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Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Entomology

Sweetpotato weevil, Cylas puncticollis, is the most destructive insect pest that ranks as the number one constraints for the production of sweetpotato in Eastern Ethiopia. A field experiment with the aim to develop compatible integrated management methods for sweetpotato weevil was conducted in 2011 cropping season at Haramaya University Horticultural Research Field (Rare) in Eastern Ethiopia. The experiment consisted of three factors: Cropping system at three levels (sole cropping of sweetpotato, sweetpotato intercropped with maize and sweetpotato intercropped with haricot bean), earthing-up at three levels (1,2 and 3 times earthing-up) and harvesting time at two levels (prompt and delayed harvesting) making up 18 treatment combinations. The treatments were replicated thrice and laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Results of the studies revealed that the interaction effect of cropping systems, earthing-up and harvesting periods significantly (p<0.05) reduced sweetpotato percentage infestation and storage root damaged, number of unmarketable roots, number of weevils/kg of damaged roots. On the other hand, the interaction effect increased the number of marketable roots/plant and the total yield. Hence, from the current study it can be concluded that the integration of three times earthing-up at monthly interval starting from one month from planting; prompt harvesting, harvesting exactly at the physiological maturity of the roots; and mixed cropping of haricot bean at the ratio of three rows of sweetpotato to one row of haricot bean can sufficiently off set the risk of sweetpotato weevil (C. puncticollis) in Eastern Ethiopia. 2014/05/08 - 22:58

In Iran, scorpions are the important causative agents of toxication and deaths
among venomous animals. Understanding about their epidemiologic characteristics
could lead to the utilization of suitable preventive methods. Therefore, with
the aim of contributing to basic knowledge on scorpion sting as acommon health
problem, epidemiological features of scorpionism have been investigated in Masjed
Soleyman County, Khuzestan Province, South west of Iran, over a two year period
(2006-2007). This is a descriptive study which was done in Masjed Soleyman County.
All the patients which were referred to Masjed Soleyman health services centers
were assayed. Some data about epidemiologic and demography parameters were collected
and recorded bya physician in a questionnaire. Then, these information were
analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics. During the period of study,
11169 cases of scorpion stings had been reported to Masjed Soleyman health services
centers. Of total 11169 studied patients 54.4% were male. Feet (39.3%) and hands
(37%) were the most common body part affected. The highest incidence of envenoming
occurred during the first three months of the year, with the highest peak in
May (14.4%). The most cases occurred during spring (36.8%) and summer (33.8%)
seasons. Our experience indicates that scorpionism appeared with more frequency
in the urban areas (79.6%). In all, 20.4% of individuals were from rural regions.
Scorpion stings have been mostly seen in individuals of the age of 15 and over
(77.4%). In this study, 14% of the stings were in children aged up to 10 years
while those aged 44 and over constituted only 18.6% of the reported accidents.
About 10.5 and 50.8% of envenomed cases were due to black and yellow scorpions,
respectively. A good control plan for this region should be observed all year
long, particularly ago or during the greater risk periods. As regards scorpion
envenoming is of a seasonal feature in Masjed Soleyman County, it is possible
to forespeak the greater incidence periods and take the relevant measures. 2014/05/08 - 22:58

Triplochiton scleroxylon is a plant species of tropical Africa. It’s
known as "Ayous" in Cameroon. It’s
soft, light wood and white cream; it can be used industrially and has an economic
importance. In Cameroon, the national reforestation programs of T. scleroxylon
stumble on the proliferation of psyllids pest of this plant. Two psyllids feed
on T. scleroxylon in Cameroon, Diclidophlebia eastopi and D.
harrisoni. D. eastopi larvae caused leaf discoloration and stunting of seedlings.
D. harrisoni larvae caused leaf curl. Damages are important on young
plants. The population dynamics of these two psyllids species was conducted
in a natural secondary forest from February 2009 to January 2011. We collected
570 males and 597 females of D. eastopi and 295 males and 269 females
of D. harrisoni. The numerical variation of psyllids population in 2009
shown six main generations for D. eastopi and five main generations for
D. harrisoni. In 2010, six generations were obtained for D. eastopi
against seven generations for D. harrisoni. Some climatic factors influenced
the numerical variation of psyllids on T. scleroxylon in Cameroon. The
phenology of the host plant seems to be the main biotic factor influencing the
numerical variations of psyllids on T. scleroxylon. A better understanding
of the population dynamic of psyllids pest of commercial timbers could be very
important for an integrated pest management in the tropical forest of Africa. 2014/04/19 - 07:04

The present investigation aimed to study the effects of some eggplant varieties (Black beauty, white baladi and black baladi) and pepper varieties (Baladi, Red California and Yellow California) on the population density of aphids, leafhoppers and whitefly insect. The obtained results showed pronounced differences in the population density of the afore mentioned insects for the tested varieties. Chemical analysis results showed a positive relationship between protein, carbohydrate contents and aphids, leafhoppers and whitefly insects infestation in all eggplant and pepper varieties, also reverse relationship was recorded between pH values and insects infestation. While, negative relationship between insect infestation and the quantity of yield was obtained. For these results susceptibility of eggplant and pepper varieties must be considered in the integrated pest management program as they play very important role in depressing insect population. 2014/04/19 - 07:04

Field studies were carried out on mite species and scale insects inhabiting
mango trees at El-Khatara and Belbais districts, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt
during the period extended from April 2010 to May 2012. Survey proved the occurrence
of seventeen mite species belonging to four suborders, eleven families and twelve
genera. These mites included five species of Phytoseiidae, three species of
Tydeidae, one species belonging to each family of Tetranychidae, Tenuipalpidae,
Tarsonemidae, Cunaxidae, Stigmaeidae, Raphignathidae, Eupalopsellidae, Hemisarcoptidae
and Haplozetidae. Two species of scale insects, Aulacaspis tubercularis
(Newstead) and Kilifia acuminata (Signoret) were recorded. Phytoseiid,
Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, the stigmaeid Agistemus exsertus
Gonzalez and the tydeid Tydeus kochi Oudemans were more abundant
and inhabiting a wide range of host plants. Also, the eupalopsellid and hemisarcoptid
mites were mainly founded associated with scale insects. The cunaxid mite, Cunaxa
capreolus Berlese was usually found inhabiting mango trees in moderate numbers.
Biological studies were carried out in plant protection research institute to
determine the developmental duration of the cunaxid mite, Cunaxa capreolus
Berlese when fed on different preys Eutetranychus orientalis, Tydeus
kochi and Aulacaspis tubercularis at 30±2°C and 70±5%
R.H. The predacious mite, C. capreolus was successfully developed from
egg to adult stage during the experiment when fed on different preys. 2014/04/19 - 07:04

The effect of net barrier and synthetic insecticides on Phytolyma lata
infestation, growth and survival of Milicia excelsa seedlings was investigated
during the year 2010-2011 in Ibadan Southwest Nigeria. In a complete randomized
design with three replications, a 2 m high netted barrier were laid out in unit
plots of 15x15 m2 using five treatments: Blue net+dimethoate+carbofuran,
Green net+dimethoate+cabofuran, Blue net+dimethoate, Green net+carbofuran and
dimethoate only (control). Plant height, stem diameter, number of branches,
numbers of galls, Pytolyma lata density, plant mortality and survival
of Milicia seedling were recorded at monthly interval for two years.
The treatments showed a significant difference (p<0.05) over the control.
The net barrier plants were free from P. lata infestation 12 months after
planting. The combined treatments of blue net barrier, dimethoate and carbofuran
recorded least number of galls (7.89%) on Milicia seedlings while combined
treatments of green net, dimethoate and carbofuran recorded least population
density of P. lata (13.59%). There was no significant difference (p<0.05)
between the combined treatments of blue and green barrier nets on the plant
growth, although blue net+dimethoate+carbofuran recorded highest plant height
and stem diameter with mean of 122.50 cm and 1.03 mm, respectively. Integrated
treated plots recorded 100% seedling survival while control plot recorded 54%
seedling survival after two years. Integration of net barrier with carbofuran
and dimethoate is economical and should be adopted for successful establishment
of Milicia plantation. 2014/04/19 - 07:04

Studies assessing the resistance of cowpea genotypes with respect to pest behavior
are being developed and the selection of plants with insect resistance characteristics
presents itself as an alternative to chemical control. The objective of the
present study was to evaluate the behavior of Callosobruchus maculatus
fed grains of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cv. "BR 17 Gurgueia") cultivated
with five strains of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria authorized by the Brazilian
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA) for use as cowpea inoculants
(UFLA 42C8; BR 3267; UFLA 0384; INPA 0311B; UFLA 48C5) and two control treatments
(S/N, without nitrogen; C/N with nitrogen). Grain samples were infested with
adult C. maculatus and maintained in laboratory conditions of 25°C
and 12 h photophase. After 10 days of infestation the following insect behavioral
and developmental parameters were evaluated: preference, number of grains perforated,
number of grains with eggs, survival, emergence, insect weight, relative growth
rate, consumption rate, conversion of ingested food, enzymatic activity of amylase,
lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin. The treatments most susceptible to attack
by C. maculatus were: control C/N and UFLA 48C5, with greater attractiveness
(28 and 23%, respectively) and survival (68 and 65%, respectively), while the
most resistant were: INPA 0311B, UFLA 42C8 and control S/N, which reduced survival
to 30, 24 and 19%, respectively. 2014/03/28 - 17:13

Survey and population of the aphid species Brevicoryne brassicae L., Aphis craccivora (Koch), Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe., Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy) and Hypermoyzus lactucae L. and its parasitoids were studied at Kafr Saqr district during two successive seasons 2011-2013. Obtained results and showed that Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) was the dominant on aphid species in this study, where it occupied 81.79, 55.25, 51.20, 54.95% and 86.94, 63.77, 52.61, 52.53% on aphid species, B. brassicae, A. craccivora, A. nerii and H. pruni during the two seasons, respectively. The mean percentages of parasitism were 39.32, 9.14, 16.08, 4.66 and 43.45, 8.68, 13.22, 5.37 on the same aphid species on cabbage, faba bean, dafla and reed plants in both seasons, respectively. Total developmental times (Sting-Adult) were 15.58±0.69, 12.17±0.75, 17.52±0.70 and 15.37±0.71 days. Sex ratio were (Female:Male) 1.2:1, 1.07:1, 1.014:1 and 1:1.09 on last aphid species, respectively during the two seasons. A significant positive relationship was found between higher parasitism percentages of D. rapae and higher nutrient composition of both total lipids and free amino acids in tested aphids. 2014/03/28 - 17:13

Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them had been shown to have adverse effects against insects. The study aimed to isolate and identify of fungal endophytes from healthy pods of cocoa plant and to investigate their effects against the egg of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)) in the field as well as their endophytism on cocoa pods had been carried out. The results indicated that there were five fungal endophytes genera i.e., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Beauveria sp., Aspergillus sp. and one non-identified (mycelia sterilia) were found. All isolated endophytic fungus produced a negative effect on the survival of cocoa pod borer eggs but the greater effect were produced by Beauveria sp. and Aspergillus sp. treated in liquid form with the mean of 94 and 96% of egg mortality, respectively. Trichoderma sp., also produced a relatively high of 84 and 89% egg mortality for powder and liquid, respectively. Except Beauveria sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. was found to penetrate in cocoa pod after two weeks of spraying. Beauveria sp., Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus sp. are endophytic fungus which provide potential biological control for cocoa pod borer. 2014/03/28 - 17:13

Insects represent a major group of vectors of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV). This study aimed at identifying the main entomofauna transmitting RYMV to rice crop in Benin. Therefore, the transmission ability of 13 insect species was tested during the rice vegetative stages. These species belong to the Orthoptera order (Oxya hyla, Conocephalus longipennis, Paracinema tricolor, Acrida bicolor and Stenohippus aequus), the Coleoptera order (Chnootriba similis, Aulacophora foveicollis and Xanthadalia effusa), the Homoptera order (Cofana spectra, Nephotettix modulatus, Cofana unimaculata and Poophilis costalis) and the Diptera order (Diopsis thoracica). Among them, four species including P. tricolor, S. aequus, N. modulatus and P. costalis were identified for the first time as RYMV vectors. The species belonging to the Homoptera order appeared to be the most virulent, with higher values of viral titer. Virus distribution in the vector body parts was specific to each order. Basically, virus was more important in the Orthopteran, Coleopteran and Homopteran insects head part. It was also evident in the abdomen part of the Homopteran and the Orthopteran especially for P. tricolor, C. spectra and P. costalis. Disease severity was only observed in C. similis after inoculation and persisted until rice maturity with a score of 5 compared to the control which was 1 from a 1 to 9 scale. This study allowed identifying the presence of RYMV insect vectors in Benin among which, four are reported for the first time in Africa. 2014/03/28 - 17:13

Spread and use of exotic honeybee subspecies into Saudi Arabia bear significant risk on the conservation of the indigenous honeybee Apis mellifera jemenitica. The fallout of imported honeybee on population structure and diversity of Apis mellifera jemenitica populations have been investigated using microsatellite markers. Results demonstrated high genetic diversity within the native honeybee population compared with other related subspecies. Through the Bayesian approach of microsatellite variations, two groups can be distinguished with high level of introgression between imported and native subspecies. High levels of introgression and Intensive hybridization entail urgent conservation strategy of the native honeybee to be implemented. 2014/03/28 - 17:13

Beetles constitute a large quantity of total insect biodiversity and play a key role in trophic chains. The order coleoptera are well represented in all terrestrial habitats and are often used as indicators of environmental change because of their great habitat specificity. Life cycles of many beetle are linked to soil and ground litter and are affected by environmental changes caused by various human activities (agriculture, urbanization, etc.). The present study was conducted for a period of twelve month at different study sites at Sawanga Vithoba Lake (Malkhed Project), dist-Amravati, Maharashtra. In total 27 beetle species belonging to 07 families were found at Sawanga Vithoba Lake. Family Scarabidae is the most dominant family exploring 40% of species. 2014/03/28 - 17:13

A new Pseudophacopteron species from Cameroon is described, Pseudophacopteron burckhardti sp.n is described from Cameroon and feeds on Zanthozylon gilletii (Rutaceae), Fifth instar nymphs and adults are described and compared to the description of the psyllid species of Pseudophacopteron previously described in Cameroon. 2014/03/28 - 17:13

Aedes aegypti is a cosmopolitan urban mosquito that causes dengue every
year in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to observe the sensitivity
level of immature stages of A. aegypti mosquito to gamma irradiation.
Different developmental stages of A. aegypti were exposed to a series
of irradiation doses in Co60 gamma source to observe sensitivity
regarding egg hatching, pupation, adult emergence, mortality and body size.
Irradiation doses of 1-10 Gray were applied to eggs, 10-100 Gy to larvae and
10-250 Gy were applied to pupae. Egg hatching, pupae formation and adult emergence
decreased with increasing dose (p ’ 0.000). Pupation decreased significantly
(p ’ 0.000) with increasing radiation dose in 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae.
Regression analysis showed increase of percent mortality with increasing dose
significantly in both 19-23 h old (early) and 42-46 h old (late) pupae (p ’
0.000). A linear positive relationship was found between doses and mortality
in both larvae and pupae. Irradiation of early and late pupae had no significant
effect on adult emergence up to 40 Gy, however, while higher doses applied (100-250
Gy) emergence rate decreased significantly (p ’ 0.000). Lethal dose, LD50
and LD90 for 4th instar larvae were lower than pupae but higher than
eggs. Even, LD50 and LD90 for early pupae were lower than
late pupae. There was no significant effect of radiation on wing length compared
to control (unirradiated) which were exposed to radiation at pupal stage (p
’ 0.153). Overall radiation had effect on egg hatching, pupation, adult emergence,
mortality but had no effect on adult’s
body size of Aedes aegypti. 2014/03/08 - 18:03

The bacteria in fruit flies alimentary tract have been known in advantages
in their biology of the insect hosts. Different biochemical, gram reaction and
motility tests was performed to identify the mid-gut bacterial community of
laboratory host reared pumpkin fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera:Tephritidae).
Colony characterization of the isolated bacteria was conducted on nutrient agar
and MacConey agar plates. Isolated gut-bacterial species viz., Proteus rettgeri
and Klebsiella oxytoca was examined by incorporated with protein (casein:yeast
extract:sugar, 1:1:2) and sugar diet to study the effect of bacteria supplemented
diets on the ovariole number and egg production of B. tau. Eight genera
and nine bacterial species were identified under the family Enterobacteriaceae.
The identified bacterial genera were Proteus, Klebsiella, Streptobacillus,
Alcaligenes, Haemophilus, Erwinia, Chromobacterium
and Flavobacterium. The mean ovariole number per ovary was recorded as
20.66±2.51, 20.56±3.53 and 22.41±3.75 for B. tau
fed on P. rettgeri, K. oxytoca incorporated protein diets and
only protein diet, respectively. Experimental result revealed no significant
influence of gut bacteria added adult diets on egg/female/day of B. tau
fed on above mentioned diet treatments. 2014/03/08 - 18:03

Stored food faces severe damage due to infestation by insects. The essential
oils extracted from leaves of Aegle marmelos, Mentha arvensis,
peels of Citrus reticulata and clove of Syzygium aromaticum
by hydrodistillation method were screened as fumigant for chronic activity against
rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in laboratory
assay. All four essential oils showed chronic activity in a dose dependent manner.
Fumigation with sub-lethal concentration of essential oils significantly (p<0.01)
reduced oviposition capsity and exhibited ovicidal activity. Highest reduction
in oviposition (35.66%) and feeding deterrence index (74.52%) observed in A.
marmelos essential oils against S. oryzae in comparison to control
groups. These studies showed strong insecticidal activity of all four essential
oils and its potential role as a fumigant against S. oryzae. From this
study it is concluded that these essential oils have potential for application
in Insect Pest Management programs for stored-grain insect pests because of
its fumigant action. 2014/03/08 - 18:03

Despite many prevention and control programs, the disease of malaria still
remains a major health and economic problem in developing countries due to the
unexpected resistance of malaria mosquitoes to chemical insecticides. In this
study, the virulence of 10 Iranian isolates of the entomopathogenous fungi Beauveria
bassiana and Metarhizium anisoplaie were evaluated against Anopheles
stephensi larvae. Different strains were screened by adding aqueous suspension
of 108 conidia mL-1 to 100 mL water containing 25 early
instars larvae. The results showed that Bb 429C and Bb 796C were the most virulent
isolates of B. bassiana causing 100% larval mortality with lethal times
of 2.29 and 2.53 days for LT50 and 4.34 and 4.34 days for LT90,
respectively. Among M. anisopliae isolates, Ma 1018C was the most efficient
isolate. Larval mortality rates caused by Ma 1018C at concentrations of 5x107,
108 and 5x108 conidia mL-1 were not significantly
different as respectively they killed 99, 97 and 99% of larva at the fourth
day. The lowest lethal times were related to the concentration of 5x107conidia
mL-1 and were 0.63 and 1.93 days for LT50 and LT90,
respectively. Entomopathogenic fungi could be promising prospects and safe alternatives
in integrated mosquitoes control programs. 2014/03/08 - 18:03

Diamondback Moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. is one of the key insect
pests of crucifer crops in India and elsewhere, causing huge crop losses. Despite
its economic importance, population structure of this pest is not known from
India. Therefore, genetic diversity of DBM collected from different cruciferous
growing regions of Karnataka comprising the part of southern India (Bangalore,
Belgaum, Hassan and Shimoga), Delhi and Ludhiana comprising northern parts of
India was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eighteen
random primers were screened to investigate the genetic variability among the
seven population of DBM. Five Operan (Op) primers viz., OpC 6, OpC 9, OpC 10,
OpC 4 and OpB 20 out of eighteen produced unique banding patterns that could
differentiate all the seven population and produce a total of 183 amplicons.
Maximum number of amplicons obtained with primer OpC 6 and the least number
of amplicons noticed with OpB 20 with the average amplicons of 36.60 per primer
and all of them were polymorphic, indicating high genetic variability among
DBM population. The cluster analysis of RAPD data clearly separated these populations
into two distinct groups with first group consisting of only Delhi population
and rest of the population falling into second group. The maximum dissimilarity
(43%) was observed between the populations from Delhi and Belgaum. Whereas,
the minimum dissimilarity (24%) was found in population from Ludhiana and Hassan.
The present investigations have shown the existence of wide genetic diversity
among the DBM populations within India. 2014/03/08 - 18:03

The current search aimed to use non traditional methods to control stored products
pests which attacking stored products specially grain and cause great losses
without any changes on contents and quality. A microwave apparatus was tested
for capability to detect hidden insects of different sizes and activity levels
in stored products. In initial studies, Bruchidius incarnates and Tribolium
castaneum (Herbst) were easily detected. Boxes of broad bean and flour were
artificially infested with 30 insects to estimate the reliability of detection.
The ratings were significantly correlated with the numbers of infesting insects.
The microwave has potential applications in management rapid, nondestructive
targeting of incipient insect infestations would be of benefit to the producers
and consumers of packaged foods. Insect mortality studies were performed with
a high-power microwave source operating at a frequency of 2.45 GHz to irradiate
samples of wheat infested with red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum
(Herbst) and broad bean Beetle bruchidius incarnates. These pests are
common internal and external feeders in stored products, respectively. Samples
at Larvae and adult were exposed. The results support the hypothesis that the
insect-to-host dissipation ratio increases at frequencies >2.45 GHz. Mean
mortalities were 93 and 96% for both adults and larvae of T. castaneum,
respectively. But for Bruchidius incarnates, mean mortalities were 90
and 92% for both adults and larvae, respectively. 2014/03/08 - 18:03

Four artificial pollen substitute diets were earlier tested for their relative
efficacy. The composition of these diets was not available in the earlier publications.
This research note provides detailed composition of these four artificial diets
for honeybees. 2014/03/08 - 18:03

This study aimed to evaluate essential oil bioactivity of Corianderum sativum L. on egg stage of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) and Tetranychus urticae Koch in Egypt. Linalool and α-pinene were the basic constituents in the essential oil that recorded (64.103 and 11.964%). The ovicidal activity of obtained oil indicated that according to LC50 values, the younger one day-old eggs of both S. littoralis and T. urticae are more susceptible to coriander essential oil than older ones (three days-old) recording (0.055, 1.565%) and (1.489, 4.759%), respectively. Latent effect with LC50 of coriander oil on the successive stages of both pests resulted from treated eggs were detected. Larval mortality of S. littoralis recorded 20.00 and 16.00%, respectively, in return to zero% for controls. Furthermore, biological parameters were affected due to essential oil treatment that both larval and pupal duration as well as incubation period elongated compared to control while the reverse was true in case of pupation and pupal weight. Additionally, biological aspects of T. urticae, caused shortest incubation period of both tested egg-ages comparing to its control, treated 24 h old eggs caused elongation in longevity and life span of female compared to control, in both treated tested egg-ages. Finally results demonstrated that, highly significant reduction in the total number of eggs/female for 24 h old eggs was recorded 60.067 eggs, control gave 87.00±6.93 eggs. Insignificant reduction was detected as affected by treated 72 h old eggs laid 114 eggs, control laid 117 eggs. 2013/11/07 - 10:43

Problems of efficacy and resistance manifested by whiteflies as consequences of chemical sprayings warrant a serious attention. Such hazardous outcomes call for an alternative method of controlling whiteflies that is safe to the produce, people and environment. In this study, efficacy of a newly isolated Isaria fumosorosea Wize infecting whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), from Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) was compared with isolates from bagworms, Pteroma pendula (Joannis) under laboratory conditions. All stages of B. tabaci were susceptible to infection by I. fumosorosea isolates when bioassayed at 1x106 mL-1. Among all the isolates tested, UPM isolate was the most virulent, causing 91, 90, 86 and 89% mortality on eggs and second, third and fourth instars, respectively. A concentration-mortality response test of the isolate on second instar nymphs resulted 95% mortality within 6 days when treated with 1x108 conidia mL-1. The results conclude that UPM isolate was the most effective against all stages of B. tabaci than those solates from other insects. Thus UPM isolate has the potential to be further developed as a biopesticide for controlling B. tabaci. 2013/11/07 - 10:43

Importance of neem products as insecticide, pesticides and herbicides is well recognized recently use of these products is insecticide in vegetables is being increased rapidly. Studies on seasonal incidence and effect of some neem products on Hadda beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata fabr.) infested on Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) were conducted at Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad during Rabi season 2006. The treatments of some commercial neem products viz. Neem Raj, Neemoria, Neem bark, Garlic, Neem Gold, Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE), Neem leaf, Achook and one insecticide, i.e., Endosulfan were applied. The observation pertaining to the population of Hadda beetle on brinjal were recorded one day before treatments; the observation on the population mortality were recorded at 1, 2 and 5 days after treatments. The beetle population appeared in the 1st week of March (10th standard week) with an average population level of 0.1 beetle/leaf. Hadda beetle population gradually increased and reached peak level of 3.64 per leaf upto 3rd week of April (16th standard week). However, the population declined with maturation of the crop. Endosulfan was the most effective treatment with 100% mortality. All the other treatments were also effective at 5 days after spraying and they were also statistically at par with each other. Declined of beetle population was not much dependent on weather parameters (temperature, wind velocity, rainfall and relative humidity) but was influenced by the maturation of crop. The present study recommends that Endosulfan (0.07%) as the most effective treatment to control Hadda beetle infestation in Brinjal. 2013/11/07 - 10:43

Eusieus scutalis (A.-H.), is a common phytoseiid mite in Egypt. However, the present study aims to throw more light on the biology and life table parameters of E. scutalis which was reared under laboratory conditions of 26°C and 70% R.H., on palm pollen, immature stages of Tetranychus urticae koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn. Life cycle averaged 5.20 and 6.19 days, 6.40 and 7.23 days, 7.30 and 7.85 days for male and female when fed on palm pollen, immature stages of T. urticae and B. tabaci, respectively. The highest R0 value of 17.88 expected female progeny per female was obtained with a diet of date palm and followed by 16.03 and 13.60 for T. urticae and B. tabaci, respectively. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and subsequently, the finite rate of increase (erm) averaged 0.232-1.26; 0.191-1.21 and 0.175-1.91 when E. scutalis was provided with date palm pollen, T. urticae and B. tabaci, respectively. Date palm pollen shortened the mean generation time and caused the highest rates of R0, rm and erm parameters followed by a diet of T. urticae. While B. tabaci proved to be the least favorite food source for E. scutalis. 2013/11/07 - 10:43

In Algeria Sahara, Anacanthotermes ochraceus is among the most devastating
termite pests, it cause great damage to house hold materials and agriculture
in oasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate Saharan plants extracts
for their termiticidal activities against Anacanthotermes ochraceus in
a research programme for effective, environment and eco-friendly termite control
agents. This study investigate, the anti-termitic activity of aqueous extracts
from different part of four Saharan plants (Calotropis procera, Hyoscyamus
muticus, Pergularia tomentosa and Datura stramonium) against termite
workers using direct contact application. All the crude extracts showed significant
anti-termitic activity in a different doses and the mortality, among various
aqueous extracts were statistically different (p<0.05). The highest termite
mortality (50%) was found in leaves extract of Calotropis procera. This
results is the first report on the search of termiticidal natural compounds
extracts against the Saharan Anacanthotermes ochraceus, it can open the
possibility of further investigations on eco-friendly termite control agents. 2013/11/07 - 10:43

To help the honeybee colonies to tide over harsh summer dearth period in South-Western region of Haryana (India), the efficacy of four pollen substitute diets viz. diet-1 (Soybean flour+yeast extract+honey), diet-2 (diet-1+NaCl salt), diet-3 (diet-1+salt+vitamins and minerals) and diet-4 (diet-1+vitamins and minerals) was tested on the reproduction and build up of colonies of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). The diet-1 could induce reproduction and build up in the treated colonies. But, the diet-2 proved counterproductive as all the attributes of the colonies receiving the latter diet declined markedly. The diet-3 could marginally increase the values of colony attributes. However, these values remained significantly lower than those achieved under diet-1. The diet-4 proved to be the best among the four artificial pollen substitute diets. The colonies receiving the latter diet showed maximal unsealed brood area, sealed brood area, bee strength and pollen and honey stores. All the control colonies had extremely low values of these parameters, could not survive the summer dearth period and vanished by late October. The colonies receiving diet-4 could give maximal economic returns followed by, in descending order, those receiving diet-1, diet-2 and diet-3. The control colonies receiving no artificial diet died during the dearth period thus causing a complete loss of the invested capital amount. The diet-4, therefore, seems to make a sufficient pollen substitute feed for sustaining reproduction and brood rearing in honeybee (A. mellifera) colonies during dearth period. 2013/06/25 - 17:46

To help the honeybee colonies to tide over harsh summer dearth period in South-Western region of Haryana (India), the efficacy of four pollen substitute diets viz. diet-1 (Soybean flour+yeast extract+honey), diet-2 (diet-1+NaCl salt), diet-3 (diet-1+salt+vitamins and minerals) and diet-4 (diet-1+vitamins and minerals) was tested on the reproduction and build up of colonies of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). The diet-1 could induce reproduction and build up in the treated colonies. But, the diet-2 proved counterproductive as all the attributes of the colonies receiving the latter diet declined markedly. The diet-3 could marginally increase the values of colony attributes. However, these values remained significantly lower than those achieved under diet-1. The diet-4 proved to be the best among the four artificial pollen substitute diets. The colonies receiving the latter diet showed maximal unsealed brood area, sealed brood area, bee strength and pollen and honey stores. All the control colonies had extremely low values of these parameters, could not survive the summer dearth period and vanished by late October. The colonies receiving diet-4 could give maximal economic returns followed by, in descending order, those receiving diet-1, diet-2 and diet-3. The control colonies receiving no artificial diet died during the dearth period thus causing a complete loss of the invested capital amount. The diet-4, therefore, seems to make a sufficient pollen substitute feed for sustaining reproduction and brood rearing in honeybee (A. mellifera) colonies during dearth period. 2013/06/25 - 17:46

The Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata is one of the most destructive
insect-pest of horticulture in Egypt. Occurrence adults of PFF in the field
must be monitored to apply the action plan management of this pest. This study
was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the response of PFF adults
to some synthetic food-odor lures; Ammonium Acetate (AA), Ammonium Carbonate
(AC), Ammonium Di-hydrogen orthophosphate (AD), Di-ammonium hydrogen-orthophosphate
(DA) and a mixture of AD and borax. As well as, determining the role of pH degree
of the synthetic food-odor lures on attracting of PFF adults. Results indicated
that AA was the highest potential attractants in attraction adults of PFF. The
borax mixed with AD enhanced the AD attraction potential for PFF compared to
attraction of AD alone. The mean number of captured flies of PFF was inversely
to tested time, i.e., 0.23±0.02 and 0.16±0.03 capture flies/trap/day
in the first and second tested weeks. The overall mean numbers captured flies
of PFF was directly proportional to the pH degree (r = 0.25**). So, the obtained
results showed clearly that the PFF is attracted to the synthetic food-odor
lures moderate pH degree or light alkaline. 2013/06/25 - 17:46

The success of sericulture industry is mainly based on leaf quality and appropriate
environmental conditions for silkworm rearing. Mulberry leaves are exclusive
source of nutrition for silkworm. This study was aimed to assess the impact
of different mulberry varieties namely S1, S13, S146,
S1635 and TR10 and seasons viz., spring, autumn, summer
and monsoon on growth and cocoon characteristics of bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx
mori). Among the seasons, the spring season showed better growth and cocoon
characteristics followed by autumn, summer and monsoon seasons. The better traits
observed during favourable seasons than unfavourable seasons might be due to
the influence of climatic conditions. The mulberry varieties did not show significant
impact on growth and economic traits studied, however the effect of different
mulberry varieties on cocoon yield was observed in the following order: S1>TR10>S146>S1635>S13.
The highest cocoon yield for 10000 larvae was observed in S1 (8.949
kg) while the minimum yield was observed in S13 (8.794 kg). The traits
such as larval length, larval width, larval weight, shell ratio, filament length
and filament weight showed positive correlation with yield. The results showed
the suitability of S1 mulberry variety and spring season for commercial
rearing and more productivity. 2013/06/25 - 17:46

The eggfruit and shootborer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis (Crambidae), is a major exotic pest of garden egg, Solanum gilo, causing enormous shoot and fruit damage in Nigeria. Information of the biology is required for effective management of this field pest. Life history of EFSB was studied on susceptible variety Lv Makurdi at 27±3°C and 85±4% RH data on developmental period of immature stages and reproductive parameters and sex ratio were collected. Developmental stages consist of an egg, five larval instars, pupa and adult. Developmental periods observed were eggs (5.93 days), 1st instar (1.00 day), 2nd instar (1.16 days), 3rd instar (1.48 days), 4th instar (2.63 days), 5th instar (4.46 days), pupa (11.2 days), female (4.14 days) and male (4.31 days). The reproductive parameters observed were incubation period (5.93 days), pre-oviposition period (1.19 days), oviposition period (2.71 days) and post-oviposition period (3.75 days). The Male to Female ratio was 1:2 and actual fecundity and potential fecundity per female were 123 and 207 eggs , respectively. Laboratory studies reveal that EFSB, Leucinodes orbonalis will complete its life cycle in 28.17 days. 2013/06/25 - 17:46

This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between colony strength
and each of stored pollen, worker brood rearing, colony population density and
honey production. The areas of stored pollen and worker sealed brood, colony
population size and honey yield were significantly (p<0.001) higher in the
strong than the weak colonies. The strong colonies produced honey 286.80 and
291.67% more than the weak colonies during clover and sidir season, respectively
with an average increase of 289.24%. It can be recommended from the research
findings to unite the weak colonies to be strong for obtaining high rates of
stored pollen and brood production and high honey yield. 2013/06/25 - 17:46

One of the impediments to the success of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling
insect pests in the field is their sensitivity to solar radiation, UV-B in particular.
Their sensitivity to UV, however, can be minimized by adding materials that
can block the radiation from reaching the conidia. In this study, Metarhizium
anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) isolated
from field collected bagworms, Pteroma pendula (Joannis) (Lepidoptera:
Psychidae) were formulated with UV protectants and tested for their pathogenicity
on their original host. Both fungi were infective to the bagworms. The median
effective concentrations (EC50) were 2x105.10 and 2x105.17
conidia mL-1 for I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae,
respectively. At concentration of 2x109 conidia mL-1 of
either I. fumosorosea or M. anisopliae recorded the lowest LT50
values at 5.72 and 5.40 days, respectively. Less than 10% of the conidia germinated
after 12 h of exposure to UV-B and solar radiation. When the conidia were formulated
as a wettable powder in kaolin, with or without Tinopal LPW, a significant sunlight
radiation and UV-B protection was achieved up to 12 h of exposure. More than
80% of the conidia germinated. Tinopal LPW, however, did not significantly improve
efficacy of the formulation, although recorded a better conidia protection than
those without Tinopal LPW. A field trial using M. anisopliae and I.
fumosorosea conidia without Tinopal LPW achieved 58 and 68% control,
respectively, while Dipel®, a Bacillus thuringiensis product,
exceeded 80% control. Even though both isolates were less effective than Dipel®
but these indigenous pathogens could effectively reduced the pest population
to less than 50%. They need to be conserved and/or augmented so that bagworms
can be suppressed with minimal disruption to the ecological balance. 2013/04/25 - 08:09

A few species of ants form an important group of household pests that are a nuisance to mankind. An experiment was conducted to study the attraction of some common household ants viz., Tapinoma melanocephalum, Solenopsis geminata, Paratrechina longicornis and Monomorium latinode to various food sources in different (summer, rainy and winter) seasons in the urban region of Bengaluru, India. Ten different food sources of carbohydrates, proteins or lipids or in combinations were used in this study. Tapinoma melanocephalum and P. longicornis were more attracted to carbohydrates than other types of food in all the seasons. Solenopsis geminata and M. latinode showed more attraction to proteins and lipids during the summer and lipid-rich food during the rainy and winter seasons. The study indicates that the attraction that these household ants have to various food sources differs from one species to another and also showed slight changes in attraction to food sources in the different seasons of the year. 2013/04/25 - 08:09

Functional response is one of factors to know before considering use of predators in biocontrol programme. A study to determine type of functional responses of Cheilomenes propingua, Cheilomenes lunata and Cheilomenes sulphurea (predators) at different Aphis gossypii (prey) densities (i.e., 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500) were investigated in the laboratory using petri-dishes in ten replicates. Mean number of prey consumed were plotted against the initial density supplied which showed Type II Functional response to all three predators. The result was confirmed by using logistic regression model which showed negative linear parameter. The linear reciprocal transformation of the Holling’s disc equation was used to determine handling time (‘Th’) and search rate (‘a’). The handling times 0.171, 0.196, 0.240 h for the females C. lunata, C. sulphurea and C. propingua, respectively were obtained of which were generally lower than that of the male coccinellids 0.217, 0.220 and 0.270 h. Female search rates were estimated as 1,258, 1.277 and 1.404 and males 1.312, 1.360, 1.489 for C. lunata, C. sulphurea and C. propingua, respectively. The above results indicate higher predation aggressiveness of females as compared to the males. Handling times for C. lunata and C. sulphurea females and males were lowest when compared to C. propingua suggesting to be more efficient in aphid consumption than C. propingua. It is concluded that the three coccinellid predators have type II Functional response and also C. lunata and C. sulphurea have a greater potential of eating aphids than C. propingua. Field studies are required to explore their potential under natural conditions. 2013/04/25 - 08:09

One of the most important pest storage on milled rice is Rhyzopertha dominica
(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Despite of both quantity and quality of food, temperature
and relative humidity in the warehouse are important factors that affect the
development and growth population of R. dominica. The effect of temperature
and humidity on the population growth of R. dominica (F.) on milled rice
was studied in a laboratory experiment. The treatment consisted of eight temperature
levels (20, 25, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40°C) and three levels of relative
humidities (60, 70 and 80%). The result showed that at all levels of relative
humidity tested, R. dominica did not survive at 40°C, whereas at
38°C some R. dominica produced eggs but none of them hatched. With
the temperature-dependent equation it was found that the optimum temperature
to produce egg number, larvae number and adult number were 35.05, 33.59 and
33.27°C, respectively. At those optimum temperature, the maximum predicted
of egg number, larvae number and adult number occurred at 80% relative humidity,
i.e., 209.33 eggs, 128.64 larvae and 38.75 adult insect. The study also showed
that R. dominica had the shortest (25.00 days) developmental time at
36°C with 80% relative humidity. The longest developmental time (106.33
days) was observed at 20°C with 60% relative humidity. At all relative humidity
levels tested, the growth index of R. dominica increased with increasing
the temperature up to 34°C and then it decreased with further temperature
increase. 2013/04/25 - 08:09

Small neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone family (AKH/RPCH), is one of the important groups of peptides that regulate physiological homeostasis in insects. The adipokinetic neuropeptide of Hieroglyphus banian (Order: Orthoptera; Family: Acrididae) was isolated from corpora cardiaca by HPLC; the chromatographic fractions were examined for adipokinetic activity in the plant bug, Iphita limbata in vivo. Two fractions that peaked at retention times of 9.94 and 11.81 min, respectively were found to be significantly active in mobilization of lipids. One of the biologically active peaks (9.94 min) had identical retention time as that of synthetic Locusta migratoria-Adipokinetic Hormone-I (Locmi-AKH-I). These analyses confirmed the presence of Locmi-AKH-I in the corpora cardiaca of H. banian. This data can be additional information to aid in the construction of phylogenetic trees of the insect order Orthoptera, by means of computer programme and protein parsimony algorithms. 2013/04/25 - 08:09

Current pest control methods rely on a pesticide dominated paradigm and there is need to adopt a more ecological approach based on renewable technologies such as host plant resistance and natural biological control, which are available even to resource poor farmers. Resistant cultivars complement natural enemy action in lowering pest infestation while intrinsic rate of increase of pest species on resistant varieties is lower. An experiment whose aim, was to test whether the African white rice stem borer (Maliarpha separatella), can be managed by use of resistant rice varieties in combination with entomopathogenic nematodes was set up at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Mwea. The study was arranged as a 4x4 factorial design and each treatment replicated three times. First factor was rice cultivars at four levels, resistant cultivar (M27615), second resistant cultivar (M27628), the highly susceptible but tolerant cultivar (M27608) and commercial check Basmati 370 variety, which were planted in 1x1m experimental plots. Second factor was application of EPN (Hetrerorhabitidis indica) as a suspension in distilled water to the cultivars at four different times after they were transplanted (no application, 3 weeks after transplant date (WAT), 5 WAT and 6 WAT. Results showed that M. separatella infestation was lowest on cultivar M27615 where H. indica was applied at 3 WAT, while cultivar M27608 had the highest yield despite high number of white heads and stem tunneling indicative of high levels of M. separatella infestation. The findings showed that host-plant resistance and EPNs can be integrated to manage M. separatella infestation (250 words). 2013/04/25 - 08:09

Feeding injury caused by mango shield scale, Kilifia acuminata (Signoret)
(Hemiptera: Coccidae) reduced leaves chlorophyll content significantly between
infested and uninfested leaves. Quantification of chlorophyll loss caused by
K. acuminata feeding on mango leaves is vital importance for photosensitize
and later on crop yield. The uninfested leaves had higher levels of chlorophyll
in comparison with infested ones. The study was conducted in Plant Protection
Research Institute, ARC, Egypt from April to June 2012 on mango shield scale,
K. acuminata to calculate chlorophyll percentage loss on mango leaves
variety Shmama. Simple correlation and partial regression were done between
numbers of insect and chlorophyll loss percentage in infested and uninfested
unites (inch2). Positive highly significant effect was recorded between
numbers of insect and percentage of chlorophyll loss. Chi-square (χ2)
was used to calculate economic threshold and economic injury levels for K.
acuminata that causes economically damage in disk chlorophyll content. Economic
threshold and economic injury levels were 3 and 8 individuals per disk, respectively. 2013/04/25 - 08:09

This study deals with a new species of hymenopterous parasitoid of the soft scale insects. Specimens of an Aphelinid parasitoid were collected from the soft scale insect Pulvinaria taenuivalvata (Newstead) (Coccidae) on sugarcane leaves at Alexandria. In Egypt, only five species of this genus were recorded, it is expected that more species could be find, as the Egyptian insect fauna still need more studies. By examining the prepared slides and comparing the taxonomical characters of the species, they were not agreeing with any of the described species. Therefore, it is suggested to be a new species and named Coccophagus nigricoxae sp. nov., which is described and illustrated in this study. 2013/04/25 - 08:09

The distribution of various mosquito genera, abundance and their associated breeding
habitats was studied between March 2008 and February 2009 in an increasingly urbanizing
town (Benin City) in Nigeria. The habitats sampled, using dippers and pipettes,
were broadly categorized into five viz., containers; stagnant pools, domestic
run-offs, gutters and tree-holes/leaf axils. Seventeen species of mosquitoes (including
2 Anopheles species, 7 Culex species and 8 Aedes species)
belonging to 3 genera were recorded. The abundance of the 3 mosquito genera varied
significantly (p<0.05), with the Culex genera recording the highest
abundance while Anopheles genera recorded the least. The most commonly
encountered species were Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus
and Aedes aegypti accounting for 18.08, 13.84 and 12.44%, respectively
of the total collections. Mosquito species occurred in all five habitats sampled
and populations were relatively abundant throughout the season with peak populations
observed between July and September probably because of the high rainfall. The
combination of factors such as seasonality, climate, environmental modification,
urbanization and other anthropogenic related factors contributes to the increasing
abundance of mosquito species in Benin City as most mosquito species bred in diverse
habitats. The persistent occurrence of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles
species and breeding habitat diversification by these mosquitoes, pose a serious
epidemiological concern to the inhabitants of Benin City. Therefore, larviciding
of breeding sites before the onset of the rainy season and public enlightenment
on the environmental factors and/or human activities that encourage mosquito breeding
are recommended. 2013/01/28 - 16:30