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International Journal of Cancer Research

There is growing evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in
disease etiology. Studies conducted several decades ago, have demonstrated a
relationship between inherited human ABO and Rhesus blood groups and risk of
various malignancies. However, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory.
The objective was to perform analysis of ABO and Rhesus blood antigens distribution
among patients with various cancers including breast, hepatocellular, pancreatic,
gastric, skin, lung cancers, leukemia and lymphoma in Dakahlia, Egypt and to
assess their potential role in carcinogenesis. A total of 1131 cancer patients
(age 63.8±9.3, female/male, 215/916) and another 1200 healthy controls
(age 48.9±11.3, female/male, 348/852) were enrolled in this study. ABO
blood groups were determined using Tube method and Gel method. The anti-TF IgG
level and Von Willebrand factor were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay. The distribution of blood type A was significantly higher among cancer
patients than among healthy controls (39.35 vs. 33.75%, p = 0.014), whereas,
the distributions of other blood types were similar between cases and controls
(p>0.05). Most cancers, especially gastrointestinal tumors were dominated
by male gender independent of age. Blood group A was associated with significantly
higher risk for malignancy including hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic and
breast cancers while biliary and esophageal cancer risk was significantly associated
with blood type B. We suggest that blood group A may elevate risk of cancer
and may play a role in its development. 2014/07/11 - 23:48

Angiogenesis is essential for lymphoma growth, progression and metastasis which
is stimulated by many pro-angiogenic factors as basic Fibroblast Growth Factor
(FGF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Platelet Derived Growth
Factor (PDGF). This study aimed to delineate the role of angiogenic growth factors,
basic FGF, VEGF and PDGF-bb in the patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
and Hodgkin Disease (HD) compared to healthy donors. The study included 94 patients,
54 of them diagnosed as NHL and 40 patients diagnosed as HD. The levels of basic
FGF, VEGF and PDGF-bb in pre-treatment patients and in patients under chemo-radiotherapy
(<8 cycles) were measured by Bio-Plex Pro assays. Twenty healthy donors were
enrolled as controls. Our data show a significant increase in the levels of
studied 3 factors in NHL pre-treatment patients compared to controls (p = 0.025,
<0.001 and 0.02, respectively). These factors decreased significantly in
whole patients under-treatment than pretreated ones (p<0.001 each). In HD,
there was a significant increase of these factors in pretreated patients than
controls (p<0.001 each). These factors significantly decreased in under-treatment
patients than pretreatment (p≤0.001 each). VEGF was still significantly higher
in under-treatment patients than controls (p<0.001) in NHL and HD. These
factors were higher in patients with progressive course of lymphoma than those
with complete or partial remission. FGF, VEGF and PDGF in lymphoma patients
decreased significantly after chemo-radiotherapy but VEGF is still higher than
controls. New anti-angiogenic strategies should be added to commonly used chemotherapy
regimen in lymphoma. 2014/07/11 - 23:48

Research has reported that caring for patients with advanced cancer is highly rewarding in the midst of the challenges. The aims of the research were to explore the informal caregivers’ perceptions and determinants of benefits from caregiving to a relative with advanced cancer attending the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. The research employed a cross-sectional descriptive design. Two hundred and ten (210) eligible caregivers providing care to advanced cancer patients were purposively selected. Data were collected using 17 item Benefit Finding Scale (BFS) and were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of SPSS 18.0 and PAS 19.0 software. Caregivers reported substantial benefits from caregiving (M (SD) ranged from 2.93 (1.03) becoming more focused on priorities in the deeper sense of life to 3.60 (0.73) appreciation of life and support from other people on a 1-4 Likert Scale). Caregiver’s age, education, religion, marital status and relationship with patients significantly influenced on the level of perceived benefit from caregiving (p≤0.05). There was a statistical (p≤0.01) significant relationship between perceived benefits and the desire to continue caregiving. The results suggest that subsequent research should cover caregivers need for interventions to develop problem-focused coping skills and ability to continue with caregiving role. 2014/04/22 - 15:51

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the major form of primary liver cancer and
the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed
at an advanced stage, resulting in rather poor survival rates. CD133, a trans-membrane
glycoprotein, is an important cell surface marker for both stem cells and Cancer
Stem Cells (CSCs) in various tissues including the liver. CD133 has been used
as the Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) marker in HCC. Further identification and
characterization of CSCs or TICs in HCC are necessary to better understand hepatic
carcinogenesis. So, the objective of this study was to estimate the level of
the specific markers as CD133 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)
in HCC. Fifty peripheral blood samples were collected from HCC patients. The
CD133 protein expression was analyzed by flow cytometry and TGF-β levels
were assayed by ELISA. This study revealed a higher expression of CD133+cells
in all HCC patients. The expression of CD133+cells was positively correlated
with clinical, pathological and laboratory parameters. A mild to moderate positive
correlation was found with tumor size, male gender, pathological grade, Hepatitis
C virus and Alpha-fetoprotein and showed a strong positive correlation between
age, TGF-β, Lymph node metastasis, portal vein tumor thrombosis and CD133+cells
in peripheral blood. CD133+cells might represent true CSCs in HCC which could
allow a better understanding of HCC initiation and progression, as well as possibly
bear great therapeutic implications. Moreover, the multifunctional cytokine
TGF-β plays a crucial role in the regulation of CD133 expression in HCC. 2014/04/22 - 15:51

In this study, eighty percent methanol and chloroform extracts of leaves and stems of Solanum nigrum were screened for in vitro anticancer activity using PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines and Hela cervical cancer cells and cytotoxicity assays were performed using MTT assay and 3T3 NIH mouse embryo fibroblast cell line and CC-1, a rat Wistar hepatocyte cell line. All extracts in concentration 100 μg mL-1 showed anticancer activity in PC-3 and Hela and the highest percentage of growth inhibition obtained from stems methanol extracts on Hela 91.11% followed by leaves and stems methanol extracts (74.28 and 80.49, respectively) on PC-3. For cytotoxicity the result obtained indicate that all extracts had non-toxic effect on CC-I and 3T3 cell lines with IC50> 100 μg mL-1, except the leaves methanol extract showed the highest percentage of growth inhibition in 3T3 85.63 with IC50 17.37 μg mL-1. The results obtained indicate that Solanum nigrum leaves and stems methanol extracts have anticancer activity on prostate cancer, cervical cancer and have non-toxic effect on 3T3 and CC-1. This result supports the traditional use of Solanum nigrum for the treatment of cancer in different regions of the Sudan. 2014/04/22 - 15:51

Animals fed Catha edulis leaves develop an acute hepatitis and long-term
feeding is associated with chronic active hepatitis and fibrotic liver disease.
Repeated episodes of subclinical hepatitis with evolution to chronic liver disease
has also been observed in patients chewing Catha edulis leaves. The aim
of this study was to examine the effect of 10% Catha edulis on enzyme
markers of carcinogenicity in relation to chemically-induced hepatocellular
carcinoma in rabbits. Forty healthy male white New Zealand rabbits were allocated
to one of five groups (eight rabbits per group). Two control groups fed on control
diet with or without sodium nitrite+diethylamine, two treatment groups fed on
a diet containing 10% Catha edulis with or without sodium nitrite in
water and a fiveth group fed on diet containing tannin. Fasting blood samples
were collected at different time intervals (1, 8 and 20 weeks) and plasma was
assayed for γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, β-glucuronidase, LDH, AST and
ALT using enzymatic kits. 10% Catha edulis alone did not affect these
enzymes, however, animals maintained on 10% Catha edulis and sodium nitrite
(4000 ppm) (58.82 mM) significantly increased the activities of γ-glutamyl
transpeptidase, β-glucuronidase and LDH in a similar manner to those animals
exposed to both carcinogens (nitrosamine precursors and commercial tannin).
This raises the question of whether the Catha edulis hepatoxicity could
be attributed to possible formation of nitrosamines in vivo from the
secondary amines present in Catha edulis leaves; as well as highlighting
the significance of these enzyme markers in early detection of chemically-induced
HCC. 2014/03/01 - 18:41

Molecular mechanisms that regulate development of lung cancer are still unclear.
Several risk factors may predispose to lung cancer. Fascin and caveolin-1 are
important biomarkers involved in lung carcinogenesis. The aim of this study
was to explore the expression pattern of Fascin and Caveolin-1 proteins as potential
new diagnostic or predictive markers and its correlation with the clinical,
pathological and radiological findings. Seventy eight cases of lung cancer were
examined (49 males and 29 females). The patients' age ranged from 46 to 71 years.
All of them were subjected to clinical examination, sputum cytology and imaging
studies including plain chestxray and multidetector chest CT scans. Biopsy was
obtained from all patients via Bronchoscopy or CT guided. Histopathological
examination was done to assess tumor grading. Immunohistochemical evaluation
was done to evaluate expression of Fascin and caveolin-1. High expression rates
of fascin and aveolin-1 in lung cancer were 67.9 and 53.8%, respectively, which
were significantly lower in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas.
Both high fascin and caveolin-1 expression was significantly correlated with
tumor grade, stage and nodal metastasis. Both expression of fascin and caveolin-1
was significantly correlated (p<0.001). The present study suggested that
fascin and caveolin-1 may play some role in the progression of non-small cell
lung carcinoma. 2014/03/01 - 18:41

Peas (yellow and green) and lentils contain bioactive compounds with protective
properties. Sprouting of grains has shown to improve nutritional value due to
activation of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine anticarcinogenic
potential of sprouted and non-sprouted green-split and yellow peas and lentils
at 5 and 10% on Azoxymethane (AOM)-induced Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) in Fisher
344 male rats. Seventy-eight rats were randomly assigned to 13 groups: Control
(C) received AIN-93G diet; treatment diets included Lentils sprouted and non-sprouted
(LS, LNS), Green peas sprouted and non-sprouted (GS, GNS), Yellow peas sprouted
and non-sprouted (YS, YNS) at 5 and 10% levels in an AIN 93 based diet. At 7
and 8 week, rats received 2 subcutaneous injections of AOM at 16 mg kg-1
b.wt. Rats were euthanized at 17 week by CO2 Asphyxiation. Total
ACF ranged from 88 to 181.33 in rats fed C, LS and LNS, GS and GNS, YS and YNS.
ACF reductions (%) compared to C were 68.56; 63.25 and 51.46 in rats fed LS
at 10%, LNS at 10% and YNS at 10%, respectively. Glutathione content, Glutathione-S-transferase
and Catalase activities were significantly higher (p<0.05) in rats fed treatment
diets compared to C. Findings from this study indicate that sprouted and non
sprouted green split and yellow peas and lentils reduced AOM-induced aberrant
crypt foci in F344 male rats with the greatest reduction in rats fed Lentil
sprouted (10%). Selected legumes appear to have beneficial potential in reducing
colon cancer. 2014/03/01 - 18:41

Osteopontin (OPN) was shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various
inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Recently osteopontin has attracted attention
as a promising biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) particularly in patients
with low alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. However, the significance of OPN in the
early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV)
remains unclear and is therefore evaluated in this study. Serum AFP and OPN levels
were detected by ELISA in 29 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma HCC, in 29
patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and in 30 healthy subjects. The
diagnostic accuracy of each candidate marker was evaluated using Receiver-Operating
Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reporting the Area Under the Curve (AUC)
and its 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The mean serum OPN level in HCC patients
(67.8 ng mL-1) wasn’t significantly different from HCV patients (71.7
ng mL-1) while both were significantly higher than control group (11.6
ng mL-1) (p<0.001). When HCC patients were compared to HCV patients,
AUC for OPN and AFP were 0.46 and 0.68, respectively. Based on the ROC analysis,
there were no satisfactory cut-off values for OPN that would best distinguish
HCC from the non HCC patients. Osteoponti isn’t a useful diagnostic marker for
HCC. The current study recommended further search to find more specific biomarker
for diagnosing HCC patients with low AFP. 2014/03/01 - 18:41

Inhibitory potential of grape products on Azoxymethane (AOM) induced Aberrant
Crypt Foci (ACF) were investigated in Fisher 344 male rats. Bioactive components
present in the grapes have shown anticarcinogenic properties in in vitro
and epidemiological studies. Following an acclimatization period of one week,
24 male weanling rats were fed control and experimental diets consisted of either
grape Juice (50%) or Raisins (10%). All rats received 16 mg kg-1
b.wt. of AOM at 7 and 8 week of age. Rats were euthanized by CO2
at 17 week of age. Number of ACF was enumerated in colon and Glutathione S-transferase
(GST) activity was analyzed in liver of rats. No significant differences were
observed in the weight gain of rats among the groups. Highest (73%) reduction
in ACF was found in rats fed with Grape juice followed by rats fed with raisins
(66%). The total number of crypts were significantly lower in treatment group
rats (Juice-93.62±4.3; raisins-116.66±5.3) compared to the control
group (358±13.3). Glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity was increased
by 2-3 fold in the treatment groups. This study indicates that administering
grape juice at 50% and raisins at 10% in diet of rats significantly reduced
the ACF in Fisher 344 male rats and may offer protection against colon cancer
development. 2014/03/01 - 18:41

As part of the screening program for anticancer agents from natural sources,
the sesquiterpene lactone goyazensolide (GZL) was identified as a potent NF-κB
inhibitor. The hollow-fiber assay was used to evaluate the antitumor efficacy
of GZL in vivo. The mechanistic effects of GZL were evaluated in the
HT-29 colonic cell line to reveal the pathway through which GZL exerts its effects.
NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 were inhibited and the upstream mediator IκB
kinase (IKKβ) was downregulated in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was
mediated by caspase-3 and cell cycle arrest was detected in G1-phase.
Consequently, 96% of the cell population was in sub G1-phase after
treatment with GZL (10 μM). The antitumor effect of GZL was observed at
a dose of 12.5 mg kg-1. Cell adhesion was affected as a result of
NF-κB inhibition. GZL appears to selectively target the transcription factor
NF-κB. In summary, GZL sensitizes HT-29 colon cancer cells to apoptosis
and cell death in a dose-dependent manner both in vivo and in vitro,
through NF-κB inhibition (IC50 = 3.8 μM). Thus, it is a
new potent lead compound for further development into a new effective chemotherapeutic
agent. 2013/10/28 - 19:26

Cancer represents a major public health problem from all over the world and
the lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer death. In this sense, the
aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic effects of a novel Cucurbitacin
(Cuc1) isolated from Wilbrandia ebracteata on human non-small-cell lung
cancer (A549). In order to achieve this aim, the cell proliferation was measured
by MTT assay and actin cytoskeleton was stained by rhodamine-phalloidin, whereas,
the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction were quantified using flow
cytometry. The signal transduction profiling of Cuc1 treated cells, as well
as the levels of apoptotic proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Cuc1
significantly inhibited cell growth showing IC50 values of 13.5±1.8 and
3.8±0.4 μM for 48 and 72 h of treatment, respectively. Additionally,
Cuc1 arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase, disrupted the actin dynamics and induced
apoptosis since the amount of apoptotic cells increased from 5.18±0.585%
in the untreated cells to 73.82±0.545% in the treated cells. Detailed
analysis on the mechanism of action revealed that Cuc1 inhibited the phosphorylation
of Protein Kinase B (PKB/AKT) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription
(STAT3) signaling pathways, down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and consequently
inducing cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. These
results suggest that the Cuc1 could be a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapy
agent. 2013/10/28 - 19:26

The tumor suppressor gene TP53 rs1800371 polymorphism (g.11370 C>T,
c.139C>T, p.Pro47Ser) has been extensively investigated as a potential risk
factor for different types of cancers and many diseases, but the results have
been inconclusive. After searching multiple electronic databases to investigate
the association between the p.Pro47Ser polymorphism and disease susceptibility,
the present study has identified eleven eligible case-control studies, after
investigating 2,502 cases and 3,740 controls. Also, four case-studies were included,
investigating 225 cases. The genotypic frequency of Pro/Pro genotype in all
the case-control studies was 100% (approximately). That led to conclude that
there is no association between TP53 rs1800371 polymorphism and disease
susceptibility. Published results seem to be driven by technical artifacts rather
than justified biological effects. In order to determine the potential clinical
implications of this polymorphism, future genetic association studies should
use more rigorous genotyping methods and avoid the use of tumor tissue as a
source of DNA to prevent genotype misclassification due to loss of heterozygosity. 2013/03/01 - 07:17

Cisplatin (CDDP) is a potent anticancer agent associated with a variety of toxicities. The present study was carried out to investigate the cytoprotective and antioxidant activities of silymarin (SIL) on CDDP induced toxicity. Hepatotoxicity was manifested biochemically from increased activities of Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), glucose concentration in serum, a markedly increased level of liver lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) associated with significantly reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in CDDP group. CDDP induced histochemical alterations including: a significant depletion in glycogen stores, total protein and DNA contents in liver cells. On the other hand, post-treatment with SIL significantly decreased serum liver markers, MDA levels and increased SOD and GPx activities and mild histochemical damage than those receiving CDDP. Results suggest that pretreatment with SIL could protect liver tissues fully against CDDP toxicity, since liver markers, MDA levels; activities of antioxidant enzymes and glycogen, protein and DNA contents in liver cells were restored to normal levels. In conclusion, the cytoprotective potential of SIL in CDDP toxicity might be due to its antioxidant, metal chelating property and free radical scavenging properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in CDDP induced hepatotoxicity. 2013/03/01 - 07:17

Cortactin is an important prognostic biomarker in several malignancies but
its role in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) is still poorly defined. Cortactin
and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR) are involved in tumor cell motility, invasion
and metastasis. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation
between cortactin and EGFR expression and their relationship to clinicopathological
parameters in surgically resected (stage I-III) NSCLC. Tumor tissue sections
from 55 surgically resected NSCLC were evaluated for cortactin and EGFR proteins
expression by immunohistochemistry. Cortactin protein expression was detected
in 52.7% of NSCLC patients and was significantly associated with the degree
of differentiation (p = 0.023), pathological lymph node metastasis (p = 0.005)
and pathological tumor stage (p = 0.016). EGFR protein expression was observed
in 58.2% of NSCLC, more frequently in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) than non-SCC
(78.3% versus 43.7%, p = 0.042). A significantly positive relationship was detected
between cortactin and EGFR proteins expression in NSCLC under investigation
(p = 0.004). A statistically significant association was observed between cortactin
and EGFR expression in NSCLC patients. Cortactin expression is significantly
associated with clinicopathological parameters of more advanced disease and
could serve as a prognostic biomarker in NSCLC. 2013/03/01 - 07:17

Beets (Beta vulgaris) have been reported to be a very nutritious vegetable which may provide health benefits against chronic diseases such as colon cancer due to phytochemicals present. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding Freeze Dried (FD), Cabinet Dried (CD) and pasteurized juice at 2 and 4% levels on Azoxymethane (AOM) induced Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) in Fisher 344 male rats and to determine the total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidants activity measured using FRAP and DPPH in steam blanched (SB), frozen, “individually quick frozen” (IQF), freeze dried and cabinet dried compared to fresh beets. Twenty eight rats were divided into 7 groups at 4 rats per group. The groups were fed control (C) diet (AIN-93G), C+2 and 4% FD, CD and beet juice. All rats received s/c injections of AOM in saline at 16 mg kg-1 b.wt. at 7 and 8 weeks. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation at the 17 week of age. Number of ACF, crypts/foci and total crypts were enumerated in the colon. Total phenolics, flavonoids and monomeric anthocyanin content as well antioxidant activity (using DPPH and FRAP) of beets (freeze dried, cabinet dried, “individually quick frozen”, conventionally frozen steam blanched and fresh) were also determined. The total ACF incidence was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the control compared to beet fed groups. ACF reductions ranged from a low of 63% in rat fed 2% freeze dried beets to a high of 80% in rats fed 4% freeze dried beets. Total phenolics and flavonoids were significantly (p<0.05) higher in cabinet dried and freeze dried beets and higher antioxidant activity compared to the others (fresh, steam blanched, IQF and frozen). The results from the experiment indicates that feeding beets(cabinet dried, freeze dried or juice) reduced the incidence of AOM-induced ACF and therefore may be explored for its chemopreventive potential and other health benefits by the food industry. 2012/06/22 - 08:46

Zerumbone (ZER) is a natural compound isolated from Zingiber zerumbet smith, family Zingiberaceae. It has been demonstrated to have an in vitro antiproliferative effects against various human tumour cells as well as in vivo against a number of induced malignancies in mice. The aim of our study was to assess the genotoxicity of ZER in CHO cells and using the bacterial mutagenicity ‘Ames assay’. The Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) screening assay was carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50) of ZER. The average IC50 value was 20.8 (±5.1) μM. Two cytogenetic end points were used to investigate the clastogenic effects of ZER, namely Chromosomal Aberrations (CA) assay and Micronucleus (MN) test. The micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations induction assay were performed without any metabolic activation. In the bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay (Ames test), there was no mutational change observed in Salmonella Typhimurium strain TA100 in the presence or absence of S-9 liver metabolic activation system. In contrast, MN induction and the frequency of chromosome aberrations in cultures treated with ZER increased significantly and dose-dependently. Chromatid and whole chromosome breaks/gaps, as well as dicentrics, interchanges, endoreduplications and ring chromosomes were the main types of aberrations induced by ZER. However, higher concentration was found to be toxic. 2012/06/22 - 08:46

In the present study, the bee honey was used as pharmaceutical agent on the carcinogenesis induced by Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in liver of Sprague Dawley rats. Four groups of animals were used and fed ad libitum. The first group was a control; the honey group was fed ad libitum and given orally 2 g honey/rat/day. The 3rd group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of DEN 150 mg k-1 b.wt. 4th group was intraperitoneally injected with DEN and after one week, the each rat was given 2 g honey until experiment termination. After six months all animals in different groups were sacrificed. The results of the present study observed that Honey treated rats showed normal liver histology, immunohistochemistry as seen in normal liver of control rats but DEN injected group produced a variety of lesions ranging from severe inflammatory reaction to liver carcinogenesis compared to the control groups. PCNA and P53 expression were significant nuclear positive staining in DEN group (p<0.05). These results showed that supplementation of diet with honey has a protective effect against DEN-induced, inflammatory response and carcinogenesis in rat liver. So, the present study suggested that using honey is the useful therapeutic agents in hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. 2012/06/22 - 08:46

Polymorphism of rennin angiotensin system has been proved to be implicated in the pathogenesis of several multigenetic diseases including hypertension. To investigate the linkage of insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Met to Thr variant at position 235 of Angiotensinogen (AGT) to the incidence of essential hypertension in a population sample from Egypt. Samples of blood were collected from 203 subjects with matched age and sex (110 hypertensive and 93 normal controls). The polymorphisms of ACE and AGT were investigated by polymerase chain reaction techniques. AGT polymorphism showed significantly increased incidence of hypertension in TT genotype as compared to (MT and MM) genotypes (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.0-5.1, p<0.05). Similarly the study of ACE polymorphism declared a minor risk for hypertension in DD compared to (ID and II) genotypes (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.2). No significant association was found between ACE and AGT polymorphism and traditional metabolic risk factors of hypertension and no synergism was found between ACE and AGT genes to be involved in development of hypertension. TT genotype of angiotensinogen polymorphism is a potential risk factor for hypertension in Egyptian subjects. 2012/05/27 - 17:24

Follicular lymphoma is a common B cell-derived malignancy that often follows a prolonged indolent phase followed by a terminal aggressive phase. The growth requirements for follicular lymphomas are poorly understood. B cells from patients with follicular lymphoma die rapidly when grown in culture. We have been able to keep B cells from patients with follicular lymphomas alive in vitro for 20 days using native Interleukin 14 (IL-14) which was originally identified as a B cell growth factor. Native IL-14 contains two molecules produced from the IL14 gene, IL-14α and IL-14β. Interleukin 14α utilizes exons 3-10 while IL-14β is produced from the opposite strand of the IL14 gene to IL-14α and utilizes only exon 10. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing IL-14α develop autoimmunity and large B cell lymphomas. In this manuscript we demonstrate that IL-14β transgenic mice develop lymphomas that closely resemble follicular lymphoma. When IL-14β Tg mice are crossed with c-Myc transgenic mice, the Double Transgenic mice (DTgβ) are born with lymphomas resembling the aggressive phase of follicular lymphoma. We also demonstrate that the mRNA for IL-14β is expressed constitutively in normal B cells, T cells and follicular dendritic cells as well as in the Burkitt lymphoma line Namalva. The expression of IL-14β mRNA is decreased with cell activation and in the spleen cells of autoimmune (NZBxNZW) F1 mice. Thus, IL-14β is a distinct protein with differential regulation and physiological effects from IL-14α. IL-14β Tg mice and DTgβ mice are new animal models to study the dormant and aggressive phases of follicular lymphoma. 2012/05/27 - 17:24

Cruciferous vegetables contain naturally occurring substances that are beneficial to health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of selected cruciferous vegetables (Collard Green (CG), cabbage (CB), turnip green (TG) and canola green (CN) on Azoxymethane (AOM)-induced Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) on Fisher 344 male rats. Thirty-six rats were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 4). The control group was fed AIN-93G diet and the other eight groups were fed AIN-93G along with the selected vegetables at 5 and 10%. The rats were administered subcutaneous injections of AOM at 7 and 8 weeks of age at 16 mg kg-1 body weight. At 17 weeks of age, rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation. Total ACF numbers in rats fed CB, TG, CG and CN at 5% were 55, 41, 47 and 59, while at the 10% level, ACF numbers were 54, 63, 54 and 46, respectively. Total ACF in rats fed 5 and 10% cruciferous vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) lower (41-63) than rats fed the control diet (151). Findings indicate that cruciferous vegetables, including canola reduced the incidence of ACF and could potentially be used as a dietary chemopreventive agent against colon cancer. 2012/05/27 - 17:24

Behind the alluring fame of established drugs in a magical cure of some types of cancers are myriad toxicities. Hence, it became imperative to search alternative approaches of treatment. Although a large number of papers are published to show that herbs, plant products and their constituents are capable to inhibit the growth of a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines, there is a gross neglect on an impact of in vivo outcome which show overall effects. The present study on an experimental approach to treatment of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) by herbs, plant products and their constituents was undertaken to review the (1) adverse effects of established drugs used against CRC, (2) herbs, plant products and their constituents as alternatives to established drugs, (3) in vivo studies on herbs, plant products and their ingredients, (4) in vitro studies on herbs, plant products and their ingredients, (5) pros and cons of in vivo and in vitro studies, (6) molecular targets and (7) conclusion. The articles included were peer reviewed English language articles published up to November 2011. These were selected from Pub Med, Pub Med Central, Science Direct, Up-to-date, Med Line, Comprehensive databases, Cochrane library and the internet (Google, Yahoo). The search strategy corresponded with points, 1-6 above. The literature obtained is reviewed. It is suggested that the laboratories working on CRC with in vitro protocol may also undertake confirmatory in vivo experimentation with an application of gene expression profiling using microarray technologies. 2012/03/21 - 12:34

Colorectal cancer is sensitive to dietary intervention. Epidemiological data
suggest that high intake of fruits and vegetables may decrease colorectal cancer
risk. This experiment was designed to study the preventive effect of green tea
catechins and phytic acid in cell culture against the colon tumors. Selected
concentrations (0.25 to 25 mM) of green tea catechins and phytic acid were used
to treat Caco-2 and HT29 cells maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagles
Medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum. For assay 5x105 cells/well/100
μL were seeded to a 24 well culture plate and incubated at 37°C and
7% CO2 until monolayer was developed, then 400 μL of fresh serum-free
DMEM was added to the 24 wells. At the same time selected concentrations (0.25-25
mM) of green tea catechins and phytic acid made up to 100 μL with saline
was added and incubated for 24 and 48 h to determine the cytotoxic effect in
term of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and apoptosis
assay. The results of this experiment showed that, when Caco-2 and HT29 cells
were treated with various concentrations (0.25-25 mM) of green tea catechins
and phytic acid for 24 and 48 h, the LDH and AP release was dose and time dependent.
When HT29 cells treated with 25 mM concentration of green tea catechins for
24 h and combination of green tea catechins and phytic acid at 5 mM concentration
for 12 h showed signs of membrane blebbing which indicates that singly and/or
in combination of green tea catechins and phytic acid showed the anti-tumorigenesis
activity. Thus, green tea catechins and phytic acid makes it promising chemo-preventive
agents of colon cancer. 2012/03/21 - 12:34

A total of 3747 cases were assessed to understand the prostrate cancer profile in the population of West Bengal from 2003-2010. Present investigation revealed that prostate cancer rate was climbing with 5.71% incidence and the ignorance is partially responsible for that alarmingly high incidence in elder males particularly from 51-70 years age group. The level of PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) in the blood was high (<4 ng mL-1) in men having prostate cancer. The cancer frequency was moderate during 2003 to 2006, but it rises drastically from 2007 (17.76%) and reached maximum peak (28.97%) in 2010. Prostate cancer was most prevalent in group A, followed by group B and group O. The absolute number of new cancer cases was increasing rapidly, due to growth in size of the population and increase in the proportion of elderly persons as a result of improved life expectancy. The risk of developing prostate cancer was related to age, genetics, race, diet, lifestyle, medications and other factors. This peak cancer scenario can be altered in a positive direction by regular screening and by training the prevention measures of life style modification in a wide scale through proper way. 2012/03/21 - 12:34

Peach is an important fruit consumed worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of processed peaches (dried, frozen and juice) on Azoxymethane-induced (AOM) Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) in Fisher 344 male rats, their effect on selected hepatic enzyme activities and to determine the effect of processing (Blanching+Freezing, Blanching+Freeze drying) on total phenolic content and antioxidant potential (DPPH and FRAP). Rats were fed AIN93G as control (CON), treatment diets containing 2 and 4% peaches, and pasteurized juice (PJ) (2 and 4%). Rats received AOM injections s/c at 16 mg kg-1 b wt. during the 7th and 8th wk of age and killed by CO2 asphyxiation at 17 weeks of age. ACF incidence was higher in rats fed CON compared to treatment diets. Rats fed PJ had the lowest ACF (100 and 59 for 2 and 4%) compared to the treatment groups. Blanching (STB+BWB) influenced the incidence of ACF with STB having lower ACF numbers compared to BWB. GST, SOD and CAT (mmol/mg) activities, (9.56-1.43, 1.98-0.49 and 0.53-0.33), respectively were higher in rats fed treatment diets, compared to CON. Total phenolics, ranged from 98.09-120.38, 111.05-120.19, 104.76-122.09 (mg/GAE/g fwb) in FU, FRB and FDB peaches, respectively. FRAP (μg g-1) in FU, FRB and FDB peaches ranged from 0.028-0.042 while (%) DPPH (T30) ranged from 21.588-73.449. Results indicate processing of fruits may impact its role in chemoprevention, total phenolics and antioxidant activity, since fruits are highly perishable; optimum technique is required to minimize losses during and after processing. 2012/02/13 - 10:01

Two species of marine algae, Gracilaria edulis and Enteromorpha lingulata, from Chennai coast were evaluated for their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Both algae were extracted with three solvents: methanol (M), chloroform (C) and ethyl acetate (E). The M, C, E extracts were investigated for 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, Beta-carotene Bleaching (BCB), total reducing (TRA) and Growth Inhibitory (GI) activities and Total Phenolic Content (TPC). Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used for qualitatively compare DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Except for BCB, E. lingulata extracts showed comparable (TRA) or higher (DPPH radical-scavenging) antioxidant activity, TPC and GI in HCT15 cells than the extracts of G. edulis. E and C extracts of E. lingulata showed greater antioxidant and GI activities in HCT15 cell (no GI in A549) than M extract. Although M extract of G. edulis showed slightly greater DPPH radical-scavenging activity than C and E extracts, M showed lower TRA, TPC, BCB and GI in HCT15 cells than E and C extracts. None of the extracts showed GI in A549 cells but the GI trend in HCT15 cells mirrored the one seen for all extracts of both algae for TPC (E>C>M; E. lingulata>G. edulis). Except for the E extract of G. edulis which showed slight pro-oxidant activity in the BCB assay, its C and M extracts showed greater BCB inhibition than all the E. lingulata extracts. For all extracts of both algae, DPPH radical-scavenging activity in TLC was associated with the more polar compounds in the extracts. 2012/02/13 - 10:01

Cancer is multipathological disease that is being considered immortal in today’s global medicine world. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop and evaluate polyherbal formulation for its anticancer activity. Four polyherbal formulations namely SJT ONC (1-4) were prepared by mixing of different proportion of extracts of stem bark of Tecomella undulata, Bauhinia variegata, Oroxylum indicum and leaves of Indigofera tinctoria. All the four formulations were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on cell lines of human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Amongst all four polyherbal formulations, SJT ONC-1 (1000 μg mL-1) showed significant cytotoxicity (p<0.001) on the Caco-2 (63.82%) and MCF-7 (74.18%) cell lines as compared to control. Further, SJT ONC-1 was evaluated for its apoptotic activity using cell death detection ELISA PLUS assay and it showed significant increase (p<0.01) in DNA fragmentation of Caco-2 (14.83 fold) and MCF-7 (3.22 fold) compared to control group. Moreover the antitumor activity of SJT ONC-1 (300 mg kg-1, p.o.) was evaluated against Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mammary tumors in rats fed with high fat diet. The result suggested the ST ONC-1 significantly decrease the tumor volume and the effect was comparable to the standard drug 5-fluro uracil. Thus, the SJT ONC-1 could render prospective candidate for the therapy of cancer. 2012/02/13 - 10:01

The practice of traditional medicines in treatment of cancer is based on the knowledge and use of plant based medicine since ancient time. The study of folk medicinal practices revealed the use of Tragia involucrata (Euphorbiaceae) along with other medicinal plants to treat certain tumours in some parts of Kerala, India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor potential of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts (HE and EAE) and to asses the antioxidant activity of EAE of T. involucrata. The mice were injected with 106 Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells subcutaneously and the extracts were administered intra-peritoneal (i.p.). In vitro antioxidant property of EAE was tested by 2, 2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzo-thiozoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. In vivo antioxidant potential of EAE was determined by nitric-oxide by Griess-reagent method, total antioxidant in serum by phosphomolybdenum method and super oxide dismutase by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) method. Administration of the extracts to mice challenged with EAC showed significant antitumour activity. The observed antitumor activity of the extracts was dose dependant. There was a significant increase in the percentage life span (ILS %) in extract treated mice. HE was not toxic to mice even at the dose of 2000 mg kg-1 body weight. EAE was toxic to animals when the dosage was increased beyond 150 mg kg-1 . EAE was showing even a significant in vitro as well as in vivo antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant activity was showing the reciprocal dose response. From the results it may be concluded that the plant posses antitumor activity as claimed in traditional practices. 2011/10/27 - 09:08

Recently, identifying new chemo-preventive agents to replace the current chemotherapies consider one of the most important approaches which could be crucial for cancer treatment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of some newly synthesized heterocyclic 1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1,2,4-triazine derivatives. Different groups of mice were inoculated with Ehrlichs Ascites Carcinoma cells (EAC) intra-peritoneal (i.p.) (2x106 cells mouse-1). After one day of inculcation, mice were treated either with cisplatin (reference drug) or with twenty five different new derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles or 1,2,4-triazines. The anti-tumor activity of these derivatives against EAC-bearing mice were monitored through the changes in the total body weight, total ascetic volume, the number of live and dead tumor cells, median survival time (MST) and some biochemical parameters. The results showed that only five compounds of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles significantly inhibited the tumor progression after 14 days of the treatment. Interestingly, two of these compounds increased the life span of the tumored mice by 34 and 40% when compared with the untreated group. In contrast, all 1,2,4-triazine derivatives didn’t show any potential anti-tumor activity against EAC-model. In conclusion, screening of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives showed a potential activity against EAC while, 1,2,4-triazine derivatives didn’t show any marked anti-tumor activity. 2011/10/27 - 09:08

Dietary fiber had been previously associated with breast cancer risk but some controversies remain on the role of insoluble fiber type. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a fiber rich food in an experimental model of mammary carcinogenesis. Animals from study groups received a fiber rich food and were compared with two control groups receiving standard food, two groups received the administration of a common carcinogen and histopathological and blood analysis were conducted. Only four tumors were found on group receiving fiber and the carcinogen against the thirty three tumors found on group receiving only the carcinogen and standard food. Additionally, blood cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly lower in this group (p<0.05). Glycaemia was also lower but without significance. The experimental results had shown a possible protective effect of fiber on mammary carcinomas possible due to carcinogen binding, weight-gain prevention and insulin sensitivity. Further studies should address the effect of the several fiber types on mammary carcinogenesis process. 2011/10/27 - 09:08

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Anti-cancerous activity is the effects of natural, synthetic or biological chemical agents to reverse, suppress or prevent carcinogenic progression. Several synthetic agents are used to cure the disease but they have their toxicity and hence the research is going on to investigate the plant derived chemotherapeutic agents. An attempt has been made to review important medicinal plants used for the treatment and prevention of neoplasm from Uttarakhand. This article considered 24 plants from the state having anti-cancerous property. These plants contain several anti-cancerous bioactives such as saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins and alkaloids etc. This study also incorporates the ethno-botany and biological activities of these important plants. 2011/08/13 - 13:48

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti neoplastic activities of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (OS) leaves. Antioxidant potential of the OS extract was evaluated in vitro by DPPH (1, 1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and NO (Nitric Oxide) scavenging assay and reducing power assay method. OS extract showed prominent scavenging activity in all the methods with IC50 value of 16.39±0.31 and 16.20±0.33 μg mL-1 for DPPH and NO assay method, respectively. In reducing power assay, OS extract also showed significant (p<0.001) activity. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity were also determined. The anti neoplastic effect of the leaves of OS against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) in mice at the doses of 50 mg kg-1 body weight intraperitoneally. Significant (p<0.001) increases of survival times 33±1.81 days for crude extract of the (50 mg kg-1) treated tumor bearing mice were confirmed with respect to the control group (20±0.12 days). Hematological studies reveal that the Heamoglobin (Hb) content was decreased in EAC treated mice whereas restoration to near normal levels was observed in extract treated animals. There was a significant (p<0.001) decrease in RBC count and increase in WBC counts in extract/fraction treated animals when compared to EAC treated animals. From the result it was showed that the extract has significant antioxidant as well as anti neoplastic activity. 2011/08/13 - 13:48

Infections with mucosal High-Risk (HR) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with a subset of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of Upper Aerodigestive Tract (UAT). However, the prevalence of HR HPV-positive UAT cancers appears to vary in different geographical areas. To evaluate the role of HR HPV infection in Colombian population, we have characterized the prevalence of HPV16 infection and viral transcriptional activity in UAT cancers from 72 Colombian patients including tongue (n = 22), palate (n = 2) and gum (n = 2); larynx (n = 40) and esophagus (n = 6). HPV16 presence was determined by different molecular assays that allowed the evaluation of HPV16 DNA positivity, E6^E7 expression as well as the physical status of the viral genome i.e., integrated versus episomal. HPV16 DNA was detected in 35 and 30.8% of laryngeal and oral cavity cancers, respectively. In contrast, none of the esophageal cancers analyzed were HPV16-positive. Forty one percent of the UAT cancers HPV16 positives harboured the integrated form of HPV16 genome while 18.1% of the cases appeared to have both episomal and integrated viral DNA forms. E6 and E7 expression was detected in 41% of the UAT cancers independently of the HPV16 status. HPV16 DNA integration and E6 and E7 expression did not show any correlation with gender, age and type of cancer. These data provides evidence for the involvement of HPV16 in development of UAT cancers in the Colombian population. 2011/08/13 - 13:48

Among three epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation is a distinct and crucial mechanism to regulate a variety of genes in tissue specific manner in pathophysiology of cancer. Methylation status of four selected genes which include tumor suppressor genes like p53 and FHIT as well as oncogenes, Aurora-A and IGF2 was assessed to find the association with esophageal cancer by performing methylation specific restriction assay in both blood and tissue of patients who had undergone diagnostic endoscopy and results were correlated with the exogenous factors like tobacco, alcohol, hot beverages and diet. Individuals with all four types of exposure were found in a higher percentage in the cancer group when compared to normals and esophagitis, however, those exposed to tobacco and alcohol were significantly more in cancer (p<0.05). The methylation status of p53, FHIT and IGF2 did not show difference between cancer and normal samples whereas Aurora (p = 0.0002). But methylation was increased in p53, FHIT and Aurora-A gene and decreased in IGF2 in cancer tissue if the individuals were exposed to tobacco and alcohol. MDR analysis indicated that the four genes evaluated were acting independently whereas there was a stronger interaction between non vegetarian diet and hot beverages as well as tobacco and alcohol for the development of esophageal cancer. In conclusion it can be stated that exogenous factors affect the methylation status of genes in tissues which may act as an early step in esophageal carcinogenesis. 2011/08/13 - 13:48

Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many of the cucurbitaceae plants possess antitumor activity. On the basis of traditional use, the present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley [Cucurbitaceae] aerial parts (MELS) on Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. After inoculation of EAC cells into mice, treatment with MELS (200 and 400 mg kg-1) and standard drug, 5-Fluorouracil (20 mg kg-1) were continued for 9 days. Evaluation of the effect of drug response was made by the study of tumor growth response including increase in life span, study of hematological parameters, biochemical estimations and antioxidant assay of liver tissue. Experimental results revealed that L. siceraria possesses significant anticancer activity which may be due to its cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. Further research is ongoing to find out the bioactive principle(s) of MELS for its anticancer activity. 2011/08/13 - 13:48

The research study was conducted to determine the antitumor effect of the flower of Alangium salvifolium (crude extract and diethylether fractions) against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) in mice at the doses of 10 mg kg-1 body weight intraperitoneally. Extract/fractions was administered for nine consecutive days. Twenty-four hours of last dose and 18 h of fasting, the mice were sacrificed and antitumor effect was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight and hematological parameters of EAC bearing host. Significant (p<0.001) increases of survival times 30±0.96 and 25±0.40 days for crude extract and diethylether fraction of the A. salvifolium (10 mg kg-1) treated tumor bearing mice, respectively were confirmed with respect to the control group (20±0.13 days). The extract/fraction also decreased the body weight of the EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological studies reveal that the heamoglobin (Hb) content was decreased in EAC treated mice whereas restoration to near normal levels was observed in extract treated animals. There was a significant (p<0.001) decrease in RBC count and increase in WBC counts in extract/fraction treated animals when compared to EAC treated animals. From the result it was showed that the extract has significant anticancer activity and that is comparable to that of Bleomycin. 2011/08/13 - 13:48

The role of fragile histidine triad (fhit) gene in the etiology of cancer is a relatively recent area of research. The fhit gene has been investigated in most cancers; however, literature is not conclusive regarding its role in the pathophysiology of cancer. Many studies are now focusing on this gene and its potential relationship with cancers. Although, studies have shown an association between infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia, evidence also suggests that this infection alone is not sufficient for development of cervical cancer. Other genetic factors like altered tumor suppressor gene activities are also thought to contribute to the carcinogenic process in cervical carcinomas. In this short review, we present the function, the potential role of fhit gene and its protein, influence of fhit gene in various cancers with specific emphasis on cervical cancer has been discussed. In addition, the present article also focuses on the biochemical and molecular nature of FHIT protein. 2011/04/22 - 10:25