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Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

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Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences

Routing algorithms have shown their importance in the power aware wireless micro-sensor networks. In this paper first we present virtual circuit algorithm (VCRA), a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. We analyze the power utilized by nodes to lengthen the battery life and thus improving the lifetime of wireless sensor network. We discuss VCRA in comparison with the Multihoprouter, an algorithm developed by UC Berkeley. Then we present Improved Virtual Circuit Routing Algorithm (IVCRA) which is an improved form of VCRA. In IVCRA node failure detection and path repairing scheme has been implemented. We also present the energy analysis of IVCRA and prove that IVCRA is the best choice. We first implement our routing algorithms in simulator TOSSIM and then on real hardware of mica2 mote-sensor network platform and prove the reliable routing of the data packets from different nodes to the base station. The motes used as nodes in our mote-sensor network are from Berkeley USA. By using simulator POWERTOSSIM, we estimate and present the energy utilized by different nodes of the network. At the end we present a comparison of our work with the network layer of Zigbee/IEEE 802.15.4, which is an emerging standard for wireless sensor networks and then compare its energy efficiency with the packet size chosen for our algorithm. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Business rules are today essential parts of a business system model. But presently, there are still various approaches to, definitions and classifications of this concept. Similarly, there are also different approaches in business rules formalization and implementation. This paper investigates formalization using formal language in association with easy domain modelling. Two of the tools that enable such approach are described and compared according to several factors. They represent ontology modelling and UML, nowadays widely used standard for object-oriented modelling. A simple example is also presented. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Modern organizations are exposed to diverse external environment influences. Currently accepted concepts of organizational design take into account structure, its interaction with strategy, processes, people, etc. Organization design and planning aims to align this key organizational design variables. At the higher conceptual level, however, completely satisfactory formulation for this alignment doesn’t exist. We develop an approach originating from the application of concepts of theoretical physics to social systems. Under this approach, the allocation of organizational resources is analyzed in terms of social entropy, social free energy and social temperature. This allows us to formalize the dynamic relationship between organizational design variables. In this paper we relate this model to Galbraith's Star Model and we also suggest improvements in the procedure of the complex analytical method in organizational design. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

In the industrially advanced countries, that are different from our ex and present countries, to learning phenomena has been dedicated a significant attention for the last 60 years. One of more basic reasons is multiple purposes of results. Until now, there have been applied various approaches, methods and procedures for empirical data approximation, and in this articles some possibilities of artificial neural network application are researched. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Software companies have to face serious problems about how to measure the progress of test activities and quality of software products in order to estimate test completion criteria, and if the shipment milestone will be reached on time. Measurement is a key activity in testing life cycle and requires established, managed and well documented test process, defined software quality attributes, quantitative measures, and using of test management and bug tracking tools. Test metrics are a subset of software metrics (product metrics, process metrics) and enable the measurement and quality improvement of test process and/or software product. The goal of this paper is to briefly present Fabasoft best practices and lessons learned during functional and system testing of big complex software products, and to describe a simple test metrics model applied to the software test process with the purpose to better control software projects, measure and increase software quality. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The Barcelona European Council called on the European Commission to draw up an eEurope Action Plan in order to widespread penetration of ICT, as powerful driver of growth and employment. Availability of modern on-line public services through e-Government, e-Learning, e-Health and e-Business is to be secured by the Action Plan. The eEurope 2005 is succeeding eEurope 2002 Action Plan which comprises four separate but interlinked tools: policy measures, exchange of good practices, monitoring and benchmarking and overall co ordination of existing policies. Croatia is candidate for accession to EU by 2009, which means that Croatian Government has to implement eEurope Action plan 2005 and Commission's new strategic framework, i2010 - European Information Society 2010. In first part of the paper authors are presenting overall framework of eEurope Action Plan 2005 as well i2010 strategic framework. For the purposes of the paper, authors have conducted a research availability of on-line public services through government, e-Learning, e-Health and e-Business in Croatia 2006.The results of the survey has been benchmarked to the results of similar surveys in New Europe countries. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Measurement and improvement of e-service quality is important for sustaining competitive advantage of an e-commerce web site. A number of e-service quality measures have recently been developed that predominantly rely on the subjective evaluation of diverse quality attributes. To increase the objectivity of e-service quality measurement a recently developed measure of e-service quality has been adapted in a way that replaces its Likert type scales for evaluation of specific attributes with check-lists that include specific observable elements for appraisal and a scoring procedure. The consistency of scoring with this adaptation of an e-service quality measure was investigated in comparison to the use of the standard measure with Likert type scales and by the use of untrained and trained evaluators. The results of the empirical evaluation indicate a greater inter-rater consistency when the adapted/objective measure is used for evaluation of the efficiency dimension of e-service quality. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

In the past decade agent systems were considered to be as one of the major fields of study in Artificial Intelligence (AI) field. Many different definitions of agents were presented and several different approaches describing agency can be distinguished. While some authors have tried to define “what” an agent really is, others have tried to identify agents by means of properties which they should possess. Most authors agree on these properties (at least basic set of properties) which are intrinsic to agents. Since agent's definitions are not consistent, we are going to give an overview and list the properties intrinsic to an agent. Many different adjectives were attached to the term agent as well and many different kinds of agents and different architectures emerged too. The aim of this paper it go give an overview of what was going on in the field while taking into consideration main streams and projects. We will also present some guidelines important when modelling agent systems and say something about security issues. Also, some existing problems which restrict the wider usage of agents will be mentioned too. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The existence and development of organizations depends on achievement of requisite holistic efficiency and effectiveness of their operations and bahaviour. But in theory (of organization and management) and business practice do not exist common understanding of efficiency and effectiveness, their relations and sinergies. When we try to investigate their definitions and relations we must take into account problems of many conflicts, which reflect their “different non-optimalty (unsuitability, inapproapriateness)”. This contribution discusses three theses: 1) how to more (requisitely) holistically understand relations between efficiency and effectiveness in the frame of business (its working and functioning), 2) how to understand their relations from the viewpoint of conflicts, and 3) one can create solution to remove a problem of different conflicts between efficiency and effectiveness in business. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

In this paper we will present some schemes for strengthening network authentification over insecure channels with biometric concepts or how to securely transfer or use biometric characteristics as cryptographic keys. We will show why some current authentification schemes are insufficient and we will present our concepts of biometric hashes and authentification that rely on unimodal and multimodal biometrics. Our concept can be applied on any biometric authentification scheme and is universal for all systems. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

In the paper the possibility to use mathematical models and statistical techniques in strategic planning and decision making about e-learning is presented. Strategic planning and decision making has been covered as consisting of four phases: (1) intelligence, (2) design, (3) choice and (4) implementation. Each of the phases will be described in this paper, but the accent will be put on the statistical evaluation of the results of the questionnaire which was based on the developed theoretical model for decision making about e-learning implementation in the higher education sector. In general, the main objectives of this paper are: (1) validation of the first theoretical model for decision making about e-learning implementation in the higher education sector, by means of factor analysis and (2) reduction of a large number of variables to a smaller number of factors, i.e. designing the improved theoretical model, for modelling purposes (developing AHP & ANP models). 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The actual problem of information security (infosec) risk assessment is determining the value of information property or asset. This is particularly manifested through the use of quantitative methodology in which it is necessary to state the information value in quantitative sizes. The aim of this paper is to describe the evaluation possibilities of business information values, and the criteria needed for determining importance of information. For this purpose, the dimensions of information values will be determined and the ways used to present the importance of information contents will be studied. There are two basic approaches that can be used in evaluation: qualitative and quantitative. Often they are combined to determine forms of information content. The proposed criterion is the three-dimension model, which combines the existing experiences (i.e. possible solutions for information value assessment) with our own criteria. An attempt for structuring information value in a business environment will be made as well. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

This paper evaluates the level of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Serbian metal processing sector. This research uses data from the entire metal processing sector in Serbia (Sample: 20 large companies, 27 medium companies, and 247 small companies, overall with 33,057 workers). Data from the Serbian metal processing sector were compared to the relevant data from EU. In this paper, we present problems and steps for improvement of ICT in the Serbian metal processing industry. We will also present development of quality infrastructure necessary for support and improvement of Serbian ICT industry and improvement of ITC sectors in Serbian metal processing industry. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Knowledge management (KM) is increasingly recognised as a strategic practice of knowledge-intensive companies, becoming an integral part of an organisation's strategy to improve business performance. This paper provides an overview of business process modelling applications and analyses the relationship between business process modelling and knowledge management projects. It presents the case study of Croatian leading banks and the insurance company, discussing its practical experience in conducting business process modelling projects and investigating the opportunity for integrating business process repository and organisational knowledge as the foundation for knowledge management system development. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Digital cameras on the market today have a great potential to become the powerful tool for capturing images for use in all demanding fields (such as artwork digitalization), so many professionals started using digital technology. But, it is often the case, that it is necessary to spend a lot of time for visual editing and making color corrections in various software applications. In this research, some ICC color management techniques were used and tested to investigate the quicker ways to achieve digital images with improved color reproduction accuracy, without visual editing. A testing procedure for characterizing digital camera is described. This procedure is target-based, thus providing objective measurement of quality. The special color reference target for digital camera characterization was developed, applied and tested. The results show that using proposed methodology, the workflow efficiency and color accuracy can be improved. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Social entrepreneurship is highlighted as a result of general entrepreneurship development because the traditional entrepreneurial factors are accomplished with the social aspects of common good. Entrepreneur's responsibility in choosing the main business activity within an industry increases if the way he conducts his activities is considered. Institutional support for social entrepreneurship is achieved by generating many business activities in order to fulfil different kinds of social needs. Social entrepreneurship is possible if both entrepreneur’s initiative and institutional support for small and medium sized enterprises (SME) are included in performing for traditionally non-profit activities. Allowing private initiative to fulfil the real needs of different users in social, educational, cultural and other non-profit fields is a good way to support SMEs. However, the institutional control should still remain in place in order to protect the minimum performing standards.The development of social entrepreneurship in transition countries is important for general economic development, but also for the supporting values of ethics in business activities. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Trends in data processing for decision support show that business users need business analytics, i.e. analytical applications which incorporate a variety of business oriented data analysis techniques and task-specific knowledge. The paper discusses the feasibility of investment in two models of implementing business analytics: custom development and packed analytical applications. The consequences of both models are shown on two models of business analytics implementation in Croatia. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

We describe an approach for success evaluation of Web portals by benchmarking user perceived impact with Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). For impact measurement a questionnaire is used. The method is applied in a case study of four eGovernment portals and results are discussed. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Assumptions and habits regarding computer and Internet use are among the major factors which influence online privacy and security of Internet users. In our study a survey was performed on 312 subjects (college students who are Internet users with IT skills) that investigated how assumptions and habits of Internet users are related to their online security and privacy. The following four factors of online security and privacy related behaviors were revealed in factor analysis: F1 – conscientiousness in the maintenance of the operating system, upgrading of the Internet browser and use of antivirus and antispyware programs; F2 –engagement in risky and careless online activities with lack of concern for personal online privacy; F3 – disbelief that privacy violations and security threats represent possible problems; F4 – lack of fear regarding potential privacy and security threats with no need for change in personal online behavior. Statistically significant correlations were found between some of the discovered factors on the one side, and criteria variables occurrence of malicious code (C1) and data loss on the home computer (C2) on the other. In addition, a regression analysis was performed which revealed that the potentially risky online behaviors of Internet users were associated with the two criteria variables. To properly interpret the results of correlation and regression analyses a conceptual model was developed of the potential causal relationships between the behavior of Internet users and their experiences with online security threats. An additional study was also performed which partly confirmed the conceptual model, as well as the factors of online security and privacy related behaviors. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Fraud present an immense problem for health insurance companies and the only way to fight fraud is by using specialized fraud management systems. The current research community focussed great efforts on different fraud detection techniques while neglecting other also important activities of fraud management. We propose a holistic approach that focuses on all 6 activities of fraud management, namely, (1) deterrence, (2) prevention, (3) detection, (4) investigation, (5) sanction and redress, and (6) monitoring. The main contribution of the paper are 15 key characteristics of a fraud management system, which enable construction of a fraud management system that provides effective and efficient support to all fraud management activities. We base our research on literature review, interviews with experts from different fields, and a case study. The case study provides additional confirmation to expert opinions, as it puts our holistic framework into practice. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The most used method for determining the complexity of information systems is the function point method. This paper illustrates the new method, Data on Document (DOD) for estimating the complexity of designing business information systems. Similar methods are shown in brief. The objective is to explain the reasons for using the newly defined DOD method instead of the function point method. The new method is easier to use while the usage of function point method takes a lot of time and effort, and is more complex. The DOD method is compared to the function point method. A high degree of correlation was determined in observed information systems. The DOD method helps in early stages of the development of information systems, when it is not possible to apply the function point method. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The paper deals with the problem of the fuzzy data clustering. In other words, objects attributes can be represented by fuzzy numbers or fuzzy intervals. A direct algorithm of possibilistic clustering is the basis of an approach to the fuzzy data clustering. The paper provides the basic ideas of the method of clustering and a plan of the direct possibilistic clustering algorithm. Definitions of fuzzy intervals and fuzzy numbers are presented and distances for fuzzy numbers are considered. A concept of a vector of fuzzy numbers is introduced and the fuzzy data preprocessing methodology for constructing of a fuzzy tolerance matrix is described. A numerical example is given and results of application of the direct possibilistic clustering algorithm to a set of vectors of triangular fuzzy numbers are considered in the example. Some preliminary conclusions are stated. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Component based modeling offers new and improved approach to design, construction, implementation and evolution of software applications development. This kind of software applications development is usually represented by appropriate component model/diagram. UML, for example, offers component diagram for representation of this kind of model. On the other hand, metacomponents usage offers some new features which hardly could be achieved by using generic components. Firstly, implementation of program properties which are dispersed on different classes and other program units, i.e. aspects, is offered. This implies using automated process of assembling components and their interconnection for building applications, according to appropriate model offered in this paper, which also offers generic components usage. Benefits of this hybrid process are higher flexibility achieved by automated connection process, optimization through selective features inclusion and easier application maintenance and development. In this paper we offer an approach of application development based on hybrid component/metacomponent model. The component model is given by UML diagrams, while the metacomponent model is given by generator scripting model. We explain that hybrid approach on an example of Java Web application development. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences – JIOS – is an interdisciplinary scientific journal with  a  focus  on  the  application  of  information  sciences  and  advances  in  organizational  sciences, as well as on  theoretical  contemplations  in  the fields  that  impact  information  sciences,  computer sciences and organizational sciences. JIOS is published twice a year, and is managed by a  team of professionals, all of whom are employed at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb.The Journal’s name and layout have already undergone several changes. As you can see, we have transformed our visual identity, and the format of the published papers has been changed as well.  However, it is not only the visual identity of the Journal that we have been working on, as we have also aimed to enhance its visibility, accessibility and referencing. As a result, we are proud to say that the number of databases the Journal is cited in has grown from one to seven, and we are putting a lot of our e. orts into broadening this number in future.As you already know, the Journal’s web address has been changed to and it is currently being managed by the Open Journal System, in which the entire communication from submitting the paper to its reviewing and publishing is conducted on-line.   In  this  issue  of  JIOS  a  selection  of  five  original scientific  papers  and  one  review  paper  has  been included covering the following topics: modern production management, fuzzy data, software and information systems development, online privacy and security, and fraud management. We hope you will find the papers interesting and challenging for your own research.Finally, we  encourage  you  to  submit  your papers  and  also  share with  us  your  recommendations, comments or observations about papers already published.  In  that  respect, we would very much appreciate your willingness to become a peer-reviewer for submitted papers, and thus contribute to the rising quality of JIOS. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Dear readers,I am happy  to present you a new  issue of  the Journal of  Information and Organizational Sciences, volume 33, number 1.JIOS is being increasingly seen as a relevant journal in the field of information sciences and applied information and communication technology. Speaking in favour of this statement is the fact that JIOS has been  included  into several new databases – DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), OAIster and Referativny Žurnal – which is information of interest to all our future authors. At present, we are cited in 7 diferent databases, which signifcantly enhances the visibility of the Journal. In  this  issue a  selection of 9 original  scientific papers, 3 preliminary communication articles and 1 review paper has been  included, all of which have undergone rigorous double-blind review. Some of the papers published here were already presented at the CECIIS 2008 conference. The papers  in the current  issue cover a broad area of topics, from programming and web related topics, through algorithm and method proposals,  to economics and applied  linguistics. We hope you will find the papers interesting and challenging for your own research. We encourage you to submit your papers at, where you can also share with us your recommendations, comments or critical remarks regarding the papers published in previous issues. Your  papers  and  feedback may  prove  invaluable  in  fulfilling  our  ambitions, which  are  very  high indeed, as we have set out to enter some new databases. We would also appreciate your willingness to become a peer-reviewer for submitted papers, and thus give your contribution to the rising quality of JIOS. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Here you can download journal cover pages. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

In the early 1970s, Bangladeshi banker and economist Dr. Muhammad Yunus designed microcrediting – a socially sensitive and rightful system of fighting poverty and high unemployment rates. His Grameen Bank for the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh has so far lifted more than 3.2 million of individuals and their families out of poverty. After initial successes at home, microcredit was put into service for reducing unemployment and alleviating poverty in numerous countries throughout the world. This paper explores specific problems that a typical transitional country (like Croatia), is likely to face, with unemployment – the source of a vast number of related problems in a transitional society – as the focal point. The authors have attempted to incorporate particularities of a transitional economy into the original microcrediting principles. As a solution to problems afflicting the domestic economy, the authors define a global microcrediting system framework on the macroeconomic level, assuming at the same time that microcrediting of socially vulnerable groups can resolve many problems of modern transitional societies. Arising from the authors' primary intention – to consider in depth the functionality of microcrediting in general transition conditions – a transitional microcrediting system has been defined in general terms, and a corresponding financial and mathematical model developed. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Information systems auditing activities are mandatory in today business environments. There are numerous useful methods that can be conducted in such audits. One of contemporary methods is application of so-called Benford's Law. In this paper we examine ways of application of this law in investigation of certain number set with aim to make a conclusion if number set conforms to Benford's Law. As an examination target we used foreign payment system messages which are issued between foreign and domestic business entities i.e. commercial and central banks. We chose sample of 1.745.311 transactions and conducted examination for first, second and first two digits. We examine certain data subsets, created according to certain payment types, and investigate how Benford’s Law tests can be used in auditing. We also compare practical usefulness and note differences between various conformity tests in auditing environment. Results we achieved prove adequate potential of this law in audit practice. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Web development teams are multidisciplinary, bringing together designers from a variety of backgrounds. A Web designer’s professional training and education can shape his problem-solving orientation and world view by indoctrinating certain values and conditioning him to think and behave in certain ways. This paper presents an analysis of data gathered across 14 interviews, wherein four distinct orientations were identified: (1) Web development as the design of a functional software application (emphasis on back-end functionality); (2) as the design of an interactive tool (emphasis on ergonomics); (3) as the design of a communicational dialogue (emphasis on audience engagement); and (4) as an extension of branded graphic design (emphasis on visual presentation). 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Fifty years ago one of the greatest breakthroughs in computer programming and in the history of computers happened -- the appearance of FORTRAN, the first higher-order programming language. From that time until now hundreds of programming languages were invented, different programming paradigms were defined, all with the main goal to make computer programming easier and closer to as many people as possible. Many battles were fought among scientists as well as among developers around concepts of programming, programming languages and paradigms. It can be said that programming paradigms and programming languages were very often a trigger for many changes and improvements in computer science as well as in computer industry. Definitely, computer programming is one of the cornerstones of computer science.Today there are many tools that give a help in the process of programming, but there is still a programming tasks that can be solved only manually. Therefore, programming is still one of the most creative parts of interaction with computers.Programmers should chose programming language in accordance to task they have to solve, but very often, they chose it in accordance to their personal preferences, their beliefs and many other subjective reasons.Nevertheless, the market of programming languages can be merciless to languages as history was merciless to some people, even whole nations. Programming languages and developers get born, live and die leaving more or less tracks and successors, and not always the best survives. The history of programming languages is closely connected to the history of computers and computer science itself. Every single thing from one of them has its reflexions onto the other. This paper gives a short overview of last fifty years of computer programming and computer programming languages, but also gives many ideas that influenced other aspects of computer science. Particularly, programming paradigms are described, their intentions and goals, as well as the most of the significant languages of all paradigms. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The paper presents an approach to partial mapping of a web sub-graph. This sub-graph contains the nearest surroundings of an actual web page. Our work deals with acquiring relevant Hyperlinks of a base web site, generation of adjacency matrix, the nearest distance matrix and matrix of converted distances of Hyperlinks, detection of compactness of web representation, and visualization of its graphical representation. The paper introduces an LWP algorithm – a technique for Hyperlink filtration.  This work attempts to help users with the orientation within the web graph. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

This article presents the results of research done on Web 2.0 within the School of Information Sciences ESI. It aims to study the behavior of different academic actors who deal with information, among whom we cite teachers, students of masters and students of information sciences in Morocco, face to Web 2.0’s services. Firstly, it aims to evaluate the use and production of information in the context of Web 2.0. Then, it   attempts to assess those rates, to identify and analyze the causes of eventual problems and obstacles that academic actors face.  In fact, we intend to understand why information actors in the academic world use often Web 2.0’s services but do rarely produce qualitative content. To achieve the objectives set, we used the on-site survey method, which was based on an electronic questionnaire administered directly to our people via the Internet. We chose the electronic version of questionnaire in order to make an optimal use in terms of new technologies, to gain time and to reduce cost. Then, in order to deepen the understanding of the data collected, we complete the data collected by the questionnaire by an ongoing discussions with actors. Finally, to overcome the problems already identified, we intend to propose the elements of a new version of the Web called Web 2.1 offering new concepts   in order to encourage users to produce information of quality and make the Web more open to a larger community. This version maintains the current contents of   Web 2.0 and adds more value to it. Indeed, the content will be monitored, evaluated and validated before being published. In order to target valuable information, the new version of Web 2.1 proposes to categorize users into three groups: users who just use the contents, producers who use and produce content, and  validators  who validate the content in order to  target information that is validated and of good quality. Once the information is published, it must be well organized, well stored and archived or removed to avoid over-information. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

This paper describes a modification of a possibilistic clustering method based on the concept of allotment among fuzzy clusters. Basic ideas of the method are considered and the concept of a principal allotment among fuzzy clusters is introduced. The paper provides the description of the plan of the algorithm for detection principal allotment. An analysis of experimental results of the proposed algorithm’s application to the Tamura’s portrait data in comparison with the basic version of the algorithm and with the NERFCM-algorithm is carried out. A methodology of the algorithm’s application to the dimensionality reduction problem is outlined and the application of the methodology is illustrated on the example of Anderson’s Iris data in comparison with the result of principal component analysis. Preliminary conclusions are formulated also. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Information visualization refers to the wavelength area ranging from 400 to 700 nm. Areas in lower wavelengths ranging from 100 to 400 nm are translated into the visual area with the goal to protect information visible only by applying instruments adapted for the ultraviolet area. Our recent research work refers to the infrared wavelength areas above the visible specter up to 1000 nm. The scientific contribution of this paper is in setting the double separation method for printing with CMYK printing inks with the goal to detect graphic information in the infrared area only. An algorithm has been created for making visual basics in the overall visible specter containing material that responds in the infrared section. This allows planning of areas in all coloring types for one and the same document that contains a secure piece of information. The system is based on double transition transformation of the visible RGB1 information recognition into CMYK2 in the same document. Secure information is recognized with the help of instruments in the set wavelength range. Most of the experiments have been carried out by analyzing the same set of RGB records. Each sample in the set was a test unit coming from another source containing different IR3 components. Thus an innovative method of color mixing has been set where colors appear respectively in daylight and separately according to IR light programming. New IR cryptography is proposed as shown in the experimental work. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The optimal QoS path provisioning of coexisted and aggregated traffic in networks is still demanding problem. All traffic flows in a domain are distributed among LSPs (Label Switching Path) related to N service classes, but the congestion problem of concurrent flows can appear. As we know the IGP (Interior Getaway Protocol) uses simple on-line routing algorithms (e.g. OSPFS, IS-IS) based on shortest path methodology. In QoS end-to-end provisioning where some links may be reserved for certain traffic classes (for particular set of users) it becomes insufficient technique. On other hand, constraint based explicit routing (CR) based on IGP metric ensures traffic engineering (TE) capabilities. The algorithm proposed in this paper may find a longer but lightly loaded path, better than the heavily loaded shortest path. LSP can be pre-computed much earlier, possibly during SLA (Service Level Agreement) negotiation process.  As we need firm correlation with bandwidth management and traffic engineering (TE) the initial (pro-active) routing can be pre-computed in the context of all priority traffic flows (former contracted SLAs) traversing the network simultaneously. It could be a very good solution for congestion avoidance and for better load-balancing purpose where links are running close to capacity. Also, such technique could be useful in inter-domain end-to-end provisioning, where bandwidth reservation has to be negotiated with neighbor ASes (Autonomous System). To be acceptable for real applications such complicated routing algorithm can be significantly improved. Algorithm was tested on the network of M core routers on the path (between edge routers) and results are given for N=3 service classes. Further improvements through heuristic approach are made and results are discussed. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Student and  teacher mobility are  important aspects of education within  the Bologna Process. Overcoming the language barrier is a precondition for following and providing instruction in a foreign  language.  A  survey  was  conducted  among  first-year  undergraduate  students  to determine  their  readiness  for  instruction  in English. The  survey  results  show  the  respondent profile, their assessment of instruction within an English language course, using other ways of acquiring  knowledge  and  self-assessment  of  their  command  of  English.  The  students'  self-assessment  of  motivation  for  learning  English  and  its  relevance  for  their  profession  are presented  along with  students'  interest  in  other  courses  offered  in English.  It  turns out  that, regardless  of  a  satisfactory  level  of  self-assesed  competence  in  English  and motivation  for learning English, students are not willing to enroll in the offered study courses in English. This may indicate that all the precoditions for mobility have not been fulfilled. The survey results are compared with  the corresponding results of another, more comprehensive, survey among graduate  students  at  the  Faculty  of  Organization  and  Informatics  conducted  at  the  whole University of Zagreb. Althouh the results obtained in the two surveys are not identical, they roughly correspond. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

The training courseware complexity proper selection is one of the most difficult factors looking from an intelligent application engine development. The application needs individual settings, the most relevant for the application structure matching to the users' individual expectations. What  is more,  the  obtained  structure  allows  controlling  dynamically  the  application within a time it is used. The application units description with their controlling functions allow joining the database components into individual composition of the courseware. The paper in-troduces several aspects of distance learning resources development, fulfilling the demanding assumptions of the interactive training units. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

In this paper we provide an approach to creating adaptive environment for e-learning courses. In the context of e-education, successful adaptation has to be performed upon learners’ characteristics. Currently, modeling and discovering users’ needs, goals, knowledge preferences and motivations is one of the most challenging tasks in e-learning systems that deal with large volumes of information. Primary goal of the research is to perform personalizing of distance education system, according to students’ learning styles. Main steps and requirements in applying business intelligence techniques in process of personalization are identified. In addition, we propose generic model and architecture of an adaptive e-learning system by describing the structure of an adaptive course and exemplify correlations among e-learning course content and different learning styles. Moreover, research that dealt with application of data mining technique in a real e-learning system was carried out. We performed adaptation of our e-learning courses using the results from the research. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Dear readers,I proudly welcome you to Issue 2 of Volume 33 of the Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences.Let me remind you that JIOS is published on the two-issues-per-volume basis, with one volume published annually. One issue of the volume is usually dedicated to CECIIS, the international scientific conference organized and hosted by the Faculty of Organization and Informatics. These special issues of JIOS normally contain a selection of best scientific papers presented at the Conference. The second issue is reserved for scientific papers in the fields of information sciences as well as a range of scientific fields related with information sciences, particularly applied ICT in economics and business.Owing to the efforts of the Editorial Board aimed at including JIOS in a number of relevant databases, JIOS has been steadily increasing its visibility with every new volume. As a result, JIOS is currently being cited in seven databases that cover a variety of scientific topics connected to information sciences, computing and applied ICT.In this issue you will find a selection of several original scientific papers, two preliminary communications and one review paper. We hope that the variety of themes reflects some of your own research interests, thus making the papers inspirational for your future work.As in all my letters addressed to the respected readership of JIOS, I would like to use this opportunity to motivate prospective authors among you, dear readers, to submit papers at You are also invited to share with us your comments or critical remarks regarding the papers previously published in the Journal. Your willingness to become a peer-reviewer for submitted papers would be much appreciated as by choosing to do so you would contribute significantly to the rising quality of JIOS. 2011/02/15 - 11:40

Here you can download journal cover pages. 2011/02/15 - 11:40