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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Language Teaching and Research

Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners’ expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23 freshmen French students enrolled in the Universitat Politecnica de Valencia who took a computer based version of a FSP test. Their attitudes were observed and annotated. The learners expressed their difficulties in taking a FSP computer delivered test. The paper suggests that the dramatic change between general French and French for Specific Purposes may imply significant differences in the students to the new computer context due to the changes in vocabulary, register and language use as well as computer ergonomics. The paper concludes: firstly, that basic notions of certain specialized forms and vocabulary should be introduced in high school; secondly, that FSP should tend to be more communicative and that FSP teaching should be more reflective and communicative than it may be in colleges at the moment; thirdly, that if computer based tests may be a valuable tool in FSP testing (Garcia Laborda et al, 2010), item choice and prompts should be carefully considered. The analysis hereby presented is contextualized in computer based language testing and is a relevant part of the OPENPAU (MINECO FFI2011-22442) project.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0505971975 2014/09/05 - 20:25

Teachers have many roles to fulfill. One of the most important roles is that of expert in the subject field they teach. Teachers should master the contents of the subject and should be able to deepen understanding and insight in these contents. Language teachers do not only teach the foreign language. They are also responsible for the teaching of the culture of the language. This article reports on a project on cultural content knowledge of future language teachers in teacher education. The project establishes that testing instruments and remediation materials are more effective when adapted to the future target context. Culture is a wide concept. Selecting the basic contents in manuals which are students’ future working material appears to contribute to their motivation. Moreover, the meaning of culture is twofold as it can be split into Culture with a capital c and culture with a small c. If we want to contribute to intercultural language teaching, both components need to be addressed.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0505976984 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This study looks into three outstanding EFL teachers’ classrooms in a Taiwan university setting using teachers’ syllabi, questionnaire surveys, interviews with students and teachers, and evidence of students’ improvements in English proficiency. The teaching methods have proven to be effective in achieving results and are appreciated by the teachers’ students. Their teaching methods adopted in the classrooms were analyzed and identified. A paired t-test was used to examine the students’ improvement between a pre-MEPT proficiency test and a post-MEPT proficiency test. Questionnaires and interviews were used to gain insight into the students’ perceptions of learning experiences. The teachers were also observed and interviewed about what methods and how they utilized to help students learn. The study found that (1) classroom teaching is not attributed to a single superior method; (2) cooperative learning techniques of Communicative Language Teaching and Cooperative Learning methods combined with traditional Grammar-Translation teaching instruction worked effectively for university students; learning tends to take place when students are willing to actively participate in learning activities which might be something new or challenging to them; (3) the paired t-tests proved that the students of all three teachers made statistically significant improvement in overall performance over students in the Freshman English classes.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0505985993 2014/09/05 - 20:25

Many people in Spain are studying English in order to find jobs in this country or to migrate as a result of the economic crisis. Language classes, however, are limited in duration and are often not enough to enable students to progress as much as they would like to. Language learners have to spend a considerable amount of time out of class studying and using English in order to get the most out of their class and to continue learning when classes are not in session. This article explains the use of independent study logs to guide and encourage learners in their language learning process during the period in which they attend class with a view towards their becoming more autonomous afterwards. The learners record the activities they do outside the classroom to learn and practice English along with any reactions they have in doing so and, in this way, the instructor can provide weekly or bimonthly feedback on their language learning strategies so that the experience can be more positive and more productive. This paper discusses the process followed along with student and instructor reactions to it, many of which are positive, as well as further applications for the use of independent study logs.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0505994998 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This study evaluated the teaching of English to Saudi police cadets at King Fahd Security College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  The participants included three groups of stakeholders: six English teachers, sixteen former police cadets and 122 current police cades.  Data collection instruments included a set of three short questionnaires and observation.  The analysis of the results showed that the ESP course and teaching at KFSC is ineffective and inappropriate due to administrative and methodological factors.  The current ESP course lacks the major principles associated with the teaching of English for specific purposes such as meeting the police cadets' actual needs and turning these needs into operational objectives that can be tested.  Administratively, the three groups of stakeholders expressed their dissatisfaction with the course duration and timing.   The study concludes with some important pedagogical implications for the improvement of the ESP course and teaching at KFSC.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr05059991008 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This study investigated the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of exposure to specialized courses. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in Southwest China. A Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading was used to collect the data. The results revealed that the overall use of reading strategies between the students with less and more exposure to specialized courses had no significant variations At the category level, the students with less exposure to specialized courses reported significantly more use of the strategies in the POS category than the students with more exposure to specialized courses, while the students with more exposure to specialized courses reported using the strategies in the SCT sub-category of WHS category significantly more frequently than the students with less exposure to specialized courses. In terms of the individual strategy use, 18 out the 45 strategies across the questionnaire showed significant variations. Overall, the students with less exposure to specialized courses reported employing the individual strategies significantly more frequently than the students with more exposure to specialized courses.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510091018 2014/09/05 - 20:25

The present study aims at exploring correlation between reading strategies instruction and proficiency in text comprehension. The task is carried out by investigating the current practices of teaching and learning of L2 reading comprehension skills of the higher level L2 learners of English in Pakistan. In this regard, initially, the extent to which teachers incorporate reading strategies instruction into their teaching of ESL reading skills is analyzed; and students’ proficiency in L2 text comprehension is evaluated. Subsequently, correlation between the two variables is identified by applying Pearson Product-moment correlational test on the statistical scores attained for each variable. The research has employed both quantitative and qualitative measures for data collection and analysis. The research instruments include a questionnaire for students pertaining to the availability of reading strategy instruction, and a reading comprehension test. The results acquired through the collected data and their statistical analyses have highlighted a strong positive correlation between reading strategies instruction and learners’ proficiency in text comprehension.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510191032 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This research and development study aims to develop a product in the form of German descriptive writing learning device based on SMRC Berlo communication for Senior High school. The study procedure follows the first the phases of Thiagrajan 4-D Development Stage: (1) defining Stage; (2) designing Stage; (3) developing stage; (4) disseminating stage. This research involved senior secondary school teachers and students during the defining and developing phases. Besides, experts were involved during the validation of the product. The newly developed learning devices consist of 1) lesson plan, 2) teaching materials/student’s book, 3) teacher’s handbook, 4) students’ worksheet, and 5) learning result test. Quality of the learning device is considered from three aspects namely: validity, practicability, and effectiveness. Validity of the learning device is based on the result of the try-outs including the students’ German descriptive texts. 

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510331041 2014/09/05 - 20:25

“A schema is a general term for a conventional knowledge structure that exists in memory” (Yule, 2006, p. 132). There however still has been a controversy over the role of schema construction activities as an aid to L2 listening learning. This research thus aims to examine the effect of schema construction activities on EFL learners’ listening performance at Saigon Technology University (STU)

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510421051 2014/09/05 - 20:25

The present study aims at finding out students’ intelligence and describing teacher’s strategy in English teaching. The sample of this study is taken from two Islamic secondary schools and one public junior secondary school in Makassar, Indonesia. The total sample of this research is 120 students. Interview and inventory were employed to obtain the data. The result of the study showed  that three students of the secondary schools have different dominant intelligence The students of Islamic junior secondary school (Pesantren IMMIM)  have linguistic intelligence (56%), the students of public junior secondary school (SMP Neg.I) have interpersonal intelligence (25%), and the students of Islamic junior secondary school (SMP Wahdah) have interpersonal intelligence  (20%). The teachers’ present teaching strategies which were used by teachers of Islamic junior secondary school (Pesantren  IMMIM Putra) was explanation, dialogue, simulation, reading and writing, English teacher of public junior secondary school (SMP Negeri I) applied explanation, reading, writing, mind mapping. English teacher of Islamic junior secondary  school (SMP Wahdah) applied explanation, presentation, identification strategy.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510521061 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This paper reexamines communicative competence by studying several representative models. After examining some inherent defects with today’s communicative spoken English teaching, the author highlights the importance of strategic competence and proposes a shift to interactional competence because conversational strategies can be best acquired and studied in the light of complete conversational loops. The author also proposes a model for the teaching of spoken English and demonstrates how conversational strategies function throughout the whole conversational loop. It is also hoped that spoken English testing should take the form of bi-directional or multi-directional conversation among candidates so that the teaching of conversational strategies can better promote the development of interactional competence.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510621070 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This paper is restricted to the investigation of linguistic variation among the Kashmiri speakers at the level of phonology and lexicon of their language in accordance with certain social variables, viz-a-viz. religion, education, region / socioeconomic status, age and occupation. In the present paper, an effort has been devoted to examine as to how the structure of the Kashmiri language varies at the level of phonology and lexicon, in accordance with above mentioned social variables. It also takes into account the possible reasons behind this variation. The present paper explores as to how the social heterogeneity of the Kashmiri speech community is reflected in the linguistic behavior of its speakers, and gives rise to variations in the use of their language at the level of phonology and lexicon. The paper begins with giving a brief introduction about language variation, social variables, and linguistic variables. It also discusses the historical perspective of language variation, and throws light on the related literature by discussing some important studies of variation carried out by different scholars of linguistics from time to time. In this study an attempt has been made to picturize the social structure of the Kashmiri speech community in terms of its social stratification/ and social heterogeneity. The paper also discusses the research methodology adopted in carrying out this study.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510711084 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This paper is a literature review focusing on reading English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). It reviews the recent empirical studies in ESL/EFL reading and by so doing it intends to lay a theoretical foundation for the development of valid tests on reading comprehension and set directions for further research on ESL/EFL reading tests. First, the paper reviews the major reading models including bottom-up, top-down, interactive and interactive-compensatory models. Next it discusses the meaning of comprehension in ESL/EFL. Finally based on the review, it raises questions for further study.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510851091 2014/09/05 - 20:25

The Buginese community in South Sulawesi is a society that lives in powerful custom systems. The custom was deeply held by its ancestor since ancient times until now. Pappaseng or message as one of the Buginese communities’ cultural products is known by the philosophy of the Buginese community living. It is loaded with educational values, which can be adopted in designing an education-based character. This article presents the fundamental values as the Foundation in action. The values are already widespread in the systems of Buginese community living. It also shows that there are many local wisdom values, which are buried deep in the Buginese community culture packaged in the panngadereng or custom. The custom can be the spearhead in the influx of other cultures that dismissed the damage the morality of the Indonesian nation generally and the Buginese society, particularly. 

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050510921102 2014/09/05 - 20:25

Subtitling is one of the two most common modes of audiovisual translation. The starting point of research on subtitling might be its classification. As the types of subtitles in existence seem too varied to be accounted for, the classification of them risks being overlapping, intricate or meticulous, which would make a systematic study of the subject all the harder. In view of the pitfalls of classification, the principles of being simple, clear and inclusive in classifying subtitles are established. Guided by those principles and measured by the major linguistic and technical parameters, the existing types and new types of subtitles can be classified and grouped into corresponding categories, exhibiting distinctive characteristics and targeting different audiences. The classification proposed and the types of subtitles discussed in this paper will shed some light on how subtitling can be conducted in the future in the hope of assisting both academic research and professional practice.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511031109 2014/09/05 - 20:25

The present study examined the effect of the keyword method and word-list method instruction on ESP vocabulary learning across proficiency levels. Two groups of students at Islamic Azad University of South Tehran branch were selected with the total population of 120 Industrial engineering intermediate students with an average age of 21. The students of each class were divided into two different homogeneous groups, the upper-intermediate level and the lower- intermediate level, based on their scores on the Oxford Placement Test. Each class was instructed through a specified method of vocabulary learning, i.e. the keyword method and word-list method, for an equal time of four weeks. Following both treatments, a multiple-choice test was administered to each class as the post-test to find out the ESP students' vocabulary knowledge. The results of the study indicated that the upper-intermediate learners who received the keyword method instruction outperformed the upper-intermediate learners who received the word-list method. In addition, the lower-intermediate level students in the keyword method group had better performance than those in the word-list method. Moreover, regardless of the proficiency level of the students, all of the students in the keyword method group obtained higher scores than those in the word-list method group. The results of the study revealed that the keyword method instruction has superiority over the word-lists method in learning ESP vocabulary regarding the proficiency level of the students.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511101115 2014/09/05 - 20:25

Since the reform and opening-up policy, the whole world has witnessed China’s setting-off. In addition to the economic boom, China also lays stress on strengthening her culture soft power in the outside world. Hence, an increasing number of words with Chinese characteristics have appeared. In regard to the translation of these Chinese-characterized words, lots of translators and scholars have put forward different translating methods. From the perspective of functional equivalence theory, in most cases, due to the differences of cultural background and linguistic customs between Chinese and English, it is impossible to reach total equivalence in form and meaning. On this occasion, the translator can choose a suitable approach to reach the functional equivalence. Through analyzing the translation of Chinese-characterized terms, the author tries to explain these useful methods from the perspective of functional equivalence.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511161120 2014/09/05 - 20:25

Individual Differences in language learning, a topic whose complexity has meant little conclusive knowledge and thus needs for continuing inquiry (Ehrman, Leaver & Oxford, 2003), was addressed in this study. Language learning perfectionism was investigated as an important and complicated educational construct related to important antecedents and consequences such as language learning styles and strategies. To promote successful language learning, the modifying roles of perfectionism in the relationship between language learning styles and strategies were emphasized. The study presented two kinds of data: quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative study, the participants consisted of 265 EFL second-year undergraduates. Three self-reported inventories, the Persian version of Learning Style Questionnaire (E&L LSQ) (Ehrman & Leaver, 2002); the Persian version of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1990); and the Persian version of Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale (PANPS) (Terry-Short, Owens, Slade & Dewey, 1995), were used. In the qualitative aspect of the study, semi-structured interviews have been performed among 34 high and low achievers. The analyses indicated that positive perfectionism was more relevant factor attributing students' use of language learning strategies than styles. High achievers exhibited more positive perfectionism and absence of negative perfectionism, whereas low achievers exhibited signs of both positive and negative perfectionism. The pedagogical implications of the study were discussed.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511211131 2014/09/05 - 20:25

Adult education functions significantly in Chinese education. Adults’ ESL learning especially plays an important role on the development of China and of the adults themselves. This study aimed to discover challenges and problems of Chinese adults’ ESL learning, and the solutions to these problems. A random sam-ple of 50 Chinese adult ESL learners was used. The data gathering consisted of a questionnaire, and the data analysis employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. The findings confirmed that ESL learning is very important for Chinese adults’ future life. However, they have experienced many difficulties and problems when pursuing ESL learning, regardless some advantages they may have over children. Many suggestions were thus made to improve adults’ ESL learning.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511321138 2014/09/05 - 20:25

The study aimed to shed light on the use of gesture in resolving lexical ambiguity employed by TEFL students. To this end, 60 intermediate Iranian learners, studying at Kish Way Language School in Iran were recruited. The participants were randomly put into two groups: one experimental group and one control group. In the experimental groups homonyms were taught   through gesture, but the control group learned homonyms through in Audio-lingual method. The results highlighted the value of gesture in resolving lexical ambiguity. Moreover, to investigate whether or not there were any significant relationships between spatial and kinesthetic intelligences on the one hand and the ability to resolve lexical ambiguity on the other, a Pearson correlation procedure was used. The results showed a significant relationship between spatial/ kinesthetic intelligences and the ability to resolve lexical ambiguity.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511391146 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This article reports an experimental study of reading comprehension among lower-intermediate learners of English as a foreign language in China. A sample of 66 participants underwent a program of metacognitive strategy instruction in reading lasting 8 weeks. Measures were taken of their reading comprehension performance and their metacognitive awareness before and after the instruction. Results show that EG and CG do not reveal any significant differences before and after instruction both in reading comprehension test and their reported metacognitive strategies uses and reasons are given in the discussion part.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511471152 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This paper briefly compares teacher education in the UK system with that of Iran’s. It identifies the main differences, basically of policy and practice, in that teacher education has always been centralized in Iran, whereas it had once been more or less de‑centralized in the UK. However, teacher education is now being centralized in the UK, despite all the disagreements and dissatisfaction amongst the educators and teacher trainers. It seems that this new shift is unjustified so may result in non-professionalisation and politically inappropriate intervention as is indicated by Gilroy et al (l991-1995). The article will deal mainly with Iranian teacher education. It will conclude with an intensive of comparison that will clarify the essential different issues regarding teacher education in the two systems which is followed by some experiential suggestions and conclusions.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511531159 2014/09/05 - 20:25

By adopting both quantitative and qualitative methods, this paper , with the types of bilingual identities (Yongwei B & Yihong G,2006) serving as the framework, examines the characteristics of Chinese college English learners' bilingual identity changes. It is found that instrumental bilingual identity penetrates through L2 learning process, additive and productive bilingual identity are dominant types among L2 English learners; the bilingual identity construction of EFL learners may assume the following process: instrumental bilingual identity, subtractive and split bilingual identity, additive and productive bilingual identity. The study indicates the conflicts and integration of bilingual identities experienced by L2 English learners in China.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511601166 2014/09/05 - 20:25

The present study investigates the the relationship between metacognition and critical thinking in language learning. 102 intermediate students from 2 language institutions in Rasht were selected. Data were gathered by means of two questionnaires and were analyzed using Pearson Correlation procedures. Results indicated that there was a positive correlation between metacognition and critical thinking. In other words, the more metacognitive strategies increase in students, the more critical thinking enhances as well. A comparison of gender differences was done too. The mean scores of male and female participants’ critical thinking and metacognitive strategies were investigated. The mean score of male participants’ critical thinking and metacognitive strategies was more from the mean score of the female participants. 

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511671175 2014/09/05 - 20:25

College English Test (CET) is a national standardized achievement test in mainland China. As a test with government backing, its passing rate has been used as one important index to evaluate higher institutions’ teaching quality, which has pushed institutions to improve the teaching facilities and enhance quality of teaching staff for College English. It is believed that this has ever promoted the rapid growth of undergraduates’ English level and accumulated knowledge for test development. Meanwhile Chinese society has imposed upon CET extra value, which makes it a high-stakes test and its negative impacts are emerging. It has resulted in test-oriented education and become a hurdle to College English reform. In addition its validity and fairness are constantly being challenged. After carefully balancing its positive and negative backwash to College English teaching and learning, I propose that a substantial reform of the present CET might be a feasible solution. Government’s withdraw of its administrative role from CET and a change from achievement to proficiency test should be the orientation of reform. Furthermore, the validity of the test needs to be further improved.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511761184 2014/09/05 - 20:25

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of syntactic simplicity and complexity on the readability of the text. To achieve this, a set of standard reading comprehension passages were syntactically modified to develop three different versions of the same text (i.e., reduced, original, expanded) at different readability levels. A number of 257 senior Iranian EFL students participated in the study. The participants were divided into three proficiency levels of high, mid, and low, each taking the three different versions of the same text. The results revealed that there was no significant difference among the high proficient students' performance on the three versions. However, there were significant differences among the mid and low proficient students' performance on these versions. The results, therefore, indicate that syntactic complexity may create comprehension problems for mid and low proficient students, but not for high proficient ones. The results of this study can be useful for language teachers, syllabus designers and test developers in selecting suitable texts matched to the learners' ability level.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511851191 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This comparative study is based on the English and Chinese corpora of more than one million tokens collected by the author in person and finds that English enjoys a large vocabulary but relatively a far low word frequency and text coverage, compared with Chinese. In the English corpus of more than one million tokens, nearly eighty percent types appear fewer than ten times, and the number of the types with the frequency above ten times is too small to reach the 95% text coverage, which is generally seen as the least required for reading comprehension. Then, this paper infers that, for College English learners in China, if they follow the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition to pick up their new words from reading, they will have to add up their reading outside classroom to a quantity of more than 660,000 words, eleven times as much as the reading in class. That is to say, they will have to read 800 more texts with 800 words each after class, or have to read another ten texts in their free time after they finish learning one text in class. Undoubtedly, this is a reading load too heavy for them to bear, and reveals that the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition is not feasible for College English teaching and learning. 

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511921197 2014/09/05 - 20:25

In foreign language setting, there are some social psychological variables that can highly influence on the teachers' and learners performance. One of these important variables in language pedagogy is Self-efficacy “an individual’s confidence in his/her ability to engage in the social interactional tasks necessary to initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships” (Bandura, 2006). Another influential factor that is importance in teaching contexts is burnout. Burn out is defined as a result of long term job-related stress, especially among human service workers such as teachers (Jennett, Harris, &Mesibov, 2003). This study, which utilized qualitative _ quantitative methodologies, aimed at measuring the relationship between the self-efficacy of Iranian English teachers and their feelings of burnout. The needed data were gathered through the application of the two questionnaires: The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson 1981, 1986) and a researchers-made questionnaire of self-efficacy. The participants are as 616 professional experienced teachers from both genders and different age groups, having university education from different provinces of Iran. The SPSS software (version 16) was used to change the data into numerical interpretable data. To determine the relationship between self-efficacy and teachers' burnout, correlational analysis was employed. The result showed that the participants’ self-efficacy has a reverse relationship with their burnout. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between teachers' reports of burnout, and their years of experiences.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050511981204 2014/09/05 - 20:25

In English teaching, with the constant reform of teaching methods, body language as a kind of nonverbal language plays a very significant role in the interaction between teachers and students. It not only can express the speakers’ intention more accurately and effectively, simplify the teaching instruction, stimulate the students’ interest, optimize the purpose of English teaching and enhance teaching effectiveness, but also can help improve the students’ ability of listening, speaking, reading and so on. Through literature review, by inducing and summarizing, this paper did a survey on several kinds of body languages and their some aspects, such as their features, importance, etc. This paper aims at helping English teachers understand the application of body language in teaching, and encouraging them to try using body language in classes in order to assist their teaching. The English teachers in new times should use body language properly in their class teaching and bring its function in language teaching into full play to achieve the best teaching effects. 

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050512051269 2014/09/05 - 20:25

Cultural education is a fundamental, often overlooked part of learning a language. Teaching culture in the EFL classroom, however, remains a challenge because culture is a complex and evasive concept. Ideally, maximal exposure of the learner to the target culture would be interacting directly with the native speakers. In the classroom, however, the sociocultural context can be re-created. A literature of a nation, one may claim, incorporates a major part of its cultural heritage. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the achievements of EFL learners through exposure to culture via reading the simplified version of a literary text plus (for the experimental group) watching its filmic adaptation. This goal was met by asking the students to take multiple-choice tests based on the literary text. The results indicated that using cultural tools enhances learners' achievement in different regards, including reading comprehension, its durability, and the degree of the student satisfaction.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr050512101217 2014/09/05 - 20:25

This paper considers implementation of a ‘scaffolding’ method as a means towards successful ‘presentations’ and acquisition of presentational language in the classroom and beyond. Setting-up a concrete, well articulated and culturally nuanced yet personalized scaffolding for acquiring upper-level language in working towards and performing presentations will be explored. Specific experiences from Second-Year language classes in both Spanish and then German are considered. Setting clear objectives in a personalized atmosphere and issues of development of transferable professional skills will be further contemplated.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504723730 2014/07/02 - 05:51

This study constitutes a qualitative investigation of a series of interactions between an experienced teacher educator and a pre-service teacher in the context of a teaching English as a second language (ESL) practicum blog. The study demonstrates how the activity of writing a dialogic blog can facilitate teacher professional development. Responding to the recent call to investigate the ways in which teacher engagement in writing (Johnson & Golombek, 2011) can assist teacher learning and given the urge to promote conceptual ways of understanding teaching on the part of the novice teachers (Johnson, 2009), this paper presents a case study that shows both the novice’s growth as expressed through writing and reflection in the blog as well the teacher educator’s moves designed to foster the novice’s learning. A sociocultural perspective on human cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1978) was used as a theoretical framework for tracing the novice’s development and capturing the transformative power of the novice’s narration as well as the characteristics of the teacher educator’s mediation. Our findings indicate that when the teacher educator’s mediation is strategically designed, engagement in narrative through a dialogic blog can be a powerful tool for stimulating a novice’s more expert understanding of ESL teaching and encouraging the application of that understanding in practice.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504731741 2014/07/02 - 05:51

This study examined the production of English syllable final /l/s by Chinese speakers. It was found that 1) Chinese speakers had great difficulties in producing syllable final /l/. 2) More importantly, Chinese speakers used three strategies to modify syllable final /l/: vocalization, deletion, and retroflexion. Among the strategies, vocalization is used to modify the syllable final /l/ after front and back vowels, while deletion and retroflexion occur only after back vowels. Furthermore, vocalization and retroflexion occurred after the back vowels more frequently in formal speech than in casual speech. 3) Experienced ESL learners produced more native-like syllable final /l/s than inexperienced ones, and females produced accurate or near accurate syllable final /l/ more frequently than males.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504742750 2014/07/02 - 05:51

Successfully revitalizing Indigenous languages is one of the greatest challenges of the present for tribal communities. This is particularly significant when one considers that Native peoples have no other place in the world to retrieve their languages should they disappear. When an Indigenous language is no longer spoken in a community or region, it often ceases to exist as a living language. Teaching and learning language in community-based settings has proven beneficial to increasing awareness and overall proficiency. Instituting Indigenous languages as a medium or topic of study in education systems has been an effective means for many tribes in helping create active centers of teaching and learning. The enhanced systematic use of these languages within community and school-based contexts is necessary to ensuring an integrated and authentic approach to language revitalization. The successful experiences of Indigenous peoples such as the Maori and Native Hawaiians are helpful for tribes such as the Ojibwe who similarly aspire to create a comprehensive and sustainable paradigm of language teaching and learning.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504751758 2014/07/02 - 05:51

A language teacher faces constantly diverse class-room situations; he tries to adopt appropriate theory of learning, approach, technology, and tools and aids to create understanding in context. In doing so, he draws upon his experience and peer-experience to resolve problems and issues through the process of reflection. He takes help of research results, and does research work, sources specialist literature or undergoes need-based training – not once but repeatedly to develop competence to cope with class-room situations and remove social or psychological barriers, more particularly in the case of second or foreign language teaching. In reflective practice, the teacher summons all his faculties, experiences and appropriate theory to practise in the classroom. A language-teacher observes his students’ reactions and reflects on the results after responding to such learning behaviour of the students. Following the reflection, the teacher decides to adapt or modify the theory chosen earlier. A classroom is like a laboratory where a teacher relates teaching theory to teaching practice and observes the students’ responses. This paper is an attempt to give focus to the importance of reflective teaching in general with special reference to Language Teacher Education Programmes in Yemen and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as well as check the teachers' awareness of reflective teaching. 50 teachers of English from both the countries were surveyed and interviewed for the purpose. 

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504759768 2014/07/02 - 05:51

Teachers’ professional identity is pivotal to their professional development. Although studies on teachers' professional identity are extensive, professional identity of senior high English teachers in the Chinese context has been understudied. This paper aims to study professional identity of senior high school English teachers in Henan province of China by investigating 108 teachers from 5 senior high schools and to analyze obstacles to the professional development of senior high school English teachers. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed in this paper. It is found that the overall level of professional identity of senior high school English teachers in Henna province of China is average. The obstacles to the professional development of senior high English school teachers in Henan province of China are manifested mainly in the following three aspects: First, Heavy teaching burden give rise to strong pressure on the teachers; second, the deficiency in research ability has a negative influence on the professional development of the English teachers; and third, the unsatisfying working conditions, low pay level and social benefits. Finally, some countermeasures were put forward accordingly.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504769774 2014/07/02 - 05:51

Recently there has been a noticeable paradigm shift in educational assessment where assessment and student learning are viewed as inseparable and assessment is perceived as a tool for supporting student learning. This study was designed to investigate Turkish teachers’ preferences of common assessment methods in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom, their Assessment for Learning (AFL) practices, and determine whether they differed in their AFL practices according to some variables such as years of teaching experience, gender, and public vs. private school context. 120 EFL teachers completed the online self-report Assessment for Learning Questionnaire for Teachers (TAFL-Q) consisting of 28 statements on a 5-point (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree) Likert scale (α = .92). The findings revealed that most Turkish EFL teachers rely on conventional methods of assessment rather than formative assessment processes. While they generally reported high levels of perceived monitoring (82.86%) and scaffolding practices (86.94%) of AFL, they had significant differences in their assessments, especially monitoring in support of student learning, according to years of teaching experience, gender, and private vs. public schools variables (p<0.05). To practice AFL, teachers need to appraise their current assessment practices and develop AFL strategies and feedback procedures. Their perceptions of AFL cannot change overnight, nor do they can do it individually and independently. They need support from different sources to recognize the effect of their previous perspectives on their practices and weigh them against the insights offered by the new assessment culture. Through self-report and observational data from both teachers and students to get better insights into monitoring and scaffolding practices, further research could be conducted to explore probable mismatches between teacher and student perceptions of AFL in EFL classrooms.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504775785 2014/07/02 - 05:51

As globalization becomes a fact, it is true that more and more communication happens among people in different languages. In order to avoid conflicts in cross-cultural communication because of misunderstanding between Chinese people and westerners, the further study of cross-cultural communication is necessary. According to Sapir & Whorf Hypothesis, the use of language is involved far more than words, but also the way of thinking. For language and thought, they work side by side. This paper, reviews Sapir & Whorf hypothesis and argues that because of the factors of geography, ideology and history, the Chinese people have the inductive inclination in communication and we believe our research can promote the communication between Chinese people and westerners.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504786790 2014/07/02 - 05:51

Tone is an important feature of African tone languages. The aspect of tone identification, marking and analysis seem to be problematic in the teaching of most Nigerian languages; even in the existing orthographies apart from Yoruba and Tiv. The paper therefore proposed the use of modern technological aid for effective teaching of tones, with a view to providing insight into the analysis of Anaang/Ibibio tones. This study examined the relevance of the computer and software in language to show how the teachers-learners in a setting like Anaang/Ibibio stand to benefit from the use of modern technological devices in language research. The paper argues that teachers need to revise their methods in line with current technological trends for a better understanding of tone. This entails taking advantage of the double resources which the computer, and the access software provided, and adding to it the human intelligence. The position of the paper is that the computer is a more recent direction in language research and proved to be result oriented for the teaching/learning of tone. The application of modern technological device like software PRAAT and computer enhanced a feasibility study of the different patterns of tone. The use of spectrographic analysis actually converted the abstract sounds to ideal and visible sounds, thereby enhanced easy identification of the different tones. This paper therefore establishes a basis for the understanding of the relative tone/pitch forms of Anaang /Ibibio

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr0504791800 2014/07/02 - 05:51

Teacher development has been a focus of innovation in China’s English as a foreign language (EFL) instruction with much attention given to teachers’ professional promotion, which is aimed at rendering students’ enhancement in learning. With the emphasis on facilitating learner autonomy and lifelong education in recent reform efforts, it has become significant that students should try to self-control their learning and become more active thinkers and problem-solvers. To ensure learner-centered EFL instruction, teachers have to highlight the development of students’ independence and autonomy by re-orienting their roles from knowledge disseminators to organizers, partners, consultants, and facilitators. As such, the current paper raises concerns about the review of secondary school EFL teacher roles in China from the perspective of social constructivism which encourages language teachers to interact with their students and help them to apply the language themselves instead of only providing them with the language knowledge. At this point, language teachers are really mediators rather than knowledge–givers. Hopefully, this review paper would contribute to the shift of today’s EFL teacher roles in China from disseminators or knowledge-givers to mediators of students’ language learning for the further sake of providing reference evidence for policy makers, curriculum developers, and educators in this regard.

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jltr/article/view/jltr05048801809 2014/07/02 - 05:51