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Journal of the Optical Society of America A

Damien P. KellyIn this paper, we address the problem of calculating Fresnel diffraction integrals using a finite number of uniformly spaced samples. General and simple sampling rules of thumb are derived that allow the user to calculate the distribution for any propagation distance. It is shown how these rules ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 755-764 (2014)] 2014/03/15 - 23:47

Yansheng Li, Yihua Tan, Hang Li, Tao Li, Jinwen TianIn this paper, a biologically inspired multilevel approach for simultaneously detecting multiple independently moving targets from airborne forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sequences is proposed. Due to the moving platform, low contrast infrared images, and nonrepeatability of the target signature, ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 734-744 (2014)] 2014/03/14 - 20:57

Omar Vázquez-Estrada, Augusto García-ValenzuelaRecently a multiple-scattering model for the reflectivity of a disordered monolayer of scattering particles on a flat surface was put forth [J. Opt. Soc. Am.29, 1161 (2012)]. The approximate theoretical model provides relatively simple formulas for the reflectivity, but it was developed for a ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 745-754 (2014)] 2014/03/14 - 20:57

Philip C. L. StephensonA recurrence relation for the first-order Cartesian derivatives of the Zernike polynomials is derived. This relation is used with the Clenshaw method to determine an efficient method for calculating the derivatives of any linear series of Zernike polynomials. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 708-715 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

Yasuhiro Hatori, Ko SakaiConstruction of surface is a crucial step toward the representation of shape through the integration of local information. Physiological studies have reported that the primary visual cortex (V1) codes the medial axis (MA) that is a skeletal structure equidistant from nearby contours, suggesting the ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 716-729 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

Deyang Duan, Lu Zhang, Yunjie XiaIn this paper, we present a new scheme of thermal ghost imaging: visible ghost imaging with nonvisible light, which can overcome the disadvantages of conventional thermal imaging. For the two light beams of the thermal ghost imaging, we use the nonvisible light (i.e., infrared light) as the object ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 730-733 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

Elise W. Dees, Rigmor C. BaraasCarriers of red–green color-vision deficiencies are generally thought to behave like normal trichromats, although it is known that they may make errors on Ishihara plates. The aim here was to compare the performance of carriers with that of normal females on seven standard color-vision ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A401-A409 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

J. M. Bosten, A. E. BoehmRed, green, blue, yellow, and white have been distinguished from other hues as unique. We present results from two experiments that undermine existing behavioral evidence to separate the unique hues from other colors. In Experiment 1 we used hue scaling, which has often been used to support the ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A385-A393 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

Bonnie Cooper, Barry B. LeeHere we test interactions of luminance and chromatic input to spatial hyperacuity mechanisms. First, we tested alignment of luminance and chromatic gratings matched or mismatched in contrast polarity or grating type. Thresholds with matched gratings were low while all mismatched pairs were ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A394-A400 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

Luping Du, Dingyuan TangSurface plasmons in graphene have many promising properties, such as high confinement, low losses, and gate-tunability. However, it is also the high confinement that makes them difficult to excite due to their large momentum mismatch with free-space mid-infrared light. We propose to use shaped ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 691-695 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, M. Rosete-Aguilar, N. C. Bruce, J. Garduño-MejíaWe present a theoretical analysis of the field distribution in the focal plane of a dispersionless, high numerical aperture (NA) aplanatic lens for an x-polarized short pulse. We compare the focused pulse spatial distribution with that of a focused continuous wave (CW) field and its temporal ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 696-703 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

G. B. Lemos, P. H. Souto Ribeiro, S. P. WalbornWe experimentally implement an optical algorithm for integration of a real-valued bivariate function. A user-defined function is encoded in the position-dependent phase of one of the polarization components of an optical beam. The integral of this function is retrieved by measuring a Stokes ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 704-707 (2014)] 2014/03/12 - 06:33

Wei Wen, Xiuxiang ChuBeam wander of an Airy beam with a spiral phase in turbulence is investigated. Using the Wigner distribution function, analytical expressions for the second-order moments and second central moments of an Airy beam with a spiral phase in turbulence are derived. A general expression of the beam ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 685-690 (2014)] 2014/03/07 - 01:26

Galina V. Paramei, Beata OakleyThe present study, an extension of Paramei [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 29, A290, 2012], provides normative data on chromatic discrimination, using the Cambridge Colour Test, for normal trichromats aged 10–88 years. Findings are in accord with a two-phase variation across the life span: chromatic ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A375-A384 (2014)] 2014/03/07 - 01:26

J. M. Bosten, A. J. Lawrance-OwenIf unique hues have special status in phenomenological experience as perceptually pure, it seems reasonable to assume that they are represented more precisely by the visual system than are other colors. Following the method of Malkoc et al. (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22, 2154 [2005]), we gathered ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A357-A364 (2014)] 2014/03/07 - 01:26

Christoph Witzel, Anna FranklinIf the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would “jump out to the eye.” This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A365-A374 (2014)] 2014/03/07 - 01:26

Kofi Edee, Mira Abboud, Gérard Granet, Jean Francois Cornet, Nikolay A. GippiusWe present a modal method for the computation of eigenmodes of cylindrical structures with arbitrary cross sections. These modes are found as eigenvectors of a matrix eigenvalue equation that is obtained by introducing a new coordinate system that takes into account the profile of the cross ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 667-676 (2014)] 2014/03/03 - 19:36

Ran Liu, Arun Anand, Dipak K. Dey, Bahram JavidiEmbryonic stem (ES) cells are an important factor in the development of cell-based therapeutic strategies. In this work, the use of digital holographic interferometric microscopy and statistical identification for automatic discrimination of ES cells and fibroblast (FB) cells is discussed in ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 677-684 (2014)] 2014/03/03 - 19:36

Hannah E. Smithson, Philip S. Anderson, Greti Dinkova-Bruun, Robert A. E. Fosbury, Giles E. M. Gasper, Philip Laven, Tom C. B. McLeish, Cecilia Panti, Brian K. TannerWe present a new analysis of Robert Grosseteste’s account of color in his treatise De iride (On the Rainbow), dating from the early 13th century. The work explores color within the 3D framework set out in Grosseteste’s De colore [see J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29, A346 (2012)], but now links ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A341-A349 (2014)] 2014/03/01 - 15:58

I. J. Murray, A. Daugirdiene, A. Panorgias, R. Stanikunas, J. J. Kulikowski, J. M. F. KellyThe link between chromatic constancy (compensation for hue and saturation shifts) and lightness constancy (compensation for a change in surface reflectance) was tested theoretically by computing cone contrasts and by asymmetric matching experiments. The effect of a thin achromatic line (a frame) ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A350-A356 (2014)] 2014/03/01 - 15:58

Xun He, Christoph Witzel, Lewis Forder, Alexandra Clifford, Anna FranklinPrior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A322-A331 (2014)] 2014/03/01 - 15:58

David Bimler, Mari UuskülaCross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the “similarity sorting” procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A332-A340 (2014)] 2014/03/01 - 15:58

Erica Dixon, Arthur G. ShapiroIn simultaneous brightness contrast (SBC) demonstrations, identical mid-luminance disks appear different from each other when one is placed on a black background while the other is placed on a white background. The strength of SBC effects can be enhanced by placing a semi-transparent layer on top ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A307-A313 (2014)] 2014/02/26 - 14:36

Katherine Tregillus, Michael A. WebsterMany forms of color adaptation have been found to reflect both short- and long-term adjustments. We explored the buildup and decay of adaptation to chromatic contrast (temporal modulations of color) for which the dynamics are unknown. A matching task was used to track the perceived contrast of ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A314-A321 (2014)] 2014/02/26 - 14:36

R. A. Day, G. Vajente, M. Pichot du MezerayFast Fourier transform (FFT) simulation was used to calculate the power and spatial distribution of resonant fields in optical cavities. This is an important tool when characterizing the effect of imperfect geometry and mirror aberrations. This method is, however, intrinsically slow when the ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 652-660 (2014)] 2014/02/26 - 14:36

C. J. R. SheppardFocusing of vortex beams by a lens with circular aperture in the paraxial scalar Debye regime is analyzed. The amplitude in the focal region can be expressed naturally in terms of higher order Lommel functions of two variables. Using recurrence relationships, these can then be expressed in terms of ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 644-651 (2014)] 2014/02/26 - 14:36

Karen L. GuntherThis study tested two hypotheses: (1) that non-cardinal color mechanisms may be due to individual differences: some subjects have them (or have stronger ones), while other subjects do not; and (2) that non-cardinal mechanisms may be stronger in the isoluminant plane of color space than in ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A293-A302 (2014)] 2014/02/23 - 14:32

Stephen J. DainThere are anecdotal reports that the recognition of cyanosis is difficult for some color-deficient observers. The chromaticity changes of blood with oxygenation in vitro lie close to the dichromatic confusion lines. The chromaticity changes of lips and nail beds measured in vivo are also generally ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A303-A306 (2014)] 2014/02/23 - 14:32

Rahul Dutta, Minna Korhonen, Ari T. Friberg, Göery Genty, Jari TurunenA new class of partially coherent model sources is introduced on the basis of the second-order coherence theory of nonstationary optical fields. These model sources are spatially fully coherent at each frequency but can have broadband spectra and variable spectral coherence properties, which lead ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 637-643 (2014)] 2014/02/23 - 14:32

Christopher Sandoval, Arnold D. KimWe derive Kubelka–Munk (KM) theory systematically from the radiative transport equation (RTE) by analyzing the system of equations resulting from applying the double spherical harmonics method of order one and transforming that system into one governing the positive- and negative-going ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 628-636 (2014)] 2014/02/20 - 14:40

Karen L. GuntherCardinal color performance (reddish, greenish, bluish, yellowish, black, and white) has been shown to decline in peripheral viewing. What about non-cardinal color performance (e.g., orange, burgundy, and sky blue)? In visual search, performance on non-cardinal colors matched that of the cardinal ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A274-A282 (2014)] 2014/02/20 - 14:40

Jacquelyn Webster, Paul Kay, Michael A. WebsterThe average of a color distribution has special significance for color coding (e.g., to estimate the illuminant) but how it depends on the visual representation (e.g., perceptual versus cone-opponent) or nonlinearities (e.g., categorical coding) is unknown. We measured the perceived average of two ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A283-A292 (2014)] 2014/02/20 - 14:40

Salla Gangi Reddy, Shashi Prabhakar, A. Aadhi, Ashok Kumar, Megh Shah, R. P. Singh, R. SimonWe propose a new method for determining the Mueller matrix of an arbitrary optical element and verify it with three known optical elements. This method makes use of two universal SU(2) polarization gadgets to obtain the projection matrix directly from the experiment. It allows us to determine the ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 610-615 (2014)] 2014/02/20 - 14:40

Zhe Cui, Anting Wang, Qianli Ma, Hai MingIn this paper, the properties of the speckle that is observed by humans in laser projection systems are theoretically analyzed. The speckle pattern on the fovea of the human retina is numerically simulated by introducing a chromatic human eye model. The results show that the speckle contrast ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 616-620 (2014)] 2014/02/20 - 14:40

Manojit PramanikSpatial resolution in photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography is ultrasound transducer (detector) bandwidth limited. For a circular scanning geometry the axial (radial) resolution is not affected by the detector aperture, but the tangential (lateral) resolution is highly dependent on the ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 621-627 (2014)] 2014/02/20 - 14:40

Margarita Zlatkova, Raymond O. Beirne, Nuala A. HindsTo investigate the effect of induced intraocular straylight on the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test performance in individuals with light and dark irides, 28 young subjects were tested both with and without a quantified light-scattering filter. The filter produced a significant increase in ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A268-A273 (2014)] 2014/02/16 - 18:39

Kinjiro Amano, David H. FosterWhere observers concentrate their gaze during visual search depends on several factors. The aim here was to determine how much of the variance in observers’ fixations in natural scenes can be explained by local scene color and how that variance is related to viewing bias. Fixation data were ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A254-A262 (2014)] 2014/02/14 - 15:00

Shuwen Dong, Ningfang Liao, Li Song, Jing Liang, Kai LinPsychophysical experiments have been carried out in which the color appearance of high-gloss and low-gloss color printing atlases was assessed using a magnitude estimation method under three different light sources. A linearity fitting algorithm by the method of least squares was applied to ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, A263-A267 (2014)] 2014/02/14 - 15:00

Mykhaylo Yudytskiy, Tapio Helin, Ronny RamlauReconstruction of the refractive index fluctuations in the atmosphere, or atmospheric tomography, is an underlying problem of many next generation adaptive optics (AO) systems, such as the multiconjugate adaptive optics or multiobject adaptive optics (MOAO). The dimension of the problem for the ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 550-560 (2014)] 2014/02/14 - 15:00

Jin-Yuan Wang, Jun-Bo Wang, Nuo Huang, Ming ChenThis paper focuses on the capacity-approaching, nonuniform signaling for the pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) visible light communications under the non-negativity, peak power, and dimmable average power constraints. The input distribution is characterized by three parameters, i.e., the intensities, ... [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31, 561-568 (2014)] 2014/02/14 - 15:00