies to identify factors of services that influence customer loyalty and in turn creates loyal customers by satisfying them. This present study aims to explore the influence of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in the context of Bangladesh. This study focused on six factors such as communication, price structure, value-added service, convenience, sales-promotions and customer service. Both primary and secondary information were collected to test the pre-set hypotheses. Descriptive statistics and simple linear regression were employed to analyze the data. Result shows that five factors: communication, price structure, value-added services, convenience and customer service/care have positive correlations with customer loyalty.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.73.80 2013/08/21 - 08:41

The use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning is promising as it continues to yield impressive result from the studies conducted around the developed world economies. Results of similar studies from developing economies revealed gap in the use of ICTs in teaching and learning, especially, in some higher institutions offering Technical and Vocational Education (TVE). Emerging developing economies like Nigeria, is now striving to integrate the use of ICTs in teaching and learning of its TVE programmes. In view of that, this research aimed at developing a functional model that consisted of areas considered important for integration of ICTs into teaching and learning process in TVE. Regression Model Analysis was used to analyse data collected from a Rasch analysed questionnaire distributed to a total of one hundred and forty (140) respondents drawn from five higher institutions offering TVE in north-eastern Nigeria. Being a mixed method adopted research; a qualitative data collected through interview was further subjected to qualitative analysis procedures. A functional model of five (5) important areas and 4 categories emerged.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.81.88 2013/08/21 - 08:41

The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.59.66 2013/07/07 - 03:30

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the English and German language versions of the behavior rating scale, Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales, Second Edition (PKBS-2) and make a comparison between them. Data were collected from (37) preschool-age children using both the English and German versions. Internal consistency, testing and retesting, alternate [language] versions and standard error of measurement were used to evaluate the reliability of the German-English (PKBS-2) versions. The alpha and split-half coefficients for the German (PKBS-2) total scores range from 0.94 to 0.96. After three weeks, bivariate Pearson correlations indicate that the resulting coefficients of stability are significant at the (0.001) level and the test-retest reliabilities for problem behavior scores are higher than social skills scores in both the German and English versions. The reliability coefficients for social skills were 0.63 for the 3-week retest in the English version and 0.61 for the retest in German; the coefficients for problem behavior were 0.83 using the English version and 0.81 in German.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.54.58 2013/07/01 - 16:25

The aim of the current study was to examine attachment style as a predictor of risky sexual behavior in a younger, more vulnerable sample than previously investigated in the literature: High school aged adolescents. The hypothesized associations among the variables were partially supported. Contrary to our predictions, there was no significant association between avoidance and risky sexual behavior. However, higher anxiety was positively associated with risky sexual behavior. Finally, the prediction that the highest levels of risky sexual behavior would be found for those individuals with higher levels of anxiety and higher levels of avoidance (i.e., insecure attachment style) was supported.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.42.47 2013/06/22 - 02:35

Television is one of the top mass media to broadcast the information. It is heartening to know that mass media is playing its role in developing and strengthening the agriculture sector in Malaysia. Results from many international studies found that farmer received a high level of satisfaction from agriculture programs aired on television. However, can the similar results found among farmers in Malaysia? Therefore, this study intends to discover the Malaysian farmers satisfaction towards agricultural information aired on television. This is a quantitative study. The data collection was conducted through survey method and the respondents selected were from the states of western Malaysia Kedah and Selangor. Interestingly, both states; Kedah and Selangor recorded a similar level of satisfaction towards agriculture programs. Further analyses run have concluded that farmers in both states have a higher level of satisfaction towards information related to crops/livestock/farming and good agriculture practices. The findings of the study can be good sources and references for the agriculture programs producers to measure on the level of satisfaction of the agriculture programs aired by television among the farmers. Moreover, the findings demonstrated can help our agricultural programs producer to improve their contents in order to fulfill needs of their audience.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.48.53 2013/06/22 - 02:35

The wave of mergers and acquisitions of financial institutions which was observed in the United States and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s seems to have affected the Greek banking market by the end of the 1990s. The result was the emergence of new significant players in the market. Despite the fact that scale economies should lead to the improvement of their efficiency, this fact was not confirmed by empirical research and, moreover in several cases there has been an adverse effect. We are focus on financial statement analysis by examining the profitability and performance ratios. Mergers and acquisitions in the Greek banking system contributed to an increase in profitability of banks but they did not lead to improvement to their efficiency. It is an undeniable fact that the development and expansion of banks had a positive effect on the markets, resulting in the attraction of new capital which improved their capital sufficiency and of course on their extroversion, their internationalization and their successful expansion to other markets-particularly to Balkan countries.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.35.41 2013/06/21 - 06:34

MIUR enacted last year the new Guidelines of Physical Education and Sport to improve the sport activity into the school through the sport school association and gives, for this aim, only 33% of amount of economical resources that, in the past years, allocated for extra activity of physical education and sport. From a case study to compare data between 2 years of a sample of 10 schools of Naples, 6 schools decreased sports activity, 4 schools increased little bit and only 1 increased because had added own economical resource. Furthermore this one also deliberated a school sport association in collaboration to sport association as suggests new Guidelines. The aim of this study is to know which process the school adopted. Method is case study to describe the process and steps. All 10 schools confirm the past sport activities in different forms with several percentages among the schools are very good in consideration of the bad actual context of public school. But the significant decrease of number of students, which are generally distributed in every school, must do a reflection on general situation of high sport left. The 7 schools utilized only the economical ministerial resource and only 2 schools utilized economical ministerial resources is the demonstration of low culture in physical education and sport into school. Furthermore, the low additional own economical resources is relevant to demonstrate the gravity of situation. The datum of only 1 school added own economical resource in congruent amount means that just the 10% of schools understand the spirit of change according to the new Guidelines of Physical Education and Sport. The study suggests to start an investigation on public sport education service offered by school and by sport association and to establish a specific committee to research on this phenomenon to carry out the data to know every aspect of it.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.29.34 2013/06/09 - 04:20

The aim of this study was to find the predictors of a child’s social skills from mother attachment styles and anxiety levels among students in (1-3) grades in Amman city. A sample of (250) mothers for students in (1-3) grades in Amman city were selected through purposive sampling methods. Three instruments were used (Attachment Style Questionnaire, Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) and Trait Anxiety Inventory) to measure the study variable. The study results revealed that most of the attachment styles were consistent and there was a wide range of attachment styles that were common among mother of school children. The children’s social skills were found to be in the moderate level and acceptable. The mother’s anxiety levels insinuate a high level of anxiety in terms of either her state or anxiety traits. The multiple regression analysis revealed that there were four predictors of mother attachment style that had a significant impact on a child’s social skills. These predictors included, “confidence”, “need for approval”, “preoccupation with relationships confidence” and “relationships as secondary”. All the aforementioned predictors were noted to have a positive impact on social skills. Finally, the mother’s anxiety level, more specifically the anxiety state or traits had a significant negative impact on social skills development of a child.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.22.28 2013/06/09 - 04:20

Although the vulnerability of young people to HIV/AIDS continues to be a serious concern in South Africa, no research has used a representative sample of South African youth to examine whether individual Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk perceptions change over time and, if they do, what factors are associated with change. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Study, a multi-racial, longitudinal study of youth and their households, this study examined whether youth change their HIV risk perceptions over a four-year period and whether sexual behaviors, knowing someone with HIV, gender and race are associated with any change. Overall, changes in HIV risk perceptions tend to be small. As predicted, sexual activity is associated with increases in risk perceptions. Contrary to predictions, condom use at last sex is associated with increases in risk perceptions and knowing someone with HIV is associated with decreases in risk perceptions. In addition, there is variation by gender and by race in the factors associated with change in risk perceptions. This study serves as an initial examination of change in the HIV risk perceptions of South African youth; further investigation of their HIV risk perceptions over time is needed.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.1.10 2013/06/09 - 04:20

Following the recent launch of Apple’s fifth generation of the iPhone product line, this study specifically looks at the feedback from consumers who experience grief as a result of a let-down in anticipation. This study randomly extracts some useful consumer comments from online forums, reviews and Tumblr illustrations. From these findings, this study provides some comments on its possible implications for market leaders of establish brand names.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.11.13 2013/06/09 - 04:20

Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) is a language based on XML that provides an effective solution for the preparation, presentation and exchange of International Financial Reporting Standards. Many researchers examined the adoption, acceptance or usage of XBRL but none have clarified a direct link between the acceptance of technology and how it affects XBRL users. So, a significant issue to answer is: What is the level of acceptance of XBRL in the European region? Particularly, a new acceptance model was developed based on Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2) in order to test XBRL usage and its impact with five major constructs. The sample consists of 100 listed companies from European Union countries such as United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, France, Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Poland. The results reveal that a great number of companies in the European Union are satisfied with the output and the perspectives of XBRL acceptance and usage. The above argument is supported by the positive correlation found in this research among independent constructs and the dependent factors of XBRL acceptance and usage. Europe appears to be a strong supporter of XBRL technology, so non adopters of XBRL can use the results of this study and decide whether XBRL is a useful tool for them or not.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2013.14.21 2013/06/09 - 04:20

This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what it means to be poor. This research quantitatively examined the impact of mass media on young adult consumption patterns and sought to determine if there is a relationship between conspicuous consumption and poverty perception based on portrayals in popular mass media culture. The population for this research was primarily college-age student consumers under 25. The findings indicate that young adults view their consumption as an indicator of class and social status and that mass media portrayal have a significant relationship on their consumption perception.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2012.512.518 2013/03/20 - 18:32

Over the years, in recognition of the need to increase opportunities for art education and art learning, schools have endorsed the value of museum learning and its role in facilitating knowledge acquisition and enriching the educational experience of students. Nevertheless, Jordanian schools ignored the enormous advantages of art museums and they consider them as an additional resource for classroom art. The intention of this study is to activate the role of art museums in art education, as such, the study analyzed contribution of art museum as an integral part in teaching art to students and children in particular. Moreover, the issue of educational tours and school visits to art museums were discussed. In order to establish a base for discussion, books and articles on this subject were reviewed. The study revealed that museum learning is not a supplement to art curriculum, instead, museums are a parallel educational system to schools and they have their own potentialities for providing quality programs, therefore, they should be an integral part of any school art curriculum. Collaboration between schools and art museum is the key to achieve a successful art teaching and learning, where students and children acquire different skills as communication, self-expression, criticism and aesthetic judgment.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2012.505.511 2013/03/18 - 18:49

The study presents the results of design-based research on the influence of connectivism on science education, with the emphasis on an international collaboration among/between teachers and students from different countries. Science and technology education is a very important part of culture as a knowledge background of society. Very fast ICT development strongly influences education. The pedagogical theory of connectivism was born as a response to this ICT development. Thus a need occurred to examine these connectivistic influences on science and technology education. This study presents a design-based research which is focussed on the following issues: identification of connectivistic factors and their influence on science education; creation of connectivistic educational methods; implementation of connectivistic educational methods into teaching/learning and teacher’s training. These methods were created within the frame of collaborative action research based on ICT which can be used as a vehicle for international collaboration with effective exploitation of ICT. The collaborative action research based on ICT was carried out by two collaborating teachers and their students in the Czech Republic and in Portugal. Concrete scenarios and strategic planning of the collaborative connectivistic teaching/learning are presented on the topic photosynthesis. Our design-based research results verify that implementation of connectivism in science education is reality. We identify the set of connectivistic factors which influence science education: selection of topic, selection of students, use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), collaboration schedule and elaboration of materials for teaching and learning. Connectivistic educational methods in science education are also presented. Connectivistic teaching/learning methods have a very positive influence on science education. This connectivistic approach can contribute to reducing the gap between educational research and school practice. It will be important to implement our research results into pre-service and especially in-service science teacher training.

http://www.thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/jssp.2012.490.496 2013/02/13 - 00:25