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Astronomia Astrofizyka

Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (JSIR)

Title: Adelfa (NOME - Nerium Oil Methyl Ester) with DEE as the fuel additive for NOx reduction in DI Diesel engines – An experimental investigation

Authors: Kumar, A R P; Annamalai, K; Premkartikkumar, S R

Abstract: Biodiesel would
be a futuristic alternative for compression ignition engines because of its
environmental benefits and the source being renewable. Jatropha, Pongamia
pinnata, Mahua, cotton seed are the oils being tested by the researchers. In
this experimental investigation Adelfa biodiesel (Nerium Oil Methyl Ester – NOME) has been used as
the test fuel. The most common method of production of biodiesel is by
transesterification. In most of the researches, suggested biodiesel blend was
20% by volume with petroleum diesel. Though biodiesel fuel show an appreciable
results on performance and few emission parameters, the penalty being the
elevated oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. This problem persists in
almost all the biodiesel blends. In this experimental research, Di ethyl ether
(DEE) has been used as a fuel additive (20% Adelfa by volume with diesel + DEE) focusing on reducing emission and improving efficiency.
Comparison between diesel, A20 and A20 + DEE with various proportions has been
analyzed. Measured quantities were within the range of prescribed emission

Page(s): 627-632 2014/09/09 - 07:37

Title: Effect of antioxidants and storage temperatures on browning and quality of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) pulp

Authors: Kumhar, D S; Pareek, S; Ameta, K D

Abstract: Experiment consisted of 27 treatment
combinations comprising 4 antioxidants (ascorbic acid, citric acid, cysteine
and calcium chloride) with 2 concentrations (0.2% and 0.5%) and one control
(without antioxidant) and 3 storage temperatures (ambient storage, 5ºC and
0ºC). These treatment combinations were evaluated under factorial completely
randomized design with 3 replications. The stored pulp was examined for 120
days after storage at 30 days interval for biochemical and browning scores.
Total soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, sugars, phenols and colour were
affected significantly up to
120 days of storage. The acidity and ascorbic acid decreased with the
advancement of storage period whereas TSS, total sugars, and phenols increased.
Browning of pulp also increased with the advancement of storage duration. Pulp
treated with ascorbic acid 0.5% and stored under freezing temperature of 0ºC
proved the most effective treatment for maintaining quality parameters up to
120 days of storage.

Page(s): 622-626 2014/09/09 - 07:37

Title: A new RP-HPLC method for separation and determination of process related impurities in Pioglitazone Hydrochloride API

Authors: Srinivasulu, D; Sastry, B S; Prakash, G O; Archana, D N S S

Abstract: The objective
of the study was to develop a validated, specific and stability-indicating
gradient reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for determination of
Pioglitazone Hydrochloride along with its impurities in bulk samples. Drug substance was subjected to stress
conditions of hydrolysis (acid and base), oxidation, photolytic, humidity and
thermal degradation as per International Conference on Harmonization
(ICH) to show the stability-indicating power of the method. Significant
degradation was observed with alkali and hydrogen peroxide. The impurities were characterized using
spectral techniques like IR, 1H NMR and MS. Successful separation of impurities
was achieved on C18 ODS (150x4.6 mm) 3.5
µ column using mobile phase consisting of Solvent A: Ammonium acetate
buffer and Acetonitrile in the ratio (57:43 v/v) for 0-7 min and Solvent B:
Ammonium acetate buffer and Acetonitrile in the ratio (20:80 v/v) at a flow
rate of 1.0 ml/min from 7-20 min followed by
Solvent A from 20-21 min. The retention times of impurity A, impurity B,
impurity C and Pioglitazone were 3.44, 10.65, 17.95 and 8.32 min respectively.
The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm with column temperature at
45 ºC. Finally developed method
was validated as per ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, precision and

Page(s): 618-621 2014/09/09 - 07:37

Title: Foliar nutrient management through Kappaphycus and Gracilaria saps in rice-potato-green gram crop sequence

Authors: Pramanick, B; Brahmachari, K; Ghosh, A; Zodape, S T

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 on sandy
loam soil at Uttar Chandamari village of Nadia district of West Bengal (22° 57'
N latitude, 88° 20' E longitude) to study the effects of seaweed saps on crop
growth and yield vis-à-vis nutrient uptake by the crops under
rice-potato-greengram sequence. The foliar application of seaweed extracts
(namely Kappaphycus and Gracilaria) at different concentrations
(0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 15.0% v/v) significantly enhanced the growth, yield
and nutrient uptake by the crops in sequence. The application of 15% Kappaphycus sap along with recommended
dose of fertilizer (RDF) recorded the highest productivity in terms of rice
equivalent yield (REY) with net monetary returns of Rs. 175608.60 ha-1
yr-1 and benefit: cost ratio of 2.06.

Page(s): 613-617 2014/09/09 - 07:37

Title: Technological heredity when roller burnishing of ductile cast iron

Authors: Lewandowski, A.; Feldshtein, E.

Abstract: When processing EN GJSFP 450-10 ductile cast iron. The L18 Taguchi robust plan was used to optimize the processing conditions. The
application of this method allowed determination of optimal conditions taking into account the
conditions of pre-turning and burnishing. Due to
optimization, the value of the S/N parameter increased
by 25%.
Best results were achieved when using a minimum turning and burnishing feed ratio, minimum turning speed, a large nose radius of the turning tool, maximum burnishing speed and indirect burnishing force in the presence of base oil. The phenomenon of technological heredity action was
observed when roller burnishing, in other words, the influence of the pre-burnishing process conditions on the Ra surface roughness parameter after burnishing.

Page(s): 559-565 2014/08/04 - 18:00

Title: Comparative accounts of chromium accumulation in three ferns under hydroponic system

Authors: Kumari, A; Pakade, Y B; Chand, P; Prasad, M N V; Lal, B

Abstract: Hydroponic
experiments were carried out to demonstrate the chromium
bioaccumulation potential of three ferns viz. Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.,
Pteris cretica L. and Polystichum
squarossum (D. Don) J. Sm. Plants were exposed to seven levels of Cr (0,
25, 50, 100, 300, 600 and 100 µg ml-1) for 10 days. All three test species
accumulated significant Cr content in comparison to control. The result showed
the increasing trends in fresh biomass (25-30%) up to 600 µg ml-1 concentration
in P. cretica and P. squarossum. Although, D. esculentum showed necrosis even after
1 day exposure; necrosed biomass contained significant Cr than control but
significant decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid content indicates its least
tolerance capacity. It has also been revealed that chlorophyll content was not
affected by Cr exposure up to 300 µg ml-1 concentrations in P. cretica and P. squarossum and the carotenoid content showed the significant
increase of 35 to 74% at higher dose from 300 and 1000 µg ml-1 in comparison to
the control. Therefore, it has been observed that P. cretica and P. sqarossum are new Cr hyperaccumulator
with efficient tolerance capacity. It also revealed that P. cretica has highest tolerance capacity to Cr ions amongst the
three test species which often grows rapidly, densely and easily adapt to
artificial cultivation and can be exploited for treatment of tannery and other
Cr contaminated wastelands.

Page(s): 553-558 2014/08/04 - 18:00

Title: Comparative Degradation Effects of Sesame and Soybean Oil during Heating using Microwave Irradiation

Authors: Ghosh, J; Banerjee, A; Gupta, S S; Sengupta, A; Ghosh, M

Abstract: Changes
of quality parameters upon heating were evaluated at different times of
microwave heating on refined sesame and soybean oil high and compared to the
results obtained for standard chemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxide,
p-anisidine, nonenal content). Soybean oil was more extensively oxidised by
microwave heating than the other oil probably as a consequence of absence of
natural antioxidants. Microwave heating also induced alterations in heating
profiles of the oils [Acid value of (0.67±0.04) and
(1.8±0.01); peroxide value of (1.86±0.09) and (37.83±0.23); p-anisidine value
of (16.46±0.12) and (18.23±0.23) after 10 minutes at high power for sesame and
soybean oils respectively]. Presence of frying components in soybean oil like polyunsaturated
fatty acids (almost 58%) enhanced thermo-oxidation and resulted in its poor
stability. The analysis of heating profiles and related thermal properties like
response to nonenal appeared to be a valuable tool to assess different degrees
of lipid oxidation induced by microwave heating in vegetable oils. Nonenal
content of (13.08±0.02) µmol/gm for sesame oil and
(17.28±0.08) µmol/gm
for soybean oil at high power showed their comparative thermal stability.

Page(s): 547-552 2014/08/04 - 18:00

Title: Effect of different processing methods on resistant starch content and in vitro starch digestibility of some common Indian pulses

Authors: Kasote, D M; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

Abstract: In the present study, the effect of various
processing methods like soaking, autoclaving, storage and pullulanase treatment
on resistant starch content and in vitro starch
digestibility of dhals (split pulses)
of pulses pigeon pea, green gram and black gram was assessed. Results showed
that these processing methods including pullulanase treatment significantly
decreased the resistant starch (RS) content in all the samples. Further, results
of in vitro starch digestibility
demonstrated that autoclaving significantly increased the predicted glycemic
index (pGI) and slowly digested starch (SDS). However, decrease in rapidly
digested starch (RDS) and starch digestive index (SDI) was observed after
autoclaving. Results suggested that RS and RDS are getting converted into SDS
after processing treatments. Moreover, present findings suggest that, the
processed dhals of pigeon pea, green
gram and black gram could have added health promoting potential due to their
high content of SDS.

Page(s): 541-546 2014/08/04 - 18:00

Title: A Novel approach of the modified BET Isotherm towards continuous column study

Authors: Rangabhashiyam, S; Anu, N; Giri, Nangagopal M S; Selvaraju, N

Abstract: Adsorption can be used to treat wastewater containing pollutants
even at the low concentration in a very effective manner. The significance of
the Langmuir, Brunauer Emmet Teller Isotherm was investigated for the perfect
correlation with the experimental data. A theoretical one dimension dynamic
model was proposed to understand the behavior of fixed bed with the assumption
of straight through run mode of operation. The limitations associated with the
application of classical Brunauer Emmet Teller to the liquid phase modeling
were represented. The results were correlated using the theory and experimental
observation available in the recently published literature through Mathematical
derivation and MATLAB. The present study reveals that the modified Brunauer
Emmet Teller isotherm posses the potential towards the applicability as
Monolayer Langmuir adsorption isotherm under the condition of number of layer
is equal to one.

Page(s): 489-494 2014/07/05 - 17:14

Title: Synthesis of some Potential High Energy Materials using Metal Nitrates; An approach towards Environmental Benign Process

Authors: Saikia, Ananta; Sivabalan, Renganathan; Gore, Girish M.; Sikder, Arun K.

Abstract: A novel and
efficient method for the synthesis of various promising high energy materials
(HEMs) like nitrotriazolone (NTO),
2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), bis
(2,2-dinitropropyl) nitramine (BDNPN), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitro ethylene (FOX-7)
etc. using metal nitrates/sulphuric acid as nitrating agent has been described
successfully. The synthesized materials have been characterized using various
spectroscopic techniques as well as thermal studies and the data obtained
confirmed their structure.  From the
study it was revealed that this method certainly an alternative method of
preparation of high energy materials (HEMs) in place of the conventional
nitration mixture.

Page(s): 485-488 2014/07/05 - 17:14

Title: Environment friendly fireworks manufacturing using nano scale flash powder

Authors: Azhagurajan, A; Selvakumar, N; Suresh, A

Abstract: The flash powder
composition is used in the fireworks industry to manufacture the firecracker
which consists of pottasium nitrate, aluminium and sulphur powder in 75 microns
range. During fireworks crackers bursting, more polluted gases are emitted and
thus pollute the atmosphere. In this study, synthesis of flash powders and
manufactured the fire crackers with the use of nano flash powders. The particle
sizes of the chemicals are 139.7 nm for KNO3, 94.5 nm for
Al and 92.36 nm for S. The nano flash powders are mixed with micron powders in different
ratios and crackers are manufactured. The residues are collected and analysed
for the metal content. Also gas analysis is done for all the combination of
crackers. SEM analysis of the residues is analysed. Results shows that crackers
made of 100 % nano flash powder provide less quantity of sulphur dioxide and
metal content.

Page(s): 479-484 2014/07/05 - 17:14

Title: Synthesis and Electrochemical Studies of 4-{[(E)-{2-hydroxy-5-[(Z) substituted phenyldiazenyl] phenyl} methylidene] amino} benzenesulphonamides

Authors: Aribam, Nirupama Guru; Jain, Rajeev; Halve, A. K.

Abstract: Some new 4-{[(E)-{2-hydroxy-5-[(Z)
substituted phenyldiazenyl] phenyl} methylidene] amino} benzenesulfonamides
were synthesized by coupling of 4-substituted phenylazo salicylaldehydes with
different sulphanalamide derivatives. Electrochemical behaviour of
4-{[(E)-{2-hydroxy-5-[(Z) substituted phenyldiazenyl] phenyl} methylidene]
amino} benzenesulphonamides have been studied in Britton-Robinson buffers of pH
2.5-12.0 at dropping mercury and glassy carbon electrode. All
benzenesulphonamides gave 4-electron wave corresponding to the reduction of
-N=N- and -C=N- bonds at mercury electrode. On the basis of differential pulse
polarography, cyclic voltammetry, IR, mass and 1H NMR spectral
studies and product identification, a reduction mechanism has been suggested.

Page(s): 474-478 2014/07/05 - 17:14

Title: Minimizing switching activities through reordering algorithm for efficient power management

Authors: Kavitha, A; SasiKumar, S

Abstract: One of the emerging challenges in the
current scenario of modern-day technologies is the power dissipation occurring
in high end VLSI circuits that are predominantly caused due to the switching
activities of the circuit under test procedures. We have presented a well-organized
test pattern generator that is more appropriate for built in self-test (BIST)
structures used in the testing of VLSI circuits. The BIST sufficiently keeps
the power dissipation in check without altering the fault coverage. Our version
of the test pattern generator aims at bringing down the switching activity to
the least minimum amount possible. In addition to this, a modified version of
Floyd algorithm is used which re-orders the vectors in the test sequence and
this further reduces the switching activities that occurs while testing of
combinational circuits. This technique brings down the hamming distance between
test vectors which leads to reduction in dynamic power dissipations to a great
extent. Moreover, in order to reduce execution time and power, genetic
algorithm is incorporated with Floyd algorithm.
We have used the ISCAS’85 benchmark circuit for our experiments.

Page(s): 421-426 2014/06/13 - 16:46

Title: Parametric Optimization of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Processes by Using Factorial Design Approach

Authors: Prabaharan, C; Venkatachalam, P; kumar, K Suresh; Lenin, K

Abstract: The experimental study aims to optimize
welding parameters in the Gas Tungsten Arc welding of an Inconel 825 alloy. The
welding parameters selected for our experimental investigation are welding
voltage (V),welding current (I), gas flow rate (GFR), nozzle to plate distance
(NPD) and torch angle (θ) and weld deposit area is optimized for the above
parameters. A mathematical model is developed by Factorial design approach to
find out the relationship between the various process parameters and weld
deposit area. The significance of the model was analyzed by the ANOVA. The
mathematical model indicated that the increase in welding current, gas flow
rate, and torch angle increases weld deposit area and increase in voltage and
Nozzle to Plate Distance decreases the Weld Deposited Area.

Page(s): 415-420 2014/06/13 - 16:46

Title: A Personalized Search Framework for Industrial Safety and Health Information Retrieval

Authors: Jayanthi, J; Rathi, S

Abstract: The emergence of the WWW brought about new
searching and querying difficulties. It is evident that the Internet and its
most popular service WWW have changed our everyday lives. Normally the search
engines use the keyword based querying methods to retrieve the web documents as
a result. But the fact is most of the results retrieved are not relevant to the
users, because of the contextual ambiguities. A programmer may search for the
query “SAFETY”, referring to the state of being safe in various context. While it
is searched by a home maker, it refers to the home safety. If it is searched by
an expert who is training the people in safety and health management, his need
may be of different nature. In order to produce the result based on the
context, Personalization Methods are introduced. In the proposed system,
personalization is done in two phases, (i) Building User profiles (ii)
Reranking the SERPs (Search engine Result Pages). The browsing behavior of the
user is represented in the form of user profile which consists of static initial
information and dynamic search history of the user. Ranking algorithm takes the
both static and dynamic factors weight as input for personalized reranking
operation. The degree of personalization is also measured using the Jaccard
Co-efficient and Hamming Distance. A Safety and Health Management System (SHMS)
is a systematic approach that manages safety and health activities. It is
covering occupational safety and health programs, policies, and objectives into
organizational policies and Procedures. The dataset from the SHMS domain is
used for the experiment and the profiles of different types are created. It
shows the percentage of improvement in the relevancy of search results under
various conditions in terms of precision and recall.

Page(s): 407-414 2014/06/13 - 16:46

Title: Wiener filter and gang scheduling algorithm for improving safety using gps signal

Authors: Sumathi, S; Kirubakaran, E; Bhuvaneswari, N S

Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) has
developed essentially for the utilities of transportation, navigation,
agriculture, medicine and surveying and nowadays particularly for safety
concern such as aviation, medical field, public safety and disaster relief.
Position information received from the standard GPS receivers includes time
variant inaccuracies. For efficient use of GPS information for the
applications, it is essential to model these errors. This paper recommends the
use of a Wiener filter with gang scheduling algorithm to increase the accuracy
in substitution of traditional GPS/INS fusion systems which needs expensive
inertial systems. This approach is compared with positioning accuracy of Fuzzy,
Neural, Neuro fuzzy, and Kalman networks in terms of accuracy and the
processing time. The results of proposed Wiener scheme and gang scheduling
algorithm give improved accuracy and good for the effective applications.

Page(s): 400-406 2014/06/13 - 16:46

Title: Performance of a laboratory prepared microbial consortium for degradation of dairy waste water in a batch system

Authors: Garcha, S; Brar, S K; Sharma, K

Abstract: Dairy waste water being organically rich is biologically treated in situ. Efficacy
of this process depends on the
nature of indigenous microflora. The
microorganisms being metabolically dynamic
have the ability to change their population qualitatively and also
quantitatively in tandem with effluent
characteristics but this shift may not be rapid enough for
efficient BOD removal. Hence, bioaugmentation or inoculum addition
is an active preposition
for rapid and efficient treatment
of dairy waste waters. In the present investigation two consortia were prepared
using dairy isolates.
Consortium I consisted
of yeast strains
and Consortium II consisted of yeast and bacterial strain. 6 log CFU/ml of metabolically active
cells of each strain
were present in each unit
of the consortium. Considering
that the effluent exhibit huge variations in their characteristics, consortia`s efficacy
with respect to changing effluent
characteristics in terms of
pH and temperature was ascertained. Consortium I performed optimally at neutral pH to a mildly alkaline
pH of 8.0 at 30°C reducing BOD by approximately upto 65%. 13% v/v of inoculum rate provided bioremediation benefit of 84% within 72-96h. Consortium II performed
optimally at neutral pH at 37°C reducing
BOD upto approximately 76%. With an inoculum rate
of 11% v/v it reduced BOD5 by 78% within 48-72h of residence
time. Low survivability of the consortium strains
was observed which necessitates continuous addition of the bioaugmentative

Page(s): 346-350 2014/05/14 - 07:56

Title: Background Subtraction Techniques for Human body segmentation in Indoor video surveillance

Authors: Srinivasan, K; Porkumaran, K; Sainarayanan, G

Abstract: Computer based automated monitoring and
detection of human movements is an interesting and important research problem
in the video based applications. The segmentation of human body plays a vital
role in the analysis of human activities from the indoor video sequences. The
threshold value which uses to separate the human body from the background of video
frame. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach for segmenting the human
body using background subtraction techniques. This proposed algorithm uses
Automatic Threshold Update (ATU) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
approaches for extracting the human body. It is implemented and tested on
uniform light and bright light videos.

Page(s): 342-345 2014/05/14 - 07:56

Title: Interior Space Design Optimization of Passenger Cars in Serbia

Authors: Klarin, M M; Brkić, V K Spasojević; Sajfert, Z D; Pavlović, A M; Krstić, D

Abstract: This study proves that in addition to the
angles between the anthropometric measurements, passenger car interior
space optimization in terms of ergonomic adjustment is most heavily influenced
by the totals of the anthropometric measurements for lower leg length, upper
leg length and sitting height for the same overall totals, which are
individually different. The regularities of the anthropometric measurement
mechanism as well as their geometry and kinematics of movement have been
compared with the mechanical mechanism, so that according to new methodology
the vehicle has been designed for wider range of drivers. The optimal space is
defined within a coordinate system with the origin at the
fixed ''O'' point of contact between the driver's heel and the car floor in
front of the accelerator pedal. The designed optimal roof-floor space height
for the driver along the z-axis amounts to 1250 mm, and the distance from the
fixed ''O'' point backwards along the x-axis is 1180 mm, while the distance
from the zero point for feet accommodation forwards along the x-axis equals 330
mm. The adjustability of the seat-floor height ranges from 190 mm to 300 mm.
The horizontal movement of the seat amounts to 250 mm.

Page(s): 338-341 2014/05/14 - 07:56

Title: Strain improvement of white rot fungi Pycnoporus cinnabarinus with the influence of physical and chemical mutagens for enhancing Laccases production

Authors: Khanam, Rasheeda; Prasuna, R. Gyana

Abstract: Several microorganisms including fungi and
bacteria produce the most important industrially applicable enzyme “laccases”.
The present work was aimed to apply mutagenesis on the test fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus for enhancement
of the enzyme production. The
efficiency of Laccases production by the wild fungal strains Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was investigated
by the treatment with physical mutagen [ultraviolet radiation (UV) and X-rays]
and chemical mutagens [Ethidium bromide, Colchicine and Hydrogen peroxide]. The
effect of X-rays showed an increase in production with increasing exposure (Max.
at 8 sec.). Beyond 8 seconds there was a decrease in production. UV irradiation
influenced by reducing the enzyme production and the maximum dosage is lethal
to the fungus. Among the three chemical mutagens, hydrogen peroxide was found
to be having lethal effects to the fungus and low enzyme production even in
minimum concentrations. Colchicine and Ethidium bromide showed increase in
enzyme production with increasing concentrations (Max. at 4 and 7 μg
respectively). The improved strain of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus showed 15% of increase in the yield.
The increase in production of laccases in a cheap production medium formulated
by using agricultural and industrial wastes may be beneficial industrially when
compared to the other costly conventional media. Further work is in progress by
protoplast fusion of the best mutants for even more production.

Page(s): 331-337 2014/05/14 - 07:56

Title: Removal characteristics of basic dyes from aqueous solution by fly ash in single and tertiary systems

Authors: Gandhimathi, R.; Ramesh, S. T.; Sindhu, V.; Nidheesh, P. V.

Abstract: The use of fly ash as a low
cost adsorbent for the removal of three basic dyes from their single and
tertiary aqueous solution has been investigated. Batch adsorption experiments
were conducted to determine the effect of contact time and adsorbent dosage on
adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption isotherm results
indicated that the Freundlich adsorption isotherm fitted the data better than
the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption capacity of fly ash decreases in tertiary system as compared
to single system indicates the competitive sorption behaviour of fly ash. Kinetic parameters of adsorption such as the pseudo first
order constant and pseudo second order constant were determined. The results of
the study demonstrated that the fly ash could be used as an effective low cost
adsorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution.

Page(s): 267-272 2014/04/07 - 17:57

Title: Noise mapping as a tool for controlling industrial noise pollution

Authors: Casas, W J P; Cordeiro, E P; Mello, T C; Zannin, P H T

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to identify the
contribution of noise from external sources to the noise pollution generated by
a factory, by comparing sound pressure levels measured in its surroundings and
those calculated by noise mapping. A metal-mechanical manufacturing plant was
chosen and sound pressure levels were measured at discrete points along two
rings around it, called receivers. The noise measurement data from the first ring
were entered into the Sound Plan software to determine, through iteration, the
factory’s main noise sources. The software then used this information to
calculate noise maps and sound pressure levels at the receiver’s positions in
the second ring. Finally, the contribution of noise from external sources to
the overall noise generated by the factory was determined by comparing the
noise measured in the second ring with the simulated data. The placement of
partial barriers along some critically noisy
walls was found to be effective in
controlling nighttime noise, ensuring that the sound level limit for this type
of neighborhood, which is established by technical standards for environmental
noise as Leq = 60 dB (A), is not reached.

Page(s): 262-266 2014/04/07 - 17:57

Title: Condition Monitoring of rotating machinery through Vibration Analysis

Authors: Kumar, S Sendhil; Kumar, M Senthil

Abstract: Condition monitoring, commonly referred to
as predictive maintenance, a proven approach to improve the reliability and
productivity in any industries. Its underlying philosophy is that technology
can be used to measure and evaluate the condition of plant assets and
equipment; enabling intelligent decisions in regard to maintenance activities.
Maintenance processes are adopted by almost all the industries and are going
well with preventive maintenance, but could not totally implement the
predictive maintenance to practice, especially in the small and medium scale
industries. Predictive maintenance by condition monitoring techniques will
increase the efficiency, industrial safety and will reduce the maintenance
cost. This paper gives the brief idea of condition monitoring in a nutshell
referring to vibration analysis.

Page(s): 258-261 2014/04/07 - 17:57

Title: Optimization of multiple-machining criteria in electrochemical machining of aluminum composites using design of experiments

Authors: Rao, Sadineni Rama; Padmanabhan, G.

Abstract: Electrochemical Machining (ECM) appears to
be a promising non-traditional machining process to produce parts from
difficult-to-machine materials with complex profiles. In ECM the machining
criteria like metal removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR) and radial over
cut (ROC) depends on machining parameters such as applied voltage, feed rate,
electrolyte concentration, workpiece electrical conductivity etc. In
composites, the electrical conductivity depends on the reinforcement content in
the matrix. The salient feature of the present work is that the reinforcement
content is considered as one of the machining parameter along with voltage,
feed rate and electrolyte concentration and varied within the selected range
for studying the effect of these parameters on the machining characteristics of
electrochemical machining of LM6 Al/B4C composites. Non-linear
regression models have been formulated after conducting the experiments using
the concept of central composite design of experiments and the developed models
are tested with the help of twenty test cases. The quality of the machined surfaces
is studied by using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. The responses
MRR, SR and ROC are optimized individually and simultaneously based on response
surface methodology (RSM). The average absolute percentage error in prediction
of all responses for the non-linear model is found to be equal to 9.657.
Moreover, the optimal values of MRR, SR and ROC are seen to be equal to 0.778
g/min, 3.923 µm and 0.673 mm respectively.

Page(s): 251-257 2014/04/07 - 17:57

Title: Biosorption of Zn (II) from aqueous solution by jatropha curcas press cake

Authors: Abidin, Zurina Z.; Salleh, Mohd M. A.; Harun, M. Y.; Bakar, Abu N.

Abstract: Biosorption of Zn (II) from aqueous solution using Jatropha
curcas press cake was
comparatively investigated over a range of variables (contact time, pH, and
initial metal concentration) by batch adsorption experiments. Highest Zn (II)
removal (~40 mg/L) was attained using 0.5g adsorbent for 100 minutes with
initial Zn (II) concentration of 50 mg/L and pH 4. The adsorption data was best
fitted with Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.99) and follows second order
kinetic rate equation (R2 > 0.99). FTIR analysis revealed the
availability of phenol, alcohol and carboxyl functional groups in Jatropha curcas
press cake for the biosorption. XRD results confirmed the presence of Zn (II)
in the press cake after adsorption process. These findings concluded that Jatropha curcas press cake is a suitable
biosorbent for removing Zn (II) in heavy metal polluted wastewater.

Page(s): 191-194 2014/04/04 - 18:56

Title: Experimental reduction of NOx and HC emissions in a CI engine fuelled with methyl ester of neem oil using p-phenylenediamine antioxidant

Authors: Balaji, G.; Cheralathan, M.

Abstract: Biodiesel,
a renewable substitute to conventional diesel and offers cleaner combustion
including reduced particulate matter, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon
emissions. However, several studies point to increase in NOx
emissions for biodiesel fuel compared with conventional diesel fuel. In this
paper, the experimental investigation of the effect of antioxidant additive
(p-phenylenediamine) on NOx and HC emissions in a methyl ester of neem
oil fuelled direct injection diesel engine has been reported. The antioxidant
additive is mixed in various concentrations (0.010 to 0.040 % (w/w)) with
methyl ester of neem oil and was tested in computerized 4-stroke water-cooled
single cylinder diesel engine of 3.5 kW rated power. Results show that the
antioxidant additive is effective in controlling the NOx and HC
emissions of methyl ester of neem oil fuelled diesel engines.

Page(s): 177-180 2014/04/04 - 18:56

Title: Potentials of Elaeis guineensis and Pinus sylvestris as binders on foundry core strength

Authors: Fayomi, O. S. I.; Abdulwahab, M.; Popoola, A. P. I.

Abstract: The potential of foundry sand core binders
made with palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and pine oil (Pinus sylvestris) were investigated. Core specimens made with Ota silica
base sand bonded with percentage of cassava starch in admixed proportion of Elaeis guineensis and Pinus sylvestris were tested for tensile,
compressive strength, permeability and time of collapse to establish the
binder’s efficiency. Tensile strength of the green baked core were oven baked
at 50°C, 100°C 150°C and 200°C; cooled to room temperature and tested with
universal strength machine. The combined evaluation of the oils at higher
percentages of starch addition indicates a significant improvement on the
foundry properties. The cylindrically shaped permeability specimens were tested
with permeability meter. Study revealed that cores baked at 150°C for palm oil
attained a significant strength at lower baking periods than others. Pine oil
showed an improve properties at 6% cassava starch at 200°C.

Page(s): 173-176 2014/04/04 - 18:56

Title: Low Order Harmonic Reduction of Three Phase Multilevel Inverter

Authors: Maheswari, A.; Gnanambal, I.

Abstract: In this paper, a cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter has
been proposed using unequal dc power sources and less number of switches. A
standard cascaded multilevel inverter requires h number of dc sources for (2h +
1) levels. This proposed scheme allows less number of unequal DC power sources
without the requirement of transformers. Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter
fed induction motor shows the better performance due to fundamental frequency
switching scheme. High quality output is derived due to the absence of lower
order harmonics. High conversion efficiency is also achieved for induction
motor drive when it is operated with the proposed inverter. The performance of three phase cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter with unequal dc sources is
simulated by using MATLAB platform. Harmonic analysis is done on cascaded H-Bridge
seven level inverter and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the
superiority of the proposed system.

Page(s): 168-172 2014/04/04 - 18:56

Title: Preparation and Evaluation of Solvent Deposited Systems of Felodipine

Authors: Shirsand, S B; Swamy, P V; Babu, G V Murali Mohan; Murthy, K V Ramana

Abstract: Solvent deposited (SD) systems of felodipine
were prepared with biologically inactive carriers like microcrystalline cellulose
(MCC), lactose, potato starch (PS), and aerosil in different ratios. These systems
were evaluated for drug content uniformity, drug carrier interactions, and drug
release profiles. Drug-carrier interactions were evaluated by using Differential
Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), IR, and TLC. The results of drug-carrier interaction
studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the carrier.
Release of drug from SD system was markedly increased than that of the corresponding
physical mixture. The increase in the order of dissolution rate of felodipine from
SD systems was: MCC > aerosil >PS > lactose.

Page(s): 1044-1046 2014/02/19 - 16:39

Title: A Study of the Suspending Properties of Anacardium occidentate Gum

Authors: Ibezim, E C; Khanna, M; Singh, S

Abstract: The suspending properties of the gum obtained
from Anacardium occidentate (cashew), a tropical food plant, have been evaluated
.Chalk suspensions have been prepared with different concentrations (2.5 - 20.0
per cent w/v) of the gum, stored for 56 days and various stability indices such
as sedimentation ratio, rate of redispersibility, rheological changes and pH variations
have been studied. The effects of preservatives, electrolytes and pH on the stability
of the suspensions have also been studied. Veegum® has been used for
comparative purposes.

Page(s): 1038-1043 2014/02/19 - 16:39

Title: Secretion of α-L-Rhamnosidase by Aspergillus terreus and Its Role in Debittering of Orange Juice

Authors: Yadav, Sarita; Yadav, K D S

Abstract: An indigenous strain of Aspergillus terreus
has been shown to secrete α-L-rhamnosidase in liquid culture medium. Km, pH
and temperature optima of this enzyme using p-nitrophcnyl α-L-rhamnopyranoside
have been found to be 1.5 mM, 3.5 and 55oC, respectively.
L-rhamnose, naringin, glucose, and citric acid inhibit the activity of this enzyme.
The enzyme hydrolyses naringin present in orange fruit juice and hence it is suitable
for debittering citrus fruit juices.

Page(s): 1032-1037 2014/02/19 - 16:39

Title: Dextran — HPMC Eye Drops As Artificial Tears

Authors: Redkar, Milind; Srividya, B; Ushasree, P; Amin, P D

Abstract: In the present study, a formulation containing
a combination of dextran and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was developed
where HPMC, a viscosity-imparting agent, forms a thin film over precorneal tear
film while dextran provides mechanical strength to this film. The formulation was
developed by studying various polymers. A buffer system was selected to achieve
an alkaline pH. Various preservatives were evaluated and a suitable antimicrobial
preservative having suitable concentration was selected. Eye drops were evaluated
for pH, viscosity, clarity, light stability, dextran, and HPMC content, and sterility.
Ocular irritation studies and Schirmer’s test were carried out on rabbits. The final
formulation was subjected to accelerated thermal studies. The developed formulation
was non-irritant and showed optimum viscosity. It had better film forming properties
and improved welling characteristics than the marketed formulation MOISOL®. The
developed formulation has potential as artificial tears in the treatment of dry
eye syndrome.

Page(s): 1027-1031 2014/02/19 - 16:39

Title: ITA functions and IT governance from towards public & private enterprises in Korea: A study for influence factors

Authors: Kim, Kyung- Woo; Lee, Ki-Young

Abstract: In this paper,
derived some function factors from ITA role in organization as to analyze what
ITA function has influenced on ITA governance. The factors of IT governance
system and their effects on the enterprises organizations are discussed and the
relationships are verified by empirical mode method. In result of statistical
analysis based on the 320 case of organizations toward public and private
enterprises in South Korea,
it appeared that IT infrastructure, IT technology system and IT performance
system of IT functions are the contributing factors on the IT governance.

Page(s): 16-20 2014/01/14 - 09:09

Title: The influence of cutting parameter on heat generation in high-speed milling Inconel 718 under MQL condition

Authors: Kasim, MS; Haron, CH Che; Ghani, JA; Azam, MA; RIzamshah; Ali, MA Md; Aziz, MS A

Abstract: The paper presents a
studyof the effect of operating variable parameter; cutting speed, feed rate,
depth of cut and width of cut on heat being generated when end milling under
MQL condition. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed in the
experiment, and a Box–Behnken design was used to determine the cause and effect
of the relationship between the input variables and response. The investigated
milling parameters were cutting speed (100 - 140 m/min), feed rate (0.1 -
0.2 mm/tooth), depth of cut (0.5-1.0 mm) and width of cut (0.2 -1.8 mm).
Result of this study show ball nose end milling generates low temperature
ranging from 69°C to 359°C. Experimental data and statistical analysis showed
that heat generation was dominated by radial depth of cut, followed by axial
depth of cut. Feed rate and cutting speed were found statistically not
significant. The linear models were developed with a 92% confidence level. The
optimum condition required for minimum heat generated include cutting speed of
117 m/min, feed rate of 0.11 mm/rev, axial depth of cut of
0.57 mm, and radial depth of cut of 0.21 mm. With this optimum
condition, a minimum heat generated of 68°C was obtained.

Page(s): 62-65 2014/01/14 - 09:09

Title: Experimental investigation on the rectangular cup formability of Al-alloy sheet by superplastic forming technique

Authors: Kumaresan, G; Kalaichelvan, K

Abstract: Superplastic behavior of certain metals and
alloys having very fine grains, very large tensile elongations are obtained
within certain temperature ranges at low strain rates. These alloys can be formed
into complex shapes by superplastic forming, a process that employs common
metalworking techniques. This paper aims to study the formability
characteristic for aluminium material (Al 7075) by considering variable forming
pressure of 0.2MPa, 0.3MPa, 0.4MPa and 0.5MPa, remaining parameters were
constant for all samples; a constant forming temperature of 530˚C and the
constant forming time of 120 minutes were selected for all samples.

Page(s): 46-50 2014/01/14 - 09:09

Title: Metrics for Computing Performance of Data Center for Instigating Energy Efficient Data Centers

Authors: Uddin, Mueen; Shah, Asadullah; Rehman, Amjad

Abstract: Data
centers now play an important role in modern IT infrastructures. Although much
research effort has been made in the field of green data center computing,
performance metrics for green data centers have been left ignored. This paper
is devoted to identify and implement energy efficiency
and green computing performance metrics in data centers. The metrics helps data
center managers to measure and implement cost and power savings in data
centers. A metrics based energy efficiency model for categorizing data center
into measureable units is proposed which divides data center into four
measureable areas and maps metrics to measure their efficiency and performance.
The results generated after applying Power Usage Effectiveness metrics clearly
demonstrate poor performance of data center with PUE value of 3.5,
which indicates very inefficient data center.

Page(s): 11-15 2014/01/14 - 09:09

Title: Gelucire: An alternative formulation technological tool for both sustained and fast release of drugs in treating diabetes mellitus type II disease

Authors: Upadhyay, Prashant; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar; Wahi, Arun Kumar

Abstract: Gelucire is the
family of vehicle derived from mixtures of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides with
PEG esters of fatty acids. They have a wide variety of application in
pharmaceutical formulations. These are used in the preparation of fast release
and sustained release formulations. In order to increase the bioavailability of
drugs, the residence time of the orally administered dosage form in the upper
GIT needs to be prolonged. The main approaches to prolonging the gastric
residence time of pharmaceutical dosage forms includes density control delivery
system, which float on gastric fluid and an asset to treat Diabetes type II.
Gastro retentive solid dispersion could be achieved of poorly soluble drug
Glibenclamide with the help of polyethylene glycol and Gelucire 50/13. On the
other hand sustained release gastroretentive multiparticulates of metformin
hydrochloride could be achieved using Gelucire 39/01 and 43/01 grades. Further
both formulations can be explored individual as well as in combination for
improved bioavailability by their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
evaluation in wistar rats.

Page(s): 776-780 2013/12/09 - 20:18

Title: A preliminary assessment of phenol tolerance and degradation by spent mycelium substrate (SMS) of novel edible mushroom Hypsizygus ulmarius

Authors: Ranjini, R; Padmavathi, T

Abstract: In assessing phenol tolerance and degradation using SMS of Hypsizygus ulmarius, growth media using
amylose gave mycelial growth of 16.28 sq cm at 200 mg/L phenol; this was
reduced to 11.22 sq cm and further to 10.62 sq cm when phenol was increased to
400 and 800 mg/L. There was growth reduction of 13.26% and 1.57% from 200 to
800 mg/L phenol. Tolerance to lower phenol concentrations was better (5
in non-ligninolytic (Nx10 Cx10) media, while ligninolytic (N/10 C/10) condition
provided better tolerance (3.38 at higher concentrations. Excessive
reduction or increase of nutrients increased growth (N/10 C/10 – 11.29 sq cm;
Nx10 Cx10 - 9.07 sq cm). When cellulose was used, growth of 22.46 sq cm at 200
mg/L phenol got reduced to 16.96 sq cm at 400 mg/L, and negligible decrease
thereafter. Growth reduced by 9.77% from 200 to 800 mg/L phenol. All variations
of ligninolytic (N/2 C/2; N/10; N/2; C/2) media offered good tolerance (7.18 sq
cm). There was 47.1% phenol degradation in ligninolytic media (N/10 C/10; N/2;
N/10) using amylose, while it was only 21.3% in
non-ligninolytic condition (Nx10 Cx10). Degradation decreased by 3.7% and 1.46%
when phenol increased to 400 and 800 mg/L. Ligninolytic cellulose (N/2 C/2;
N/2; N/10) media gave 67.05% degradation, while it was only 35.4% in
non-ligninolytic condition (Nx10; Nx2 Cx2). There was 9% decrease in
degradation when phenol increased to 400mg/L and negligible thereafter.
Overall, there was reduction in tolerance and degradation when phenol was
increased from 200 to 400 mg/L; it was negligible beyond 400mg/L. Ligninolytic
media was suitable for enhanced tolerance and degradation; the maximum
potential achieved when nitrogen was reduced to one-tenth of optimum level.
Cellulose was the preferred carbon source for tolerance; while better
degradation was achieved in amylose. There was high similarity of growth
pattern in non-ligninolytic conditions of the two carbon sources, indicated by
correlation value of 0.78.

Page(s): 767-771 2013/12/09 - 20:18

Title: Olefins production from LPG via dehydrogenative cracking over three ZSM-5 catalysts

Authors: Hajheidary, Meysam; Ghashghaee, Mohammad; Karimzadeh, Ramin

Abstract: The performance of
protonated, Na-form, and Fe-modified ZSM-5 catalysts in dehydrogenative
cracking of LPG to light olefins were investigated. The physico-chemical
properties of the samples were obtained by XRD, FTIR, and NH3–TPD measurements.
Overall, the acidic properties of the samples were suitable for olefin
production so that LPG conversions up to 73.79% and product selectivities up to
67.95% were attained over H-ZSM-5 and Na-ZSM-5 catalysts, respectively.
The highest olefins yield was 51.28% indicating a 422% improvement to the
corresponding yield of thermal reactions alone.

Page(s): 760-766 2013/12/09 - 20:18

Title: New method of Electromagnetic Interferences Reduction in AC-AC power converter fed Induction motor drive

Authors: Karthikeyan, C; Duraiswamy, K

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the effect of EMI in
Switched mode PWM Inverter fed AC drive. This Switched mode PWM Inverter has an
inherent noise source. This noise is mitigated by a New Active Common Mode
Electro Magnetic Interference Filter (ACEF) which is proposed for switched mode
power supply applications. The proposed filter is based on current sensing and
a compensation circuit which utilizes fast acting transistor amplifier for
current compensation. The amplifier is biased with an isolated low voltage DC
power supply. Hence, it is possible to construct an active filter independent
of the source voltage of the equipment. Thus, this filter can be used in any
application regardless of working voltage. Results of Simulations and
experiments indicate the effectiveness of the proposed Active Common mode EMI
filter. It is also very effective in suppressing the noise due to EMI.

Page(s): 772-775 2013/12/09 - 20:18