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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

Four models (sine, exponential-sine, power-sine and logarithmic-sine) were
conducted to fit the daily cycle of sunlight intensity inside and outside bamboo
stands. Exponential-sine curve was the best among others. Since the shadowing
effect inside bamboo stands, the glare is dodged and human visual comfort period
increases 4.5 h longer. Sunrays radiation effect toward temperature and RH follow
the sine function, while earth ’s
surface energy follow exponential-sine equation for open space and sine equation
for inside bamboo stands. Best equations for fitting the daily cycle of temperature
and RH based on sunrays radiation and earth ’s
surface energy effects have high coeficient of determination. According to those
equations, the thermal comfort temperature period is 13 h long in open space
while it is 16.5 h long inside bamboo stand. RH in both locations is high. Air
inside bamboo stand is wetter. Human is much more tolerate against RH than temperature,
thus temperature is dominant affecting human comfort. The hourly measurements
of discomfort index prove during working hour, labor could comfortly work 1.5
h longer inside bamboo stand than in open space. Heat index measurements also
show that labor would be safe from heat injury 5 h longer inside bamboo stands.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.245.265 2014/07/15 - 17:55

This study was aimed to the optimum conditions for cellulose extraction from different agriculture wastes (rice straw, rice husk, wheat straw and sugar-cane bagasse) and the biological activity of sulfated cellulose. Sulfation of the isolated cellulose was achieved through adopting the method by using sulfuric acid as sulfation agent in presence of catalyst (D.C.C or 4-(Dimethylamino) pyridine. In vitro anticoagulation and fibrinolytic activities for sulfated cellulose were determined. The lysis percentages of the plasma clots at 37°C were recorded with each sample and compared to that of standard hemoclar. The fibrinolytic and anti-coagulation activities of different sulfated cellulose with and without catalyst were measured in order to verify the traditional uses of this modified cellulose. The FT-IR analysis was done to elucidating the product cellulose and sulfated cellulose. The highest substitution was in sulfated cellulose bagasse, rice straw, rice husk and wheat straw, respectively. It was concluded that addition of sulphate group into extracted cellulose enhance anticoagulation activities. The results indicated that the highest clotting time was found by using D.C.C catalyst at concentration of 500 μg mL-1. The lowest clotting time was reported without catalyst sulfated celluloses at same concentration. Determination of fibrinolytic effects of the modified sulfated cellulose revealed that they have good fibrinolytic activities. Sulfated bagasse cellulose in presence of catalyst whether D.C.C or 4-(Dimethylamino) pyridine exhibited fibrinolytic activities equivalent to the same amount of standard “Hemoclar” preparation at concentration of 2000 μg mL-1. No cytotoxic effect of sulfated cellulose was observed on VERO cells. Results indicated that the LD50 of sulfated cellulose is more than 5000 mg kg-1 b.wt. and these compounds are practically non-toxic.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.266.280 2014/07/15 - 17:55

Intensive agriculture activities apply inorganic fertilisers to improve crop
productions. However, exceeded fertiliser applications above crop requirements
at the upper Cox Creek sub-catchment, South Australia have increased the potential
of excess nutrients to be mobilised during runoff events. The variability in
the Cox Creek stream flows have important implications in terms of changes in
the overall loads of pollutants and their distribution along the stream and
consequently to the downstream reservoir, Mount Bold. Therefore, this study
aims to assess the performance of the Cox Creek wetland in reducing nutrient
loads from the Cox Creek to downstream water bodies. Six different flow rate
classes were distinguished based on daily flow data from January 2004 to December
2009. The greatest number of days were recorded within 0-1 ML day-1
flow class represented very dry flow class and indicated the lowest amount of
flow rates. In contrast, the lowest numbers of days were recorded within 46-300
ML day-1 flow class represented high flow class and indicated the
highest flow rates. The flow classification corresponding to annual catchment
load reveals the importance of the Cox Creek wetland to retain water, particularly
during high flow events.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.281.293 2014/07/15 - 17:55

Soybean crop (Glycine max L.) is a very important economic crop belongs to leguminosae, through-out considered one of the high potentially protein source that attacked by Cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd), the major pest thorugh-out the growing season. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of methomyl against the cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) on soybean genotype, Giza 21. Furthermore, to investigate the persistence of this tested insecticide after application under some of the environmental factors (direct sunlight, ultraviolet rays and temperature). Moreover, to evaluate the effect of some commercial processes on the safe removal of methomyl residues from soybean seeds. The results showed that methomyl was effective against cotton leaf worm. The exposure of methomyl to the direct sunlight, ultraviolet rays and different temperature degrees significantly reduced levels of the tested insecticide. Cooking procedure showed higher effect than dry heating at (90-95°C) on removal of tested insecticide from soybean seeds. The results showed that the food processing is an important way for minimizing methomyl in the final products lower than the maximum residue limits.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.294.304 2014/07/15 - 17:55

This study aims at determining the subjective norms adopted by the citizens
who live in the area of the watershed in Mamasa. This research was a qualitative
research. The data collection was a structured interview. Variable of this study
was the subjective norms related to the customs at the area of the watershed
in Mamasa in terms of the settlement preservation. The data analysis technique
was a descriptive analysis namely: Describing and interpreting the results obtained
from the interview. The results show some findings. First, the citizens at the
area of the watershed in Mamasa have many subjective norms related to the life
style. They abide the regulations as a moral bonding trust as well as customs,
embraced in the past. Second, subjective norms related to preservation of the
settlements consist of planting protective trees (Marrauk), selecting wood (mampile
kayu), shipping wood (mangangku’
kayu), building house (ma’pake’de’
banua) and thanks giving (mambubung). The citizens comply with the norms of
the subjective in the past. Therefore, the nature is sustainable. Now, the citizens
are not heeding environmental sustainability so that it becomes damaged. According
to some researchers, the watershed in Mamasa already belongs to a critical environment,
reviewed from the angle of environmental preservation.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.305.313 2014/07/15 - 17:55

The aim of this study in to investigate the performance of a three-pass flow
configuration of a dielectric barrier discharge non-thermal plasma, as a new
designed of non-thermal plasma reactor, to convert greenhouse gas emission,
CO2 and combined with CH4 to produce synthesis gas, CO
and H2 in a CO2 reforming process. This new designed reactor
has a special configuration of its reactant gas flow that can provide several
advantages, namely simultaneously cools the High Voltage Electrode (HVE) during
the reaction process, extends the gas feed residence time and preheat the gas
feed flow before entering the plasma zone, where the plasma reaction actually
happens. The cooling process inside the reactor makes this reactor does not
require a separate cooling device for its operation and the longer of residence
time that can improve the feed gas conversion. Furthermore, the preheating of
gas feed flow can improve the efficient use of energy for the process. Gases
were converted in a 180 mA of 12.27 kV. The feed flow rates applied were 9.19,
19.45 and 85.43 cm3 min-1 and the reaction was carried
out for a time on stream of 140 min. Results showed that the highest CO2
and CH4 conversions were 36.73 and 35.52%, respectively, obtained
at a feed flow rate of 9.19 cm3 min-1. The reaction produced
not only synthesis gas but also C2H6 and C3
gas component with a proportions in terms of the molar flow rate were 28-53
and 0-26%, respectively. These gasses form were increased with an increasing
feed flow rate. The most efficient Specific Energy (SE) was obtained at 2,333.5
kJ mole-1 which was reached at a feed flow rate of 85.45 cm3
min-1. This value was lower and more efficient than previous experiments
by Wang (7,289 kJ mol-1) but still higher comparing with the standard
enthalpy needed for CO2 reforming 61.75 kJ mol-1.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.226.235 2014/06/15 - 13:45

Kelantan and Terengganu are rich with beautiful carvings and distinctive motifs.
Typically, they use motifs of flora, geometry and calligraphy rather than other
motifs and also use as a benchmark of local architecture identity in Peninsular
Malaysia. This study will present design analysis of carvings and motifs used
on twelve pillared house in Kelantan and Terengganu. Carving in twelve pillared
house in Kelantan and Terengganu is measured and referred to drawings of the
Malay Studies Centre (KALAM) UTM, Skudai. The analysis is focused on some component
parts of the houses which has variety of carved motifs types such as the doors
and windows, railings, walls, ventilation panels and stairs. Placement of carved
motifs will be studied as well as its importance to the aesthetics of a house
or even reflect local regional nature of both states.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.236.244 2014/06/15 - 13:45

Soil erosion and its consequences is one of the more serious problems in Ethiopia. Various forms of efforts to control the soil erosion through introduced Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) measures have been underway for nearly four decades. Farmer’s adoption rates and effects of SWC on soil loss, moisture retention, labour demand and crop yield have been reviewed here. Literature shows that SWC measures have promising effects on reducing soil loss, trapping a significant quantity of sediment at early stages and improving soil moisture. Crop yield improvement was repeatedly reported especially after two to five years of the structure and frequently in low rainfall areas. But an intensive labour requirement and other biophysical and socioeconomic factors discourage farmer’s adoption of SWC structures. In the conclusion and recommendations section, major constraints of past approaches and amendment possibilities are discussed.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.185.199 2014/05/03 - 05:05

Every year, fire takes thousands of lives and destroys property worth billions
of dollars. Firefighters are one of the more well-rounded and versatile emergency
task forces in the world. Firefighters are called to serve a civic duty which
is to protect citizens in time of crisis. But sometimes they cannot reach their
ultimate goals because of some barriers such as the distance from a fire station
to the incident location is far, insufficient fire-fighting equipment or traffic
jam to the location of fire. Taking the cue from here, this study provides an
analysis of turn out time and response time of the Penang State Fire and Rescue
Department. During two year study, the researchers identify Perai (16.12%) and
Jalan Perak (16.72%) stations as having the most number of rescue cases. Fire
occurrences in the months of January, February and March are the highest while
December has the lowest. In tandem, the percentage of house fireis higher than
the other two categories (forest fire and machinery fire). Most of the stations
are able to perform their duties on time, however, Kepala Batas, Tasek Gelugor
and Teluk Bahang stations could not meet turn out time on due time. Bandar Perda,
Balik Pulau and Bukit Mertajam stations show lower percentage of response time
on due time for joint analysis. The analysis shows that 65.15% of the cases
occur during day time rather than night time. There exists a positive relationship
between turnout time and response time for the year 2010 and 2011 jointly. Also
there are significant differences among the mean response times for the reference
year.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.200.208 2014/05/03 - 05:05

Growth of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) depends on the metabolic activity of the microbe which is greatly influenced by environmental factors. The environmental factors such as pH and temperature may affect the microbial activity which contributes to the metal loss phenomenon due to corrosion process. The study focuses on identifying the optimum value of pH and temperature that is most suitable for the constant growth of SRB which may lead to severe corrosion on carbon steel API 5L X70. Carbon steel coupons of size 20x10 mm were exposed to the ATCC 7757 modified Baar’s medium broth number 1249 at 37°C for the period of 30 days. Initially, a group of anaerobic vial samples were cultured in the medium with constant temperature and pH values ranging from 5.5-9.5. The carbon steel coupons were retrieved after 30 days of incubation to determine the amount of weight loss. Among the range of pH value, the optimum value of weight loss was recorded at pH 9.5. This optimum pH was then tested on the range of temperature varies between 5 and 60°C. The calculation of weight loss and corrosion rate showed that the temperature of 37°C is the most favourable environment for the growth of bacteria with severe influence on the corrosion rate.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.209.217 2014/05/03 - 05:05

In 2011, the number of population of Pare-Pare City is around 130, 582 people
which are spread out over four districts in the city of Pare-Pare. Most of the
districts are located in the coastal region. The data illustrate that the coastal region in Pare-pare seems increasingly
pressured by high population density in coastal areas prone to environmental
degradation. From these communities, it seems that they are more likely to behave
non-ecologically, such as throwing garbage in water bodies, building a house
on the water, diminishing mangrove zones and various trends of environmental
degradation which were caused by human action itself. This study use quantitative
approach and hypotheses testing combined with survey method that uses questionnaire
instruments. Instruments that used in this study were developed by the researchers.
They include several questionnaires such as those of community’s
ecological behavior, their knowledge about environment, local wisdom, locus
of control and their environmental attitude. Moreover, based on SEM analysis
method, it can be concluded that the variables of environmental knowledge (X1),
local wisdom (X2) and locus control (X3) have direct and significant impacts
toward the environmental attitude (Y1). Furthermore, those variables also have
similar impacts to the ecological behavior (Y2), whereas the variables of environmental
attitude (Y1) do not have direct impact to the ecological behavior (Y2). This
is shown with the significance value p-value>0.05.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.218.225 2014/05/03 - 05:05

Sugarcane distilleries use molasses for ethanol production and generate large
volume of effluent containing high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical
Oxygen Demand (COD) along with melanoidin pigment. The aim of this study was
to isolate potential thermotolerant melanoidin decolorizing bacterium and yeast
from natural resources for consortium development and entrapped in suitable
matrix for immobilization at large scale spentwash treatment. A total 58 bacteria
and 24 yeast were isolated from soil sample of distillery site in which Pediococcus
acidilactici B-25 and Candida tropicalis RG-09 showed higher decolorization.
These two strains were used for consortium development and then entrapped in
sodium alginate for the wastewater treatment in a continuous column immobilization
system. The immobilized consortium cells showed maximum 85% decolorization with
the optimized parameters such as 2% (w/v) sodium alginate, 2% (w/v) calcium
chloride with 16 h curing time, 5 g alginate beads with 2 mm bead diameter.
The immobilized cells of consortium in alginate beads are more efficient for
the wastewater treatment and can be reused for eighteen cycles (24x18 = 432
h) without any loss in their activity and 22 cycles with 72% residual activity.
Immobilization of consortium cells in continuous column system is better than
free culture. Among the immobilized cell bioreactors, no doubt that continuous
column immobilization is a novel and efficient one which can be adopted for
the treatment of industrial wastewater containing melanoidin compounds and other
pollutants. A proper choice of immobilized culture, careful consideration of
various design parameters for continuous column immobilization will make treatment
process cost effective in the long run.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.137.153 2014/04/11 - 18:49

The study discusses iron speciation in upland and lowland agricultural soils of Peninsular Malaysia. Generally, iron speciation in upland soils is influenced by the formation of iron oxyhydroxides and iron precipitates, due to intense chemical weathering processes. The bioavailability of iron (easily leacheable and exchangeable, ELFE fraction) is very low and this could be attributed to its occurrence in the insoluble form. In the lowland soils, however, iron speciation varied widely due to varied soil composition, redox conditions and agricultural practices. Generally, soils in lowland regions are more clayey and silty compared to those in upland regions. The iron speciation in the Organic Oxizable (OO) fraction is also higher, due to the higher organic carbon content in soils. As with upland soils, the biovailability of iron in the lowland soil is also very low. In riverine alluvial deposits, iron tends to accumulate in the RR fraction, followed by the OO and Acid Reducible (AR) fractions. In the non-paddy areas, soils in the lowland region were found to be highly oxidized. Due to the shallow water table, these soils were exposed to the alternate submergence and exposure cycles during the wet and dry seasons respectively, resulting in the formation of iron and manganese mottles. Iron in these soils is concentrated mainly in the resistant fraction (RR), followed by the OO fraction. Due to the high organic carbon content, iron in peat soils is fixed mainly by organic matter (OO fraction) but it also existed in the resistant form (RR fraction).

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.154.165 2014/04/11 - 18:49

We present optical analysis of aerosol from September-November 2012, include aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent numbers and related parameters of the fine modes derived from ground-based measurements of AERONET. This project is part of the collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang in Distributed Regional Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign which is an initiative to measure and study the regional aerosol. This research was located at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Penang and is expected to provide further insight on the characteristics of regional aerosol optical environment in terms of particle size distribution and optical depth.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.166.175 2014/04/11 - 18:49

Contamination of soil and air due to hydrocarbon is a global issue and bioremediation provides probably the best way to remediate the contaminants. The current study shows the biodegradation of diesel, kerosene, crude oil and used engine oil by a newly isolated Bacillus cereus strain DRDU1 from an automobile engine. Hydrocarbon degrading strains were screened on BH (Bushnell and Haas broth) agar supplemented with 2% (v/v) of used engine oil as sole carbon source. Maximum degradation of hydrocarbon was observed at the addition of 2% (v/v) of hydrocarbon source in liquid BH (Bushnell and Haas broth) culture medium. The isolate was found to be degrading 67, 57, 72 and 42% of diesel, crude oil, kerosene and used engine oil respectively after 28 days in absence of nitrogen and phosphorus supplements. It was increased significantly up to 71, 64, 83 and 52% in presence of nitrate and phosphate supplements. It was further increased up to 77, 71, 88 and 61% upon addition of 0.01% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide, which acts as an additional oxygen source during oxygen stressed conditions. The strain proves itself to be a stress tolerating bacteria by withstanding 7% of salinity, 37% of glucose concentration and 52% of relative humidity. The thermal death point of the strain was found to be 86°C. The significance of the study is that the percentage degradation of the complex petroleum supplements used in the study was found to be far higher than some of the previously reported values.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.176.184 2014/04/11 - 18:49

The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe
water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations
set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW) to ensure
their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands
of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards.
One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected
from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable
meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4
and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Mass Spectrometer (MS)
and atomic emission spectrometer (AES) for elemental analysis. To evaluate the
quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following:
(1) Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3,
F, NO3 and SO4). (2) Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na).
(3) Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn), (4) Potentially
essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V)
and (5) Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U) using Inductively coupled
plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements
were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.90.106 2014/03/30 - 11:15

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is one of the most fundamental issues in the contemporary urban environments particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. Huge generation of MSW coupled with unbalanced waste management services is the major challenges facing the City of Addis Ababa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) practices in Addis Ababa. Both quantitative and qualitative sampling methods were employed through primary and secondary sources. The result showed that the daily generation of solid waste is estimated to 0.5 kg per capita per day and the density of solid waste ranges from 205 to 370 kg m-3. The finding showed that there are some generic factors contributing to the poor management of solid waste in Addis Ababa. These derivers include: Lack of sufficient budget, inadequate and malfunctioning operation equipment, illegal dumping on undesignated sites, open disposals, poor condition of the final dump site, lack of effective public participation and in adequate governance in waste management system. Therefore, early involvement of representatives from all concerned stakeholders in the planning process and continuous awareness are critical elements of successful solid waste management programs.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.107.122 2014/03/30 - 11:15

Mangroves are typically made up of salt tolerant species of vegetation with great diversity of flora and fauna which is mainly found in tropical and subtropical climate country. However, these forest ecosystems have been declining over time due to the various kinds of direct and indirect pressure. Thus, there is increasing need and efforts to monitor and assess this ecosystem for better conservation and management. In this study, multispectral RapidEye satellite image was analysed to identify the mangrove vegetation species within the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve in Perak, Malaysia. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used to classify the mangrove vegetation species with integration of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using NDVIRed and NDVIRed Edge data. Eleven species of mangrove vegetation were found within the study area including from the genus of Rhizophora, Avicennia, Bruguiera, Sonneratia and Xylocarpus. The overall classification accuracy assessment of RapidEye multispectral image integrated with NDVIRed Edge was higher at 87.5% with overall kappa statistics recorded of 0.85 compared to with employment of NDVIRed at 85% and kappa statistics of 0.80. The results indicated the applicability of Red Edge band in the RapidEye satellite imagery in combination with ancillary and field data to classify the mangrove species within the study area. It also helps for better management and conservation process to ensure the sustainability of these valuable resources.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.123.136 2014/03/30 - 11:15

From several decades environmental pollution is considered as a major global
problem for both human and animals. The industrial effluents are the major source
of pollution that are discharged into the water bodies posing serious threat
to the aquatic animals like fishes. If the concentration of the metal is not
in permissible limit as per World Health Organization (WHO) and Federal Environmental
Protection Agency (FEPA) guidelines then these heavy metal accumulate in fishes
and may cause serious human health hazard. Among the various toxic pollutants,
heavy metals like Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium
(Cd), Cobalt (Co), Titanium (Ti), Iron (Fe) and several mixture of these heavy
metals have severe action due to their tendency of bioaccumulation in fish tissues.
In this review, a wide survey of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish tissue
in relation to its effect on fish histopathology which is a sensitive biomarker
of overall fish health and ecology of water bodies, has been studied. Fish being
sensitive to xenobiotics can be used as ecological indicator of freshwater pollution
and thus this review is useful in biomonitering studies. Also, some recent studies
enlightened that fishes that live in polluted water bodies accumulate different
concentration of heavy metals and thus is depleting the quality of major protein
rich food item that is fish.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.1.15 2014/03/12 - 17:19

Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons
or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential
remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors
(i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation and heat fluxes) that potentially affect
ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoon. Ammonia concentrations were monitored
using a photoacoustic gas analyzer. The ammonia emissions from the lagoon were
monitored continuously for a 24 h cycle, twice a week during a winter month
at a height of 50 cm above the lagoon surface. Meteorological data were also
monitored simultaneously. Heat fluxes were tabulated and correlated to the averaged
ammonia concentrations (range of zero to 8.0 ppmv). Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP)
neural network predictive model was built based on the most important meteorological
parameters. The results from MLP neural networks analysis show that ammonia
emissions from the swine waste lagoon were affected by heat fluxes such as net
solar radiation, sensible heat and latent heat of vaporization. Thus it is important
to consider environmental conditions (i.e., meteorological parameters such as
solar radiation, latent heat and etc.) in formulating management or abatement
strategies for reducing ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons or any other
air pollutant emissions from livestock waste receptacles.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.16.29 2014/03/12 - 17:19

Environmental pollution with radioactive materials poses a serious threat to
public health. Among radioisotopes, cesium is one of the most dangerous elements
which can be found in waste disposals of nuclear plants and similar facilities.
Pure sodium and calcium alginic salts were investigated as adsorbents for removal
of cesium ions from aqueous solution. It was found that both polysaccharides
form complexes with the metal ions. Batch equilibrium experiments were carried
out to study the effect of contact time, initial concentration of the metal
and pH of the media on the adsorption of cesium by alginate compounds. The equilibrium
time was found to be 60 min for adsorption of cesium with various initial metal
concentrations. Kinetic studies showed that reactions between alginates and
cesium are corresponding to the pseudo-second order model. Langmuir model was
found best fit within the whole range of pH values studied. The maximum adsorption
capacity of calcium alginate and sodium alginate was found to be 63.69 and 80.64
mg g-1, respectively at pH 6.0. From these results it is clear that
sodium alginate possesses more pronounced cesium binding capacity than calcium
alginate.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.30.43 2014/03/12 - 17:19

Wastewater from textile industry effluents contains high amounts of colored
and toxic compounds that can interrupt aquatic life systems when they are discharged
to the environment without being treated. The physicochemical characteristics
of effluents typically have a wide range of pHs and salinities, which are difficult
for conventional techniques to remove. In addition, a limited number of microorganisms
with the ability to grow and produce degradative enzyme systems can survive
under those condition. Therefore, identifying microorganisms that are capable
of decolorizing and degrading textile dyes under various pHs and salinities
is needed. Among the fifteen strains tested in this study, Pestalotiopsis
sp. NG007 exhibited the strongest ability to grow and decolorize Reactive
Red 4 under saline conditions at pH 8. The ability of this strain to decolorize
three textile dyes: Reactive Green 19, Reactive Orange 64 and Reactive Red 4,
was investigated in a liquid medium and bioreactor system using immobilized
mycelia. The fungus displayed a high decolorization capacity (20-98%) over 3
days in a wide range of pHs (pH 3-12) and salinities (0-10% w/v). In the bioreactor
system, immobilized mycelia of the strain exhibited the ability to decolorize
textile dyes by both adsorption (6-53%) and degradation (34-41%) mechanisms.
This study demonstrated that Pestalotiopsis sp. has the potential to
decolorize textile dye effluents containing a wide range of pHs and salinities.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.44.55 2014/03/12 - 17:19

The gypsum of building materials which are one of the potential sources of
indoor radioactivity because of the naturally occurring radionuclides in them.
External as well as internal exposures are the two pathways of radiation dose
imparted to the human beings from the building materials. Natural radioactivity
levels of 18 samples of natural gypsum and manufactured in Egypt have been investigated
by using gamma spectrometer with HPGe detector. The samples were collected from
local market in Egypt. From the measured γ-ray spectra, activity concentrations
were determined. The activity ranged from 10.7±3.4-170.4±5.1 Bq
kg-1 for 226Ra, with mean 91.97 Bq kg-1 and
from 3.1±0.7-70.8±3.6 Bq kg-1 for 232Th
with mean 42.27 Bq kg-1 and from 301.3±6.3-689.1±8.7
Bq kg-1 40K with mean 499.28 Bq kg-1. The radium
equivalent activity Raeq, the external hazard index Hex and the absorbed dose
rate in air D in each sample was evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for
people living in dwelling made of materials studied. Gypsum sample have radium
equivalent dose Raeq ranged from 38.41 to 324.7 Bq kg-1.
These values are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg-1 adopted by OECD
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The absorbed dose
rate in indoor air are lower than the international recommended values of 55
n Gy h-1 in sample G1, G2, G11, G17and G18. The sample G3, G4, G5,
G6, G7, G8, G9, G10, G12, G13, G14, G15 and G16 are higher than of 55 n Gy h-1
this samples are not acceptable for use as building materials as defined by
the OECD criterion.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.56.66 2014/03/12 - 17:19

The production of the biocontrol agent, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
subsp. aegypti C18 (BtaC18), suffers huge economic losses due to phage infection.
To improve it, an isolation and characterization of the causative agent are
necessary, using gradient centrifugation, electron microscopy and protein analysis.
Five morphologically distinctive phages were isolated from this strain belonged
to the order Caudovirales. Moreover, they been classified: Tailed group (TP3-01,
TP3-02, TP3-03 and TP3-05) and pseudotailed group (TP3-04) and fell into three
families: Siphoviridae, Tectiviridae and Podoviridae. TP3-01 phage showed hexagonal
head and slight long, non-contractile, relatively straight tail. TP3-02 has
an isometric head with a long non-contractile, flexible tail while the morphologically
similar TP3-03 has a slightly longer head and shorter tail. TP3-04 virus profile
showed a rigid polyhedral protein capsid surrounded with a thick, flexible lipoprotein
vesicle which sometimes became tail like tube, while TP3-05 has a rounded head
and short non-contractile tail. These results suggest that TP3-01, TP302 and
TP3-03 are members of the Siphoviridae family, TP3-04 belongs to Tectiviridae
and TP3-05 is a member of Podoviridae. Protein banding analysis of the five
phages revealed four major bands: 112.20, 70.79, 61.66, 50.12 and 39.81 kDa.
The 112.20 kDa protein band does exist in all phages and it may represent the
capsid protein. The other proteins are not universal and may be present in one
phage and absent from another. In conclusion, BtaC18 was the host of at least
five morphologically diversified phages which needs a lot of work to make a
phage resistant bacterium.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.67.75 2014/03/12 - 17:19

Increasing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has aggravated
the threats of global warming and global diversity loss. To decrease CO2
emission, various physical and chemical based strategies are used to store
and sequester CO2. The biomimmetic approach is one of the available
harmless, robust and eco-friendly approach but still less evaluated. The present
study reports the role of microbial intracellular carbonic anhydrase in the
formation of calcite and sequestration of CO2 by bacteria. Bacterial
carbonic anhydrase was screened from Bacillus altitudinis, isolated from
the mangrove forest of the western coastline of India. The isolate was able
to grow optimally at 2.5 % CO2 saturated environment. The enzyme
was found to catalyze the reaction in a wide range of pH and temperature with
an optimum at 7.5 pH and 30°C temperature. The enzyme was reported to accelerate
the hydration of CO2 in 50 mM ZnCl2. Furthermore the enzyme
remained active and shown the remarkable activity with sulphanilamide inhibitor.
in vitro calcite encrust formation activity was tested using growth media
supplemented with CaCl2. Product of sequestration, Calcite, can be
used as raw material for building construction.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.76.83 2014/03/12 - 17:19

The aim of the study was to determine the herbage yield and oil content of
Mentha citrata Ehrh. an important medicinal and aromatic herb in the
Brahmaputra valley agro-climatic zone (northeastern India) using different spacing
(density) with or without irrigation. The cultivation trials were done using
vegetative sucker for two consecutive years. The size of the experimental beds
was 7.2x3.6 m and these were raised (10 cm from land surface) to prevent water
logging during the rainy season. Suckers were planted in them with different
spacings and accommodated 285, 247, 209, 190 and 181 numbers of suckers in five
different plant densities, namely, 40x25, 40x30, 40x35, 40x40 and 40x45 cm respectively
with three replications. While the herbage yield varied with irrigation and
without irrigation treatment respectively, no variation in oil content was,
however, recorded. Herbage and oil yield in M. citrata were enhanced
when the crop was planted in 40x35 cm spacing with irrigation in comparison
to other trials. The present study shows that the herb yield percent was highest
in 40x35 cm spacing during both years (21.84±0.03-21.68±0.21)
and the mean oil yield percent ranged from 0.61-0.63% with or without irrigation.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2014.84.89 2014/03/12 - 17:19

The effects of resin dosage, pH of the medium and contact time on the adsorption
of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ from battery industry
wastewater using Dowex 50 W ion exchange resin were investigated. Batch-mode
experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption
parameters were optimized using a Response Surface Methodological (RSM) approach.
The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) in RSM was used to design the
experiments and estimate the percentage of metal adsorption. The optimum parameters
for achieving the maximum adsorption of Ni2+, Zn2+ and
Pb2+ were as follows: resin dosage, 0.3-0.42 g; pH, 6-8.5; contact
time, 90 min. Experimental results showed that the adsorption efficiency of
the heavy metals was in the range of 80-100%. The results of this work suggest
that RSM is a useful tool for optimizing reaction parameters and predicting
response (adsorption capacity) during the ion exchange of heavy metals to achieve
the desired adsorption efficiency, while reducing the number of experiments
and the overall cost of treatment.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.106.118 2013/11/07 - 17:52

Companies generate waste everyday but do not manage them properly. Waste management
is very important for a companies’ profitability. This is because if a
company can manage its waste properly, reduction in waste can help the company
to reduce its cost. Cost control is an important element in performance management.
There are a lot of methods that can be used to manage waste, for example, to
dispose the waste properly, recycle or reuse the waste which have residual value,
or minimize the waste generated by the companies. Environmental management systems,
green supply-chain management, reverse logistics, workforce education and training
and Incentive Rewards Programs (IRP), can help companies reduce their waste.
The main focus of this paper is to seek the most effective waste management
methods that can help the companies to reduce their cost and thus increase their
corporate profits.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.119.129 2013/11/07 - 17:52

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), one of the organochlorine pesticides
was widely used in agriculture and healthcare. Though its usage is banned in
most of the countries, DDT residues cause varying negative effects through bioaccumulation
and bioamagnification. Biodegradation is an potential method to detoxify the
recalcitrant compounds and this study is an investigation to isolate and characterize
the p, p’-DDT degrading bacteria from DDT contaminated soil. An p, p’-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane]
degrading bacterium was isolated and identified by 16S rRNA studies. The role
of temperature, pH and DDT concentration in the degrading ability of the isolate
has also been investigated. Based on the analysis of the phenotype, biochemical
characteristics and 16S rRNA, the strain was identified to belong to the bacterial
genera Bacillus and was named as Bacillus strain GSS. The isolate
had an optimum pH of 7.0 at 35°C and was able to degrade DDT at a wide range
of concentrations with complete degradation of the DDT (10 mg L-1)
and 89.3% of 15 mg L-1 in 120 h, whereas 100% degradation of 5 mg
L-1 concentration was observed within 48 h. Significant degradation
was observed at 72 h and 96 h for 15 and 20 mg L-1, respectively.
At the end of 120 h, 73% of 20 mg L-1 and 34% of 25 mg L-1
was recorded by the isolate Bacillus strain GSS.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.130.137 2013/11/07 - 17:52

Sewage sludge is an unavoidable by-product of wastewater treatment processes;
its disposal is generally costly or easy to contaminate the environment. Being
rich in micro-and macronutrients; therefore, the present study is aimed at alteration
of sewage sludge into quality compost product using vermicomposting. In addition,
nutrients balance plays a crucial role in the composting process which is expressed
as, Carbon to Nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Hence, compost materials were prepared by
mixing sewage sludge, cattle manure and saw dust in five different proportions
(R1, C/N 15; R2, C/N 20; R3, C/N 25; R4, C/N 30 and R5, control) based on C/N
ratios employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed
that carbon content was decreased during the process and nitrogen content was
enhanced. The C/N ratio decreased with time in all the reactors indicating a
stabilization of the waste and it can be used in agricultural fields as manure.
It was observed that the trial R4 of C/N ratio 30 using sewage sludge along
with cattle manure and saw dust produced the best compost, showed higher loss
in Total Organic Carbon (TOC), soluble Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), soluble
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and higher gain in total nitrogen and phosphorus,
implying the total amount of biodegradable organic material is stabilized. In
addition, higher final concentration of nutrients and limited metal content
suited the quality of compost.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.63.78 2013/07/01 - 19:51

Phytoremediation by using aquatic plants and microalgae was evaluated in study to reduce waste load of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This study was aimed to utilize the aquatic plants i.e. water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lily (Nymphaea sp.) and alga Spriulina sp. to reduce COD and nutrients content in palm oil mill effluent. The phytoremediation was conducted in a sequence process. The aquatic plants were used in the first stage of remediation by varying height of culture (5-15 cm), length of remediation (3-8 days) and type of plants (water hyacinth and water lily). The effluent of the first stage was then transferred to the second remediation where microalgae Spriulina use this effluent as medium growth for 15 days. The results showed that the aquatic plants was able to reduce COD, N, P up to 50, 88 and 64%, respectively, while microalgae could reduce the COD, N, P up to 50.79, 96.5 and 85.92%, respectively. The maximum growth rate of Spirulina platensis was 0.412 day-1, while the correlation between Optical Density (OD) and dry weight-g L-1 was shown as dry weight (g L-1) = 0.782.OD. In conclusion, two stage phytoremediation process gives promising method to reduce waste load and producing high value able biomass of algae.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.79.90 2013/07/01 - 19:51

In Nigeria, cooking fuels are very important in the life of every household because most of the food items must be heated, smoked, dried or cooked before consumption. As an indispensible part of life, a study was conducted to determine households’ access and preference to cooking fuels in Abuja, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for sample selection while structured questionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 216 rural households were randomly interviewed in four agricultural zones. Data were analyzed using two-way mixed factorial analysis of variance and mean separation was done at 5% probability level. Results showed that, there were significant differences (p<0.01) in households’ access and preference to some of the cooking fuels. The mean responses indicated that the most accessible and preferable cooking fuel was firewood with mean access and preference values of 3.25 and 2.69, respectively while the least accessible and preferable cooking fuel was cooking gas. Similarly, there were significant (p<0.01) interaction effects of cooking fuels and locations implying that access and preference to each of the cooking fuels were not the same in some of the agricultural zones. Based on the results, it was concluded that households’ access and preference to some of the cooking fuels significantly differed and that firewood was the most accessible and preferable cooking fuel in the study area while cooking gas was the least. It was recommended that campaign on agro-forestry should be intensified to replace felled trees that were used as firewood.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.91.98 2013/07/01 - 19:51

The textile industries produces considerably high amount of aquatic toxicity which is discharged directly into the environment before treated properly. The waste generation volume and load produced is hazardous in nature. Thus, this study explores the role of fungal biomass against pollution due to textiles dyes as degrading agent. This study will be beneficial for treating water effluent from textile industry and will decrease the pollution form environment with advanced technology for future use. In this study the evaluation of fungal species for the decolourization and degradation of textile dye has been carried. Four potential fungal strains (NS-1, NS-2, NS-9 and NS-10) were exploited after screening for the decolourization of Rubine Toner-12 dye under aerobic condition. Growth associated decolorization studies were carried out in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) supplemented with Rubine Toner-12. About 99% percent decolorization was achieved on supplementation with 10 mg L-1 of dye. Comparative spectrophotometric analysis of control and fungus inoculated medium supplemented with rubine toner-12 showed almost 100% decolorization in inoculated flasks. The fungus was identified to be Aspergillus niger. Maximum decolorization of Rubine Toner-12 was observed at pH 6. It is a better technique to check environmental pollution.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.99.105 2013/07/01 - 19:51

The adsorptive capacity of natural clay materials towards adsorption of heavy metals as well as the heavy metals competitive adsorptive/desorptive selectivity sequences are greatly influenced by operating conditions. In this study, competitive adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) on natural clay was investigated in order to understand the influence of initial pH on the clay mineral adsorptive capacity and the heavy metals adsorption/desorption selectivity sequences. Batch adsorption and desorption experiments were performed at six different initial pH values (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12). The amount of heavy metals removed at equilibrium in single and multi-component adsorption scenarios were analyzed and interpreted using distribution coefficients followed by selectivity sequence. The results indicated that the selectivity sequence of clay changed with pH for both Single Component (SC) and Multi-Component (MC) scenarios. The selectivity sequence of heavy metal ions on the adsorbent for the single component and multi-component scenarios were Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn and Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd>Zn, respectively while for multi-component desorption, the selectivity sequence was Cr<Cd<Cu<Pb<Zn. From the results, Pb ions became highest selective at pH 4 and 6 (SC scenario) but exchanged position with Cd ions in alkaline condition (pH 12). The initial pH plays a significant role in competitive adsorption and desorption of the heavy metals onto the clay mineral.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.1.15 2013/04/13 - 00:55

Artificial neural network was used for predicting monthly mean rainfall. In
order to train the neural network back propagation algorithms had been employed.
Rainfall data along the years (1970-2000) measured in four cities (Mosul, Baghdad,
Rutba and Basra) in Iraq were used as training and ten years (2001-2010) used
for testing. The logistic sigmoid activation function was used for both hidden
and output layers. To estimate difference between measured and estimated rainfall
values, Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and correlation
coefficient (R) were determined. According to three statistical indices were
calculated to examine the performance of the optimum ANN model, It was found
that the optimum model according three among the four considered statistical
indices was in Rutba station during December month where the correlation coefficient
(R), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Bias
Error (MBE) was 0.9998, 0.59, 0.56, -0.56 mm, respectively, these statistical
results have shown the ability of the artificial neural network for rainfall
prediction.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.16.28 2013/04/13 - 00:55

Biodegradation of crude oil-A and -C and n-octadecane, by the Fusarium sp. F092 was investigated under saline conditions. In liquid saline culture, less crude oil-C (56%) than crude oil-A (89%) was degrade which was increased by the addition of optimum surfactant T80 (78%) or T40 (67%), or Mn2+ (67%). In sea sand contaminated with crude oil-C, the degradation was higher than in soil which indicated that F092 was suitable to degrade oil under saline conditions. The metabolites of the aliphatic fraction with n-octadecane were identified to form six carboxylic acid groups, where the dioxygenase and monooxygenase inhibitor influenced the degradation of n-octadecane. This suggested that F092 could initially convert n-octadecane to form octadecyl peroxides by a dioxygenase and was further catalyzed to produce carboxylic acid. F092 is a potential degrader for bioremediation in crude oil-contaminated saline environments.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.29.40 2013/04/13 - 00:55

Contact glow discharge electrolysis produced many active species such as OH
radical, which has important role in degrading complex pollutants. This study
utilizes Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) system to remove ammonia
from wastewater. Variables such as electrolyte concentration, voltage and temperature
are studied their effects on CGDE’s
performance. Experimental results show that the hydroxyl radicals produced is
higher than the ammonia degraded during the CGDE process. In general, increasing
potential discharge will increase electrical current. The highest yield of hydroxyl
radicals was obtained at a depth of anode 5 mm although the anode surface area
more submerged than CDGE. Ammonia degradation efficiency increase with increases
in electrolyte concentration, voltage and temperature applied in the CGDE processes.
The optimum condition is achieved using KOH 0.02 M at 700 v and 60°C, where
at such condition ammonia degradation efficiency and energy consumption are
89.2% and 80 kJ mmole-1, respectively. These results show that the
CGDE process has the potential to be used to degrade wastewater containing ammonia.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.41.49 2013/04/13 - 00:55

This study was conducted to evaluate selected heavy metals on four different
species of Acetes shrimp, family Sergestidae namely Acetes indicus,
A. intermedius, A. vulgaris and A. serrulatus. The study aimed to
determine the concentrations of heavy metals namely Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu
in the tissue of these shrimp in three different sites (Malacca, Terengganu
and Johor) on the west and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected
and frizzed, dried and digest in the lab to determine the concentrations of
heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results
showed that in general, the heavy metals concentrations in of Acetes shrimp
species depend significantly upon the period of taking the samples, specie and
location. The highest concentration level for Cr was 1.34±0.24 μg
g-1 (dry weight) dw, Zn 46.34±11.10 μg g-1
d.wt. Cu 56.09±8.69 μg g-1 d.wt. were recorded in Terengganu
on February 2011. There was no significant difference on concentration of chromium.
Results showed concentration of Cd was 0.76±0.13 μg g-1
d.wt. . Whereas result recorded in Terengganu on April 2011 showed the highest
concentration level for Pb of 0.59±0.13 μg g-1 d.wt.
was in Johor on February 2011. The highest concentration level for Mn of 1.77±0.42
μg g-1 d.wt. was recorded in Johor on April 2011. Concentrations
of heavy metals of Acetes shrimp collected from all study areas showed
safe and permissible levels for the human consumption and public health.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.50.56 2013/04/13 - 00:55

The current uses of the organophosphorous methyl-parathion (MP) easily allow the pesticide to reach non-target organisms like fish. This substance was previously found as an endocrine disruptor of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal (HPI) axis. Thus, the cortisol response has been investigated in waterborne MP (5.2 mg L-1) exposed adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) sampled 96 h after exposure. Stressed fish exposed to MP contaminated water showed lower levels of whole-body cortisol. Data demonstrated that MP produced impairment in the cortisol response to stress in zebrafish. This impairment may reduce the ability of the organism to promote metabolic and ionic adjustments necessary for the stress response. Fish that are incapable of mounting a normal cortisol response are likely to have a reduced ability to respond to the continuous challenges imposed on their homeostatic systems, either by aquaculture practices or by environmental changes.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2013.57.62 2013/04/13 - 00:55

The influences of current density, initial pH, initial phenol concentration
and Na2SO4 electrolyte dosage on electro-oxidation of
100-1000 mg L-1 phenol using Boron-doped Diamond (BDD) anode and
graphite cathode were investigated. The evolutions of phenol and its oxidation
byproducts were monitored with HPLC and GC-MS instruments. Removal efficiencies
of phenol, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were
found to be mainly influenced by initial pH and initial phenol concentration
with current density and Na2SO4 dosage having less significant
effects. Complete oxidation of phenol was achievable under acidic and neutral
pH regardless of initial phenol concentration; while under basic pH, accumulation
of intermediary byproducts severely hindered the oxidation of 100 mg L-1
phenol. Effective electro-oxidation of phenol was kinetically controlled process
by direct oxidation process mediated by the electro-generated hydroxyl radicals
(OH•) produced at the BDD anode surface. The evolutions of
TOC, COD and phenol oxidation byproducts suggests initial pH and initial phenol
concentration dependant pathways from which effective phenol oxidation been
initiated by speciation molecules and subsequent generation of aromatic intermediates
which were further converted to aliphatic acids. The final step in the pathway
involved the destruction of the aliphatic acids to CO2.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2012.460.474 2012/12/18 - 22:33