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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Journal of Economic and Social Policy

  • This paper explores the impact of the “Innovation Farm,” a social innovation project that aimed to help long-term unemployed, highly disadvantaged jobseekers living on the Coffs Coast of the Mid-North Coast of New South Wales, overcome barriers to employment and/or further training. The project was delivered by the Coffs Harbour Employment Support Services (CHESS), a not-for-profit, social enterprise organisation. It was funded from 2009-2012 by the Australian Federal Government’s Department of Employment Education and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) through the Department’s Innovation Fund. The research found that whilst the project achieved a commendable level of success its on-going viability was compromised by a failure to communicate the project’s long–term potential to both the funding body and the parent organisation. A number of lessons were also identified for policy makers particularly as regards the management and funding of any future public/private social innovation partnerships.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/11 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • Integration policy can be defined as a “wicked problem”. This is particularly true in Austria, where integration policy is a politically cross-sectoral issue that concerns the responsibilities of various actors (e.g. different ministries) on various levels (e.g. federal, provincial, local). Based on a single-case study this paper examines the process that led to the development of the integration governance model in Austria between 2008 and 2013 and the associated implications. The most significant results were that vertical and horizontal coordination have been the main focus from the very beginning; that the creation of two new integration bodies and their interaction with the newly established State Secretariat for Integration has been particularly significant with regard to policy design and implementation; and that this new governance model is unique in the Austrian context.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/10 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • The business case for sustainability is interpreted within the sustainability literature to mean the pursuit of sustainability should increase an organisation’s financial performance. The inherent weakness in this approach is the singular focus on economic performance to evaluate sustainability projects which necessarily contain environmental, social and economic components.
    This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the business case for sustainability prior to developing a broader social case framework which shows the potential for stakeholder well-being to be affected by numerous social impacts caused by business activities across a broad range of impact categories. Application of the social case framework is demonstrated using the case of Coca-Cola in Kerala, India leading to the conclusion that the effectiveness of implementing sustainability in business is increased by combining the business and social case frameworks to assess potential impacts prior to sustainability implementation.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/9 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the role of public policy and management in the delivery of an outcome oriented policy. The economic situation within recent years has resulted in a heightened awareness for more innovative public policy across the United Kingdom. Using a qualitative and an action research case study approach, this article describes and discusses how innovation and knowledge in public management can be fostered despite the downturn of the economy. This is illustrated by two regional universities within the United Kingdom when tasked with the management and delivery of highly formalised market intelligence data (Tesco Loyalty Card Data) within an innovation network with the Northern Ireland Government and the agri-food Industry. The aim of this collaborative innovation network was to address the ‘failure’ of regional small businesses in competing at a local, regional and national level. On review of the collaborative innovation network, it was established that the issue of trust and credibility created by the presence of the universities were key to the initial engagement, interaction and success of various parties within the network and to the ultimate success of the public support instrument.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/8 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • This paper examines the role of Economic Development Officers (EDOs) in implementing policies aimed at assisting businesses to grow as a strategy of regional growth. Page’s (2006) policy framework (principles, policy lines, measures and practices) is used to examine the issues with implementation.
    The strongest theme emerging from the findings is that the business owner/managers were very dissatisfied with the processes involved in applying for funding; the instruments, although, most suggested that they were more satisfied once the funding arrived. The business owner/managers identified public departments working as independent “silos”, the maze of bureaucracies and the long lead times as significant problems. Such findings provide a plausible reason to explain why Australian businesses have such a low take up of government programs aimed at promoting innovation via a collaboration strategy.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/7 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • Relationships between a business and its external parties are important for knowledge sharing and absorption. This is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in regional areas. This study aimed to identify the role of social networks in the Absorptive Capacity of regional SMEs by investigating the experiences of SME owners in the city of Whyalla, South Australia to determine how they harness their social networks to absorb external knowledge towards innovation. The results of the research will provide useful information to bodies such as universities and regional development boards, empowering them to develop policies and initiatives to support SMEs to create networking opportunities and improve their sustainability.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/6 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of agricultural trade liberalisation on the welfare of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to providing a complementary policy framework. The study used data from both primary and secondary sources and applied multiple mathematical, statistical and econometrical models to achieve its objective. The study found that agricultural trade liberalisation had positive impacts on the welfare of rural households. However, the liberalisation policy was not effective in bringing about its full potential due to shortcomings associated with socio-economic factors and weak economic institutions. It argues that the impacts of agricultural trade liberalisation on the welfare of rural households depend not only on liberalisation itself but also on other complementary reforms in non-trade areas. It recommends a complementary policy framework along with trade reform policies needed in the rice markets focusing on institutional changes.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/5 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • Within Bangladesh there is evidence of gender discrimination which causes a lack of empowerment and poverty among women, particularly in rural areas. Thus, women in rural areas require improved service delivery with personal and customised services from the service providers (government and non-government organisations) of poverty alleviation programs to better combat poverty. To explore the differences in opinion between male and female beneficiaries in assessing the service delivery effectiveness of providers, the researcher has developed a multi-dimensional effectiveness scale. The methodology is based on primary data collected from 78 randomly chosen villages in Bangladesh. Significant differences of opinion between male and female beneficiaries have been identified. In most geographic areas, female beneficiaries reported a need for improvement across the entire scale of items measuring the effectiveness of service delivery. This suggests that they do not receive the same level of service as their male counterpart, a finding which carries the hallmarks of gender discrimination.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/4 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • In furthering the process of codifying international agreements into a body of international development law and established principles, this article creates an indicator for social scientists, practitioners and the public to use in measuring whether international organisations and governments meet the criteria for development that have been established by various international treaties and that are recognised by experts in the field. Though the concept of human and social development presented in international treaties actually reflects diverse dimensions of humanity offered by psychologists (human development potential), anthropologists (cultural adaptation and diversity along non-linear paths), artists and others (expression, co-existence with nature, ideas of beauty, and intellectual discovery), few, if any, today in the development field appear to pay any attention to these broader views. International development as defined both by its proponents (mostly economists and technicians) and by its critics (often political interest groups in urban societies) is now largely a linear measure along a ladder, applying a single dimensional measure of productivity and the physical (animal) benefits it can provide. This article re-establishes the international community’s comprehensive human vision that has been co-opted.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/3 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • This article intends to describe the scope of the right to work in the World Bank's 2013 World Development Report: Jobs. In the first place, the article analyses, from a legal prospective, the right to work as phrased in the main international human rights instruments. Academic comments and judicial developments are included in the analysis, as well as international organisms' contributions. Second, the article compares this interpretation to the World Bank's ideas on the issue, as expressed in the report. Through this comparison, the Bank's contradictions and restrictive constructions become apparent. Finally, the article describes the risks faced by borrower countries if their policies are designed according to the World Bank proposals.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/2 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss2/1 2014/10/03 - 15:25
  • Economic stimulation on the local level is increasingly being recognised as the key to regional resilience. As such, regional capacity building initiatives have moved into endogenous development models that build on the local economic context, embedded competencies and social structures.
    Illustrating an endogenous regional development initiative, this paper discusses a recent program in regional Victoria based on ‘economic gardening’ principles of infrastructure, information and connections and tailored to the specific needs of small-to-medium enterprises with high growth potential.
    The program brought together three tiers of government and the regional university to increase innovative capacity and performance of manufacturers in the region. The paper discusses the program design and reports on its perceived value from various stakeholder perspectives. Taking a wider regional development focus, the paper concludes with a discussion on the evaluation and longer term impact of endogenous capacity building programs of this nature in terms of their contribution to regional development policy and program development.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/8 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • Recent policy discourse on the dynamics of regional development has centred on growing levels of uneven development – the patchwork economy – and the importance of local competitiveness as a driver of growth. In this paper, we examine both of these issues in the context of the state’s regional capital cities. Drawing on recent work in endogenous growth theory, we explore the extent to which differential employment growth across regional Western Australia can be accounted for by changes in the prevailing economic structures of localities, as opposed to local competitive effects. To test the relative significance of economic structure and local competitiveness we utilise conventional shift-share decompositions of employment growth. We then consider the implications of the results for regional policy, arguing that a focus on local competitiveness is important, though needs to be understood in the context of both macro-economic processes and the wider structure of the settlement system.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/7 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • Australia’s aquaculture industry is predominantly based in rural coastal regions where it makes a significant contribution to local economies as well as to national food security. Over the past decade changing global economic and trade conditions have resulted in Asia supplying an ever-increasing amount of seafood to Australian consumers. From 2003 to 2007 landings of cheaper imported Asian prawns increased dramatically, seriously impacting the eastern Australian prawn farming industry as graphically illustrated by the collapse of prawn farming in the Northern Rivers region of NSW. In response, the Southern Cross University’s National Marine Science Centre researched the feasibility of farming the finfish mulloway or jewfish (Argyrosomus japonicus) as an opportunity for Australian prawn farmers to diversify their production base. In this context, the purpose of this case study was to assess the effect of imported products on the viability of the northern NSW prawn farming industry by reviewing the output and cost structures of a local prawn farm before (2002-2003) and after the influx of competing imports (2006-2007). Secondly, the findings of a two year trial of farming mulloway in ponds on a converted prawn farm are critically evaluated, and possible opportunities are identified. Finally, regional policy implications of the case study are examined and current constraints and limitations to the uptake of mulloway farming in northern NSW are identified.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/6 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • Geographical Indications (GIs) are intellectual property rights in placenames that evoke the typical qualities of agricultural products and foodstuffs that originate in particular districts. Presently, the EU is the dominant holder of protected GIs and the EU asserts that they are used extensively and effectively in EU countries as a rural and regional development tool. To date, Australia's response to GIs has largely been driven by perceptions of their impact upon trade gains and losses. Currently, Australia only has legal protection for wine-related GI's because of an agreement with the EU.
    Given an increased focus on GIs internationally, particularly in China and India, we raise the question of whether Australia should more deeply consider a special regime for the legal protection of GIs in relation to agricultural products and foodstuffs more generally, something that has not been investigated to date because of Australia's negative attitude towards GI protection in international trade negotiations. This paper sets out the challenges and opportunities of considering GI development against the backdrop of Australia's regional, rural and remote diversity.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/5 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • This paper explores the development of sustainable food systems in Northern Queensland and draws conclusions as to how they can grow and become more stable in the future. It shows how a community is actively and creatively deploying local networks and local resources in order to gain access to locally-grown, sustainable food. The development of this alternative agri-food network (AAFN) is driven by grassroots movements and underpinned by a strong, not-for-profit sector consisting of environmentalists, community leaders and food activists, who are highly critical of the mainstream agri-food system. The opportunities and challenges faced by actors in alternative food systems are discussed. At federal government level, the adoption of intensive, productivist-based agriculture runs counter to the philosophy of AAFNs. In a political environment that clearly favours economic development, the issue for local communities is how can they influence food and agricultural policy?

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/4 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • Skilled migration has long been at the forefront of policies for engendering population and regional economic growth in developed nations like Australia. Indeed a rapid growth in the size of the skilled migrant intake during past thirty years has seen skilled migration visa numbers outstrip the combined permanent intake from other migration streams. The Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme (RSMS) and State Specific Regional Migration (SSRM) schemes have been enacted and progressively altered in order to attract skilled migrants to regional areas of Australia. Nevertheless, population and economic growth are becoming increasingly concentrated into regional hotspots, particularly across the north of the country, raising questions about the efficacy of these programs to address skill needs in industries outside the resource sector, where a spatially-distributed demand for skilled workers is emerging. In light of overall pessimism in existing literature which points to skilled migrant ‘leakages’ from regional Australia to larger cities, this study aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of the contributions of the RSMS and SSMS programs for attracting and retaining skilled migrants and their families to the Northern Territory of Australia. We conducted online surveys with recent migrants to the jurisdiction through a combination of open and closed questions. The results provide positive indications about the demographic, labour force and retention contributions of the programs with high rates of retention evident overall and demographic contributions including a female-biased migrant cohort and high rates of partnering. From a policy perspective, our findings suggest that skilled migrants are contributing to population stability in the face of high population turnover and an increasing male bias across the north of Australia. Nevertheless, the study reminds regional areas that future growth and sustainability will require concerted and innovative approaches to planning and development as global competition for skilled migrants increases.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/3 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • Northern Australia covers vast and diverse landscapes comprising largely public and Indigenous tenures. Long-term Aboriginal and pastoral management, isolation and a challenging terrain and climate have shaped a landscape of national, if not international, conservation value. Northern Australia, however, also has a fragile economy, and there is tension amongst Indigenous, economic and conservation interests. Managed poorly, emerging conflicts could damage the real opportunities that each presents, resulting in major land and natural resource-use conflicts or unsustainable development. As healthy governance systems are the key to effective natural resource management (NRM), this paper presents a preliminary exploration of the health of NRM governance across Northern Australia, with a focus on the catchment scale. We analysed three focal catchments; the Fitzroy in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, the Daly in the top end of the Northern Territory and the Gilbert in north-western Queensland. We find that the governance of each catchment has different strengths and weaknesses depending on history and context. Common challenges, however, include shifting national and state/territory policy frameworks, fragmented funding of science and limited consensus building via spatial decision support. From this analysis, we explore potential reforms in catchment governance across this increasingly contested landscape.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/2 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol16/iss1/1 2014/03/02 - 15:59
  • Regional universities can contribute to the capacity of regional governance by providing an important source of specialist knowledge that can be used to aid problem-solving and engage communities more actively in decision-making. This paper reports a case of a partnership between a regional university and a local government authority (LGA), in a situation where the local government authority chose to run a referendum-style poll on a regionally important environmental and industrial issue; the development of the coal seam gas industry in a rural area. The partnership was adopted to produce an independently developed question for the poll. The poll question was developed by university academics who having consulted with stakeholders, provided advice to the LGA, which took responsibility for the final wording of the poll question. An evaluation of the processes involved in developing the poll question included reflection on the collaborative relationship between the university and the LGA. While the independence implicit in the university staff role was acknowledged as important, the importance of a university-LGA collaboration was also highlighted. The value of a more formally-structured process was noted, as were the importance of emphasising the university’s role as an advisory body only, and the LGA’s ownership of the final decision. Implications for policy include (1) the important role that regional Australian universities can play in enhancing governance and decision-making processes, (2) the potential for independent input to policy development processes for local and regional governance, and (3) the poll process which provides a robust method for ascertaining social acceptance of a controversial land use issue.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss3/6 2013/11/30 - 08:13
  • There is substantial market impetus behind the expansion of coal seam gas (CSG) in Australia, driven by buoyant international demand for liquefied natural gas. The benefits of CSG development come in the first few decades, followed by a potentially long period in which the agricultural and environmental costs dominate. We identify the key drivers influencing the economic contest of CSG versus agriculture on prime farmland, and undertake a Darling Downs case study using evidence from primary and secondary sources. Despite the momentum driving CSG development, under some plausible scenarios, the long-term economic net benefits from agriculture-only exceed those from CSG-only and CSG-agriculture coexistence.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss3/5 2013/11/30 - 08:13
  • The global social movement that has arisen in response to the threat of carbon-induced climate change is a very complex and amorphous movement that operates simultaneously at a global as well as at an intensely local level. Whilst acknowledging the global complexity and significance of the social movements that have coalesced around the issue of climate change, the purpose of this paper will be to examine emerging corporate campaigning models that have been employed in global campaigns and to examine ways in which these techniques can be effectively deployed in local grass roots campaigns. The specific context of this study is the movement opposed to coal seam gas exploration and mining in Australia, concentrating on a specific case study of the community opposition that has so far effectively delayed the operations of coal seam gas companies in the Northern Rivers region of NSW.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss3/4 2013/11/30 - 08:13
  • Unconventional coal seam gas extraction is expanding rapidly in the renowned agricultural region of the Darling Downs in Queensland, Australia. These developments have given rise to substantial conflict, including the emergence of a national and vocal anti-coal seam gas movement. This paper examines the Darling Downs region and social impact research with regard to coal seam gas developments. It addresses disputes about coal seam gas on the basis of anthropological perspectives with regard to social dynamics and the concept of community, with examples derived from ongoing anthropological fieldwork, including interviews and observations in the area over the past eighteen months. Two specific documents are commented on, including the recent Queensland guideline for social impact assessments (SIA), and the SIA for Arrow Energy’s Surat Gas Project. The paper suggests areas of possible improvement and argues that complex social dynamics and the notion of community should be more carefully considered in SIA.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss3/3 2013/11/30 - 08:13
  • This paper examines community responses to a rapidly changing social and economic environment through the theoretical lens of community resilience. The paper adopts an integrated approach to community resilience, incorporating aspects of social-ecological systems and psychological adaptation to change (Berkes and Ross, 2012), to describe a community of approximately 5,000 residents (Chinchilla in southern Queensland) responding to changes in the face of a burgeoning coal seam gas industry. Rather than centring analysis solely on social impacts and a community's vulnerabilities, the resilience approach investigates responding to change and resilience building qualities. We investigate this at the community group level in a context of CSG, addressing the research question: what aspects of community group functioning assists them to be resilient, and contribute to wider community resilience?
    Analysis of qualitative data from approximately 80 participants (including key stakeholder informants and focus group participants) in October and November, 2012, together with media and public documents, suggested a community responding and adapting to change. We identify five dimensions particularly important for community group resilience: strategic thinking, links within communities, effective use of resources, commitment, and building meaningful relationships. We suggest that these dimensions, and the qualities underpinning them, also contribute to resilience of the wider community. A diversity of groups, groups acting as bridging organisations, and groups involved at different scales all provide resilience to the wider system. Understanding how a community affected by coal seam gas demonstrates resilience enables policy makers to support and enhance strengths that are emerging within the community. Moreover, it suggests ways of building resilience in communities potentially facing future CSG activities.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss3/2 2013/11/30 - 08:13
  • http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss3/1 2013/11/30 - 08:13
  • Globally, innovation is recognised as a key pathway to productivity, sustainability and effectiveness in both the public and private sector. In order for Australia to remain internationally competitive, all areas of the economy need to be actively involved in innovation. This is especially true in regional Australia, given that regions are major contributors to national productivity.
    It is critically important that innovation policy and programming are developed based on a strong evidence base. Despite this, there is a paucity of research reporting on the levels of innovation in regional Australia, and few accounts of the experiential knowledge regarding what support measures are likely to be most effective in terms of increasing innovation. This paper addresses that knowledge gap by presenting the results of an online Australian innovation survey, conducted with a sample of respondents who are familiar with the issues faced in regional Australia. This survey contrasts the track record and perceptions of innovation between urban and regional areas.
    Overall, significant differences were hardly detected between the views of respondents from urban and regional areas. Nevertheless, the key themes were that innovation is well understood by regional businesses, with innovative activities mainly reported in marketing, management and operational processes. Businesses predominantly reported that they collaborated with other businesses for innovation, albeit many respondents indicating they did not feel there was a need for collaboration. The primary driver for innovation was to increase responsiveness to customer need and increase efficiency; whereas barriers were the cost of development or lacking funds. These findings suggest that support for (regional) businesses is likely to be most effective if centered on innovation-specific business planning advice and developing links and networks between businesses. Respondents also expressed a desire for government organisations, universities and economic development organisations to support and foster business innovation through improved networking and alliance building.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss2/4 2013/09/14 - 15:33
  • The report on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress by Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi concludes that, in the measurement of household welfare, all material components should be covered, i.e. consumption, income and wealth, from both the micro as well as the macro perspective. Additionally, several other initiatives like the G20 finance ministers’ and central bank governors’ data gap initiative have emphasised having an integrated micro-macro framework where consumption, income and wealth can be analysed.
    Current researchers linking macro and micro information for the households have focused so far on income and consumption as these are the areas where most data sources are available. The purpose of this article is to extend the focus to household wealth using both household survey data and national financial accounts. The article also aims to create a first set of macroeconomic accounts that include wealth broken down by household groups.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss2/3 2013/09/14 - 15:33
  • Claim-makers/social entrepreneurs increase the likelihood that something becomes an externality by creating typical examples that quickly convey the nature of the externality, publicising stories about villains causing extreme harm to innocent victims and expressing social approval for their supporters and disapproval of their opponents. Unfortunately, simple typical examples tend to create simplistic views about various externalities, horror stories tend to invoke fight or flight responses which raises transactions costs and increases the difficulty of internalising externalities, and seeking social approval may discourage opponents from expressing disagreement so that uninformed people will assume that a false externality is true because there is little or no dissent.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss2/2 2013/09/14 - 15:33
  • The extant literature focusing on innovation capacity highlights the role of human capital formation and work design choices. Although this stream of literature is well developed, an emerging stream of literature has argued for the role of external business networks and the institutional ecosystems in fostering an organisation’s innovative capacity. Central to this latter approach is the diffusion and integration of new learning and information sharing from an organisation’s network partners to its ecosystem. Using qualitative case study evidence from four information technology (IT) enabled organisations in India, this study found that innovation capacity depends not only on human capital formation and work design choices but also on a firm’s capabilities to acquire, develop, integrate, and exploit new knowledge and information. To this end, the study employs an integrated approach highlighting the strategic choices some firms make in developing their human resource and organisational capabilities to improve their innovative capacity. Implications for theory and practice are also discussed.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss2/1 2013/09/14 - 15:33
  • http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss1/6 2012/04/29 - 16:32
  • Individuals and businesses are becoming ever more reliant on advanced telecommunications technologies that provide increased bandwidth capabilities. Because fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) enables the technology necessary to facilitate such things as sophisticated computer-aided design and advanced system integration, drastic improvements in efficiency of technology-intensive business processes and communication are expected. In an effort to empirically assess the economic impact of FTTH at the community level, this study employed a quantitative design using cross-sectional data collected for 16 experimental communities as well as for 16 matched control cities. The findings of this research are seemingly reflective of potential economic improvements that could arise if FTTH is present in a community. Specifically, annual employment rate, mean annual household income, and educational attainment were found to be significantly higher in experimental cities as compared to control cities. These results offer some insights regarding policy-making efforts at the federal, state, and local levels.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss1/5 2012/04/29 - 16:32
  • The populist narrative of welfare cheating in Australia is perpetuated, in part, through the reporting of overpayments identified via government initiatives such as data-matching. The Data-matching Program compares the income reported to Centrelink with data held by the Australian Taxation Office. This paper reports that at least half as many people may be missing out on government assistance as are receiving an over payment. The amount being missed is appreciably more than the government saves through recouping over payments. It is argued that data-matching should be used to find those people missing out on assistance, the number of which the government should also be quantifying.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss1/3 2012/04/29 - 16:32
  • The ECB recently announced the details of a rotation scheme for voting rights it will implement for its Governing Council as soon as the number of member states exceeds 18. However, skepticism remains regarding whether this model is appropriate to prepare the ECB for euro-zone enlargement. This study proposes, discusses, and evaluates possible amendments to this model from three perspectives (efficiency, European orientation, transparency) that deal with flexible majority voting, regrouping of countries, weighted voting, and centralised decision making. Each model improves on the rotation model in some respect, yet only a move toward more centralised decision making promises efficient, timely, and transparent decisions that avoid national biases. The widespread skepticism about the political acceptability of this approach is not shared in this paper. Instead, we note encouraging signs that a European identity is close to developing so that centralised policy making can be expected to gain more legitimacy and acceptability.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss1/4 2012/04/29 - 16:32
  • In reviewing the US debate on speed limits, we illustrate how a different valuation of the trade-off between private mobility needs and safety concerns can shape transport policy. The decentralisation debate and the speed limit in each state, obey the social preferences and valuation given to this trade-off, which in turn are largely influenced by geography. It is consistent with evidence that higher speed limits are found in states with greater mobility needs, even though their fatality rates are among the highest. We illustrate the inefficiency of centralisation when regulating aspects affected by diverse and heterogeneous social preferences across regions.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss1/2 2012/04/29 - 16:32
  • The purpose of this paper is to apply some core general principles of political economy to central issues of policy and governance. After a short section explaining the nature of the science of political economy, we start with Polanyi’s principle of the disembedded economy, and how this relates to cycles and waves of policy-making concerning the double movement and the relationship between markets, reciprocity and redistribution. Then we go on to scrutinise the principle of contradiction, paying special attention to the importance of capital-labor relations, the finance-industry dichotomy, monopoly versus competition, profit and the environment, plus individual versus society. Thereafter the principle of circular and cumulative causation is linked to social and production aspects of complex systems of political economy. And lastly we examine the principle of uneven development and how crucial this is to policy-making institutions as the world undergoes asymmetries of financial instability, climate change and cycle dynamics. Core principles thus provide a good grounding for general policy purposes when activist governance measures are required to improve human and environmental provisioning.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol15/iss1/1 2012/04/29 - 16:32
  • http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol14/iss3/8 2011/10/19 - 05:06
  • Focus is on agricultural production of a river basin economy and ecosystem processes relating to climate change and water supply. A generic regulated river basin model of agricultural production is integrated with an existing demand-based macroeconomic model in discrete time which has been developed previously over a series of computer simulation experiments. This is the forerunner to a fully-specified Murray-Darling Basin model. Two crops are in the model - rainfed wheat and irrigated rice - with River Basin Commission revenue and expenditure, as well as exports and imports outside the river basin economy. The model simulates 100 years of production.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol14/iss3/7 2011/10/19 - 05:06
  • Australia has a well established system of financial assistance grants to State, Territory and Local Governments based on the principle of horizontal fiscal equalisation. From a regional development point of view, the current system for State/Territory level funding is not favourable for regions. Differences between the levels of State services to regions and to capital cities are entrenched in the Commonwealth system for GST revenue allocation to the States. The local government funding arrangements however provide considerable assistance to regional areas, but only in terms of local government functions. The paper examines the role of financial assistance grants in supporting regional development in Australia.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol14/iss3/6 2011/10/19 - 05:06
  • Volunteers form the backbone of rural community transport services. They deliver a range of services including driving transport-disadvantaged clients to essential health and social care appointments. While trips for social care are usually local, trips for health appointments often involve long distances, long days, and out of pocket expenses for the drivers. In these situations volunteers and their passengers are exposed to increased levels of risk. Governments at all levels consider volunteer involvement as civic participation or social capital, yet little is known about the experiences of rural volunteer community transport drivers or local policy that governs their work. This paper describes a study that conducted an analysis of policy documents related to volunteer activity in four community transport organisations in rural NSW. The study explored variations in policies, whether volunteer drivers had participated in their development or revision, and whether the government models of the service agency was related to volunteer policy.
    Key findings include: that operational policies lack consistency across the services; that the role of volunteer drivers varies across services located in the same region; that participation of volunteers in either developing or reviewing local policies that govern their work was evident in the policies of only one of the four services; and that governance models do not appear to be related to volunteer participation.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol14/iss3/5 2011/10/19 - 05:06
  • Skill shortages in regional Australia are having a profound effect upon regional sustainability and renewal. The causes and drivers of skill shortages involve a complex interplay between macroeconomic trends and proximal causes. This paper draws together recent policy initiatives and research on skill shortages in the Australian context and the implications this has for regional Australia. Skilled migration has become a key element in Australia’s strategy to address major human capital issues and imperatives and specific reference is made to regional skilled migration initiatives as a “glocalised” response to regional skill shortages. Recent reforms in migration policy towards a demand-driven, economic modelling system, has seen greater input from states/territories and regions into the required skills and types of targeted skilled migration programs needed to assist in meeting regional skill shortages. The paper reviews several pieces of research on regional skilled migration before concluding with some key issues and directions for future research in relation to the role and effectiveness of the regional skilled migration scheme in assisting Australia to address regional skill shortages.

    http://epubs.scu.edu.au/jesp/vol14/iss3/4 2011/10/19 - 05:06