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International Journal of Botany

To assess the distribution and transport media of palynomorphs
in the shallow offshore eastern Niger/Cross River Delta, recent bottom sediments
from three locations (distal ABC, middle DEF and proximal GH) in the area were
palynologically investigated. Records of highest abundance and diversity values
of palynomorphs in middle location DEF indicate that the Cross River brings
about seventy percent of the palynomorphs into the eastern Niger Delta. Wind
only brings Charred Poaceae cuticles and Podocarpus milanjianus as well
as aiding Poaceae for their higher records in distal ABC than others. The most
abundant plants represented in the sediment source areas of the sites today
as revealed by the palynomorphs recovered are Poaceae, Elaeis guineensis,
Acrostichum aureum, Pteris spp., Nephrolepis undulata,
Cyclosorus afar and Stenochleana palustris (Verrucatosporites
spp.). Pollen of Rhizophora spp. and fresh water forest trees that
are abundant in subsurface sediments have been reduced greatly and replaced
by Poaceae and Elaeis guineensis pollen due to anthropogenic activities.
Proximity to shore and shallow depth determine the abundance of pollen and spores,
fungal elements and to an extent Concentricytes. Protoperidinium
spp. and other dinoflagellates prefer the deeper ABC location with lowest temperature
and high salinity. Microforaminiferal wall linings were however recovered mostly
in the shallowest proximal site. Recovered diatoms show useful ecological trends.
These results further confirm the usefulness of these palynomorphs and diatoms
for paleoenvironmental and paleovegetational reconstruction. The degradation
the Nigerian coastal ecosystems had undergone as well as presently undergoing
due to anthropological activities is also revealed. 2014/03/18 - 13:26

Date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylfera L.) cv. Barhi
and Medjool were harvested at the khalal stage at three different harvesting
dates. Fruits were treated or not with 100% CO2 in 20 L air tight
glass jars for one or two days. Results for gene expression involved in PAs
biosynthesis (PAL, CHI and C4H) indicate that tannins synthesis is reduced in
late stage of fruit development and at harvest. However, different CO2
durations treatments had significantly different effects on Barhe and Medjool
fruits for final color index, firmness, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Whereas, Internal
Ethylene Content (IEC) and total soluble solids were not significantly affected.
In contrast, tannin content in date fruit decreased significantly under CO2
duration compared to the control which was pronounced on enhancement of Barhe
fruit edibility compared to Medjool fruit, especially at the 48 h CO2
duration. 2014/03/18 - 13:26

Ethnobotanical studies were conducted to collect information
about medicinal plants of Asclepiadaceae used in the treatments of various ailments
and to identify the knowledgeable traditional healers among different communities
in rural areas of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India. Information presented
in this document was gathered from different community people involving in the
traditional practices using standardized questionnaires. 25 informants including
both male and female with different age groups were interviewed on the medicinal
uses of local plants of Asclepiadaceae in this study area during October 2010-September
2011. A total of 27 plant species belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae have
been reported to be in use among the rural people of different community of
the study area. Among them Tylophora indica, Pergularia daemia,
Sarcostemma acidum, Gymnema sylvestre, Hemidesmus indicus,
Caralluma adscendens and Calotropis gigantia are leading species
frequently used for a variety of health problems. As reported by informants,
leaves are the most important part used for herbal preparations followed by
whole plant, root, stem, latex, tuber and seed. The study revealed that rural
people irrespective of community other than tribals do have a great faith in
the traditional healing system and they rely on medicinal plants for treatment
of various illnesses. Scientific investigation of many species of Asclepiadaceae
may lead to invention of novel bioactive compounds to use them efficiently in
phytotherapies. Moreover, standardized agro-techniques for pharmaceutically
valuable species of Asclepiadaceae are yet to be developed for sustainable utilization. 2014/03/18 - 13:26

This study describes the application of the EcoTILLING method,
using the denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC) system,
for the detection of a polymorphic region in the chloroplast gene ribulose
1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL) of Eryngium spp. Five
Eryngium L. species: E. maritimum, E. creticum, E.
glomeratum, E. campestre, E. billardieri and two ecotypes
of E. creticum were collected from several locations in Syria and used
in this study. Chromatographic data, confirmed by sequencing results, showed
the presence of two SNPs in E. glomeratum (C/T and A/G) and one SNP in
each of E. campestre, E. creticum eco. Slenfeh and E. creticum
eco. Dara'a (A/G). The detected polymorphic region was tested for a successful
separation of plant families and sub families. The procedure described in this
paper enables low cost, highly sensitive and high-throughput sample screening
which enables the assembly of information on candidate polymorphic regions in
genes of interest to phylogenetics. 2014/03/18 - 13:26

The various ethnobotanical uses of tree species growing on
the ATBU Yelwa Campus, Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria, was investigated with the
view of documenting the intrinsic values and therapeutic properties for various
ailments and other spiritual paraphernalia and subsequently inventorying all
the species present. Samples were collected randomly from each sampling plots
of equal sizes and the ethnobotanical information was obtained through the administration
of questionnaires to the indigenous people. A total of 2,467 woody species of
trees belonging to 47 species, 39 genera in 20 families were recorded with 70%
being native and 30% being exotic. The distribution pattern showed members of
Caesalpinoideae have highest density of occurrence with (526/21%) species, Mimosoideae
(411/16%) and Meliaceae (381/13%), while Sterculiaceae (2/0.08%) and Rubiaceae
(3/0.012%) were recorded with least densities of occurrence. These trees were
observed to provide the inhabitants with several varieties of usage for survival
and prosperity such as medicinal, edible food, fodder, timber, fuel among others.
However, the utilization pattern showed that about 42 species (39.25%) are used
for medicinal purposes; 19 species used as edible (17.75%); 18 species (16.82%)
for other uses; 12 species as fuel wood (11.24%); 12 species (8%) used as fodder
while, 7 species (7%) are used as timber. Plants parts usage categories was
highlighted with bark and leaves having highest percentage of usage and subsequently
followed by other plant parts. However, devising a suitable means of conserving
them for posterity has thus become imperative. 2013/12/26 - 19:52

The current study aims to explore the local community knowledge
on the uses of Wild Edible Plants (WEPs) and assess their aid to the food security;
dietry diversity and revenue of households in Malai Madeshawara (MM) Hills reserve
forest. A comprehensive inventory of ethno-botanical knowledge of the forest
dependent communities in MM Hills Reserve Forest has been documented. Data were
composed through: (1) A survey of 120 households aimlessly chosen from a total
of 355 households in four villages. (2) Focus group discussion and personal
observations. Ninety-two plant species were found to be used as source of supplementary
food, medicine and beverages. Fourteen of the WEPs were collected by 95% of
the households. WEPs are as important as farm produce in the annual food supply.
Eighty-nine of the WEPswere collected only for their own consumption. Of the
ninety two WEPs, 58 species (62%) are collected from the forest and the remaining
is found as weed in agricultural lands. Commuity discerns that use of WEPs is
declining due to the intervention of social and food security schemes, driven
dietry shift and lifestyle change. The results revealed that WEPs are of high
importance to the local commuities in terms of food security, dietry diversity
and cultural identity. The findings suggest further investigation of nutritional
profiles, cultural values and conservational study of the reported wild edible
plant species. 2013/12/26 - 19:52

Vatica chinensis L. (Sannadhupa) is one of the important
and critically endangered species of Dipterocarps present in North-East of the
Udupi district Karnataka. The large seeds exhibit recalcitrant nature. The germination,
viability and the biochemical changes during storage of the seeds of Vatica
chinensis was carried out at different temperatures. The stored seeds were
allowed to germinate using sand bed method, biochemical changes were determined
following standard procedures. The seed did not germinate at the moisture lower
than 61%. The germination percentage decrease with laps of time and stopped
completely at a 5 days in open environment, 17 days at 12±2°C and
19 days at 20±2°C and 28±2°C. The decrease in the vigour
index was also noticed with laps of time. There was also increase in free amino
acid and reducing sugar both in endosperm and seed coat. The electrolyte leakage
was also increase during lap of time. The moisture content during storage was
found to be a critical factor influencing the viability. The synergistic effect
of reduction in moisture, increase in electrolyte leakage, protein and sugar
modification may be responsible in reducing the viability of the seeds of Vatica
chinensis. 2013/12/26 - 19:52

Waterlogging stress is one of the major environmental constraints on agriculture in many parts of the world. Waterlogging leads to oxygen deficit in the soil which adversely affects root respiratory metabolism causing far reaching effects on plant growth and development. Crop species differ in waterlogging tolerance and crops such as rice possess excellent tolerance potential. An attempt has been made to study some facets of anaerobic respiratory metabolism in the roots of rice and finger millet. One month old plants raised in pot culture were subjected in 4, 8 and 12 days waterlogging. Activities of enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), levels of ethanol and lactic acid and release of acetaldehyde from roots were estimated spectrophotometrically. The contents of alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were estimated with liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Activity of ADH was increased in finger millet roots due to waterlogging while in case of rice roots opposite trend was noticed. Activity of LDH was lowered in roots of both the species in response to waterlogging. In finger case of millet roots an elevation in acetaldehyde level occurred due to 4 and 8 days of waterlogging while there was continuous decline in acetaldehyde level in rice roots with the increasing waterlogging period. In contrast to rice roots content of ethanol was increased during waterlogging in finger millet roots. Increase in waterlogging duration caused considerable decrease in lactic acid content in root tissue of rice and a slight lowering in the finger millet roots. Contents of alanine and GABA were reduced in finger millet roots while in case of rice roots short duration of waterlogging lead to increase in level of these metabolites. In number of instances, the pattern of these metabolic changes is not similar in these two species and this is related to difference in waterlogging tolerance in these two species. 2013/12/26 - 19:52

Phytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of walnut leaf was studied on germinating seeds and early seedling growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. pusa chetki) under western Himalayan horti-silvi system. Radish seeds were treated with five treatments comprised of distilled water (Control), 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentration of leaf extracts. The effect of aqueous extracts was found inhibitive with concentration dependent manner on seed germination and subsequent seedling growth. The variety exhibited extent of phytotoxicity at 100% extracts application in comparison to untreated control. Invariably there was a decrease in first count, germination, seedling root and shoot length, seedling fresh and dry weight with increasing aqueous extracts concentration on germinating radish (psusa Chetki). Present investigation shows that the tree species have allelopathic potential and contain water-soluble substances. Seed germination, seedling elongation and weights were determined on date of final count, however, other seedling vigor i.e. vigor index, speed of germination index, Relative Growth Index (RGI), Mean Daily Germination (MDG), Mean Germination Time (MGT) and time to 50% germination (T50) were calculated as per their respective formula. The significant reduction in seed germination and seedling vigor were observed of walnut leaf extracts on radish. However, MGT and T50 is indicated as lower value for higher vigor were increased as the leaf extract concentration increased and found significantly lowest in control for radish. It was found that seed germination and seedling vigor of radish were affected negatively by walnut leaf extracts in concentration dependent manner. 2013/12/26 - 19:52

Melons belong to the family Cucurbitaceae; it is one of the
most important cash crops globally. Their demand is in a very high quantity,
especially here in Nigeria. In order to improve the yield of this highly demanded
crop, a study was under taken to ascertain the pattern of its genetic diversity.
During this study, eighteen melon cultivars samples grown in south western Nigeria
was used; Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus and Lagenaria siceraria
species. They were investigated using both seed morphology and molecular
characters. However, the seed morphological characters revealed, they are sharply
pointed with elliptical/oval shape. Analysis of total genomic DNA extracted
using CTAB protocol on 1% agarose revealed high molecular weight DNA bands in
88.89% of the samples. While studies on their genetic variation investigated
using RAPD analysis, with three primers revealed samples have a wide genetic
base with monomorphic bands, which were used to generate UPGMA dendograms. The
dendograms showed the examined melons are monophyletic with sample AD001 and
AD002 showing distinct morphometric evaluation with 18.00 and 16.94 similarity
coefficient, respectively and samples AD003 and AD004 have a closer similarity
coefficient at 2.06. Basically, in this study, we have investigated the extent
of variation and of relatedness among the 18 melon cultivars, which can now
afford breeders the opportunity to make selections on how to improve on the
breeding of melon cultivars. However, this research serves as a basis for further
characterization of the melon population. 2013/12/26 - 19:52

Ornamental plants like; Rosemary, Hedera, Syngonium and Gadenia
are difficult to root without using a rooting hormone. So, this research was
aimed to find out the optimum Auxin (NAA) hormone concentration on cuttings
rooting of these plants. Six Auxin treatments (0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and
5000 ppm NAA) were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replicates.
Results obtained showed that rooting was improved by the use of the different
Auxin concentrations in compare to the control treatment; 3000 ppm NAA was resulted
in the highest rooting percentages of the Rosemary and Hedera cuttings, while
best results were obtained by 4000 and 1000 ppm NAA in Gardenia and Syngonium
cuttings, respectively. Otherwise; callus results are opposite to that of rooting
percentage in most NAA treated cuttings. 2013/12/26 - 19:52

Functional analyses of plant cell wall biosynthetic enzymes
date back to the isolation of plasma-membrane and/or Golgi-enriched microsomal
membranes, which were subjected to biochemical analysis of enzymes of interest.
These analyses were usually performed with a radiolabelled UDP-sugar substrate
and a suitable acceptor molecule. However, preparations of both substrates and/or
candidate oligosaccharide acceptors generally yielded low levels of enzyme activity
and minute amounts of product. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology
and implementation of heterologous expression systems to improve the amount
of available protein, new opportunities arose through which to obtain more meaningful
biochemical data. Although, heterologous expression of DNA fragments proved
useful for the characterization of soluble enzymes, the procedure was not so
successful in the generation of membrane-bound enzymes that were correctly folded
and therefore active. The completion of the rice and Arabidopsis genome
sequences, together with the deposition of numerous plant ESTs into public databases
opened the way for the development of other techniques. Analyses of T-DNA insertion
lines for glycosyltransferase genes with reference to cell wall polysaccharide
linkage types and wall composition, especially in Arabidopsis, were amongst
the successful methods used in addressing the function of candidate glycosyltransferases.
More recently quantitative genetics and the identification of Quantitative Trait
Loci (QTL) have started to shed some light on our understanding of the genes
and enzymes involved in wall biogenesis, deposition and re-modelling. 2013/06/27 - 07:06

Taxonomic status of some members of the subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) was analysed using variation of morphological features, seed protein electrophoretic pattern and molecular RAPD-PCR markers. The relationships between the examined taxa have been expressed as UPGMA trees, based on the coefficient of similarity using the NTSYS-pc software program. In all trees, the species of tribe Ceropegieae have been delimited together as one group from another major group that comprises species of tribe Asclepiadeae. The present work supports the earlier classification that transferred the genus Ceropegia from subtribe Stapeliinae to subtribe Ceropegiinae. The delimitation of species of tribe Asclepiadeae in four groups supports their previous subtribal delimitation. 2013/06/27 - 07:06

Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm and Syzygiym guineense (Willd.) DC subsp. guineense are multipurpose indigenous trees to Ethiopia. Reforestation with these species is hindered due to their recalcitrant seeds and a higher seed predation. This study tested the effects of Indole-3-butyric Acid (IBA) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) applied at a concentration of 0.0, 0.2 and 0.4% on juvenile leafy stem cuttings of P. africana and S. guineense using non-mist polypropagator. Two leaves with an area of 30-35 cm2 were left on each cutting. The bases of cuttings were dipped in the hormones for 3 seconds and placed into the rooting medium. All the rooted cuttings of the S. guineense and P. africana were potted in polythene bags containing a mixture of sand, forest soil and well decomposed manure. Auxin treatment had no significant effect on the final rooting percentage of both species. The effect of auxin treatment on root number, root and shoot length of the rooted cuttings of P. africana and S. guineense was significant (p<0.01). The establishment test on the rooted cuttings indicated that mortality accounted for only 0-2%. Prospects for vegetative propagation with the juvenile leafy stem cuttings of the above species are good as cuttings were easily rooted. The low technology non-mist polypropagator designed for tropical trees could serve as a tool for propagation of these species for conservation and capture of genetic variation. Further study on donor plant management is required for maintenance of juvenility to harvest more cuttings for plantation purposes. 2013/06/27 - 07:06

This study is aimed to document the medicinally important
plants used in the treatment of cattle diseases by the villagers living in Usilampatti
Taluk, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India. Interviews and detailed personal
discussions were conducted with the traditional healers and local people to
identify the plants and their medicinal information for 12 months (from September
2010 to August 2011). The medicinal important plants were botanically identified
and voucher specimens were maintained in our Department herbarium. The investigations
recorded 73 plant species belonging to 39 families were reported to have ethno-veterinary
medicinal values. Leaves are the mostly used part to prepare medicine. Generally
fresh parts are used for preparation of remedies and used for oral administration.
Attention should be made on scientific validation and proper exploitation and
utilization of these medicinally important plants in animal health care. 2013/06/27 - 07:06

The aim of this research was to know the primary structure and intercellular space formation of feeding root in Sonneratia alba in order to relate their development and structure of their function as environmental adaptation in mangrove’s root. The conventional histological techniques by Light Microscopy (LM) were used to get anatomical datas. This root has no cork covering. Cells of the meristem normally had dense cytoplasm and clear nucleus. Protoderm first appeared as a distinct layer at the edge of the tiers of cortical meristem. Root caps of feeding root of S. alba consist of two regions, i.e., weakly stained central columella or statenchyma and well-stained peripheral regions. The columella has 8-11 layers. The size of gas spaces is 100-320 μm. All the cells in the cortex appear round in cross section. Between 0-500 μm distances from the tip, few intercellular spaces and cortical cells are tightly packed. At distance more than 500 μm from the tip, cortical cells began to separate each other and resulted in the intercellular spaces between longitudinal files of the cortical cells. Changes of cortex cells with developing gas spaces suggested that cell separation (schizogenous) and enlargement of intercellular spaces has occurred to form aerenchyma in these plants. From its shape, structure and location, it seems clear that the primary structures of root assists the root in penetrating the soil and absorbs nutrient. The present study revealed that these plants have developed the structural adaptation in their roots as adaptation to their anaerobic habitat. 2013/06/27 - 07:06

Forest ecosystems are critical for biodiversity, watershed
protection and livelihoods of indigenous and rural people. High biodiversity
favours ecological stability, where as accelerating species loss could lead
to collapse of the ecosystem. The biodiversity of Himachal Pradesh is also depleting
fast due to heavy anthropogenic pressure and climate change. It’s the need
of the hour to assess the vegetation qualitatively and quantitatively to know
the actual status of the vegetation. Therefore, present study has been conducted
to assess the structure, composition and status of the forest vegetation in
Hirb and Shoja Catchments of Himachal Pradesh. 93 woody species were recorded
in the 65 sampled between 2000-3650 m amsl. Twenty four forest communities (Trees:
18 and Shrubs: 06) were identified based on Importance Value Index (IVI) for
trees and relative density for shrubs. Total tree density ranged from 60.0-1060.0
Ind ha-1, Total Basal Area (TBA), 0.20-83.99 m2 ha-1,
total shrub density, 630.0-2470.0 Ind ha-1 and total herb density,
56.3-164.2 Ind m-2. The species diversity for trees, shrubs and herbs
ranged from 0-1.749, 0.917-2.948 and 2.74-4.13, respectively. All these ecological
values were comparable with the values reported from other parts of the state
and Indian Himalayan Region. The regeneration pattern of tree species within
different communities showed different trends. The utilization pattern of the
vegetation of the area showed high anthropogenic pressure. Therefore, frequent
monitoring of the vegetation is required, so that adequate management plan could
be developed and implemented for the conservation of vegetation. 2013/06/27 - 07:06

Wondo Genet Afromontane forest is one of the few remnant forests
in the country. However, it is experiencing deforestation and fragmentation
that limits restoration possibilities. The soil seed and seedling banks of the
this forest were studied to better understand the potential contribution of
the soil seed and seedling banks to the natural regeneration and generate information
that would assist in selecting appropriate rehabilitation and restoration activities.
A total of 75 (20x20 m) quadrats were sampled. Diameter at breast height ≥2
cm and stem height ≥2 m were measured for all woody species encountered and
the number of seedlings and saplings were counted. Elevation, slope and aspect
were also recorded. At the center of each quadrat, a 10x10 cm plot was marked
and three separate soil layers were collected and incubated in a glasshouse
for 12 months. Data was analyzed using a combination of analytical methods,
such as descriptive statistics, correlation of environmental variables with
seedling density using R-Software and ordination techniques using software for
Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data (PC-ORD). A total of 72 woody species
from standing vegetation and 60 plant species from incubated soil seed bank
were identified. Seedling and sapling density of 1,330 and 917 ha-1,
respectively, were recorded. While seedling density was positively correlated
with tree density (r = 0.4248, p<0.001), a negative relationship was observed
with elevation (r = -0.3772, p<0.001). Elevation explained 51.21% and slope
24.4% of the variation in regeneration abundance. Wondo Genet forest exhibits
a deficiency of seedling and soil seed bank warranting assisted regeneration
and reduction of anthropogenic disturbances to allow natural regeneration. 2012/12/18 - 01:15

A riparian zone is the land adjacent to streams and rivers,
known to be one of the most important habitats in the tropical forest. However,
not many studies have been done in Peninsular Malaysia and no information particularly
in lowland forest. The purpose of this study was to characterize the plant communities
where two sites were chosen, Pasoh Forest Reserve (PFR) which includes two logged-over
forests of compartments (Compt.) 47 and 55 and virgin reserve of Compt. 55.
The second site was in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve (AHFR) consists of regenerating
forest of Compt. 15, Compt. 14 and Compt. 13, that had been last logged in 1970 ’s.
Five pairs of 10x5 m plots were then built along the riparian area for each
compartment and all plants were enumerated. Results showed that a total of 2579
individuals which represents 369 species, 213 genera and 80 families were found.
Generally, riparian zones of lowland forest still dominated by Dipterocarpaceae,
an important timber group in tropical forest PFR recorded a higher number of
diversity (Fisher Alpha) and numbers of individual compared to AHFR. Composition
of plants in PFR and AHFR were found not similar with only 46 species from 31
families were shared and analysis using Bray-Curtis Similarity coefficient,
BCjk and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA), confirmed
this differences. Results also found that water-loving species only comprise
of 7.8 and 9.3% from the total number of species in PFR and AHFR, respectively.
This study shows that riparian area in lowland forest of the Peninsular Malaysia
is site-specific due to anthropogenic disturbance and logging history. 2012/12/18 - 01:15

Cyanobacteria exhibit an extraordinary resistance to many environmental factors including metal pollution. The present study was conducted to explore the possibility of using cyanobacteria for bioremediation of Co2+ and Zn2+ as essential nutrient elements for the growth of cyanobacteria which detoxify these metals. Anabaena oryzae and Tolypothrix tenuis cells collected from paddy fields expressed different degrees of tolerance to metal(s) stress due to cobalt, zinc, copper and mercury. The tolerance of these species under different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ppm) of heavy metals was determined. Observations were made on every 2nd day for the period of 12 days. Among the organisms studied, T. tenuis was more sensitive to the metals than A. oryzae. Copper at 1 ppm on the 8th day gave maximum carotenoid content (6.652 μg mL-1) in A. oryzae. The mercury treated cells showed lethality at (1, 10 and 100 ppm). There was gradual increase of carotenoid content after 12 days, especially at (1 and 10 ppm) of Co2+ and Zn2+ in A. oryzae. This indicated the possibility of application of this species for detoxification of effluents. 2012/12/18 - 01:15

The variability in sorghum germplasm is an invaluable input
for sustaining and improving sorghum productivity. A wide range of variability
in phenotypic traits exists among landraces in Uganda. However, the diversity
of the germplasm at the molecular level is not described and therefore not known
which hinders its use in modern plant improvement programs. This study was therefore
undertaken to classify 241 sorghum accessions collected from different agro-ecological
regions based on genetic distances estimated using 21 Simple Sequence Repeat
(SSR) markers. The SSR primers were highly polymorphic with average Polymorphic
Information Content (PIC) of 0.65 ranging from 0.09-0.89. A total of 205 alleles
(9.8 alleles per locus) as well as a number of rare alleles were observed across
all the accessions and this provides an opportunity for generation of a comprehensive
fingerprint database. Gene diversity ranged from 0.09-0.90 with an average of
0.68. The average heterozygosity detected was 0.18 ranging from 0.00-92%. Analysis
of molecular variation showed that variation was higher within races and agro-ecologies
than among races and agro-ecological zones, respectively and this indicated
the significance of gene flow. Cluster analysis delineated the accessions into
two distinct clusters each with seven sub-clusters mainly according to agro-ecological
zone. Clusters IA and IB had the most distinct accessions and these could be
utilized in pre-breeding programmes aimed at overcoming yield barriers. The
results confirm the ability of SSR markers to discern variability and also serve
as guide for germplasm collection and conservation strategies. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

Apis dorsata is one of the important honeybee species
in tropical and subtropical regions that forage on various plants including
herbs, grasses, forest trees and plantation trees. However, information on the
favored bee plants in terms of identity and quantity is lacking. The objectives
of this study were: (1) to identify the pollen sources of Apis dorsata and
(2) to develop a pollen atlas for selected plants foraged by Apis dorsata.
Pollen cell samples from twenty one different colonies of Apis dorsata
combs were collected, identified and quantified based on several reference materials.
A total of twelve different pollen sources were identified in the samples. Pollen
sizes were 8-9x38-40 μm, comprising five different shape classes. Inaperturate
granulum pollen grains were observed in Ceiba pentandra and Garcinia
hombroniana while rugulate grains were found in Mangifera indica. Pantoporate,
syncolpate and pericolpate pollen grains with reticulum to microreticulate exine
patterns occurred in Acacia auriculiformis, Melaleuca cajuputi and Ixora
congesta. Elaeis guineensis showed trichotomosulcate pollen grains
with a microreticulate sexine. Pantocolpate areola pollen was found in Mimosa
pudica while granulum pollen was observed in Cocos nucifera. Anacardium
occidentale showed a disulcate grain with a striate sexine pattern. Pollen
grains of Averrhoa carambola and Dimocarpus longan were tricolpate
and fossulate perforate to striate perforate. This work shows that Elaeis
guineensis and Mimosa pudica were the most commonly found pollen
sources. A pollen atlas of selected plants foraged by Apis dorsata
in the tropical rainforest of Marang, Terengganu was developed. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

The study assessed the genetic variation and population structure
of Acacia senegal in Uganda. Based on 129 mature individuals, representing
eight populations, the genetic variation and population structure of Acacia
senegal in Uganda was analysed at four microsatellite loci. All four loci
were highly variable, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 8-14
(mean = 10.5). Substantial levels of genetic diversity were found (mean expected
heterozygosity, He = 0.479, range 0.245-0.846; Information Index,
I = 0.927, range 0.646-1.206). Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated moderate
genetic differentiation among populations [Fst = 0.100, p≤ 0.001],
comparable to similar tropical species. Isolation by distance, based on Mantel
Test showed a positive and significant correlation [Rxy = 0.197,
p≤0.001]. Based on population assignment, pair-wise population comparisons
and PCA, four populations emerged; one on the eastern and the other on the western
side of lake Kyoga, suggesting isolation due to a water body barrier; two other
populations emerged in Karamoja. The observed southern-northern flowering pattern
across the species distribution range appears central to the species differentiation.
The four populations, therefore, form the target for conservation and sustainable
utilization of the species genetic variability in Uganda. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

hva1, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) group III
Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) protein, is highly induced by various stresses
and has successfully been used to confer stable tolerance to abiotic stresses
such as drought and salinity in several transgenic plant species. In the present
study, the hva1 gene from some Syrian barley varieties was isolated,
characterized and then cloned into the monocot.-specific binary vector pAHC25
to enable transformation of crops for drought tolerance. The 3-day-old seedlings
of several Syrian barley varieties were subjected to different stress treatments
(Abscisic acid, (ABA) drought, salt and cold) for gene expression studies. Complementary
DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from isolated RNA using hva1 homologous primers
for amplification of 788 bp. The eluted DNA band was analysed and sequenced,
the obtained sequence was blast using N-blast of NCBI. The results showed similarities
between 80 and 98% to accession number: X78205. The coding region of 642 bp
was cloned resulting in pAHC25-ubi1-hva1-nos construct. This construct
was then transferred into two Agrobacterium strains, i.e., LBA4404 and
EHA105 for transgenic crop improvement mainly to target improved stress tolerance
in crops such as wheat, cotton and maize. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

Chromolaena odorata is a dominant invasive weed with
capacity for extensive spread in Ghana. An invasion risk assessment focusing
on the distribution and spatial abundance of seedlings and mature plants was
conducted across 26 sites covering the major ecological zones of Ghana. High
plant coverage within 10 mx10 m plots occurred in the tropical rainforest (65%)
and tropical deciduous forest (60%). These percentages were significantly (p<0.001)
higher than those of the coastal savanna (18%) and Interior Guinea Savanna (IGS)
(5%). There were no plants (0%) recorded for the Sudan savanna and mangrove
swamp zones. A comparison was made between the density of the species (per hectare)
within fragmented forest patches (49.4%), continuous forest patches (34.5%)
and abandoned wastelands described as marginal lands (41.9%). The results show
that C. odorata was abundant and widely distributed within the forest
zone. The densely populated colonies in the forest zone could be the source
of rapid spread to non-colonized habitats within the savanna and adjacent arid
zones. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

Morphological and anatomical study of many herbaceous Saxifragaceae
has still been lacking. A detailed anatomical structure of vegetative organs:
leaf, petiole, rhizome and root of a highly medicinal plant Bergenia ciliata
were described for the first time. Cells in all parts were rich in starch grains
and some cells contain calcium oxalate crystals. Some important anatomical features
were: a hood like structure found in its lower portion of petiole; petiole supplied
with numerous conjoint, collateral and open vascular bundles with poorly differentiated
bundle sheath; leaves amphistomatic; ten to fifteen conjoint, collateral and
open vascular bundles found in mid vein of leaf. Globular trichomes were present
in abaxial side of leaf and petiole; cork of rhizome divided into two zones;
cork cambium multilayered; secondary growth evident in rhizome and root; activity
of interfascicular cambium in rhizome was lacking. Endodermis and pericycle
only found in root was crushed during secondary growth; polyarch xylem and phloem
in root; vessels short and narrow with simple perforation plates. There was
no comprehensible difference in size of central and lateral vascular bundles
of leaf and petiole as in some other Saxifragaceae. Well developed bundle sheath
which was the characteristic feature of many Saxifragaceae was feebly distinguished
in the leaf and petiole of B. ciliata. The globular trichomes found in
leaf and petiole of B. ciliata is probably a new feature for Saxifragaceae. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

The genus, Amaranthus, is a typical annual flowering
plant valued as vegetables, grains and ornamentals. It exhibits a high degree
of interspecies variability and as such enhances biodiversity. Two common grain
types (A. caudatus and A. cruentus) and three major weedy types
(A. hybridus, A. spinosus and A. viridis) were studied.
Phenotypic traits were determined using FAO descriptors for both qualitative
and quantitative traits. Extracted DNA samples were amplified through the PCR
technique using four RAPD primers (OPA-02, OPA-04, OPB-08 and OPE-01). Statistical
analyses for morphological and molecular data were done using the NTSYS Version
2.02j software. Qualitative morphological characters did not significantly discriminate
among the five species except for floral morphology. Quantitative characters,
however, exhibited wide interspecies variation. Morphological cluster analysis
showed that the five species were entirely distinct with a similarity coefficient
of 0 except for A. cruentus and A. hybridus which shared an even
very low coefficient of 0.093. The RAPD primers generated a total of 150 bands
in the size range of 250-2000 bp. Molecular cluster analysis showed that all
the species studied shared a similarity coefficient of 0.57 and some individuals
within each species were clustered with individuals from other species. For
example, most of the randomly selected plants from A. viridis were clustered
with plants selected from A. spinosus at a similarity coefficient up
to 0.81. This close relationship between A. viridis and A. spinosus
may be of medicinal importance for both humans and animals especially since
A. viridis is more appealing for consumption. The use of RAPD molecular
marker systems in Amaranthus spp. should be advanced so as to impel specific
linkage among genes controlling important traits. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

Accumulation of osmolytes in terrestrial plants in response
to environmental stresses is well reported and information about aquatic plants
is limited. Present study aimed to investigate if the aquatic weed, Salvinia
natans accumulates osmolytes/compatible solutes on exposure to various heavy
metals. Plants exposed to heavy metals viz. Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Pb and
Zn, were harvested after 48 h and various osmolytes including sucrose, mannitol,
proline, glycine betaine and polyamines were estimated using biochemical methods.
Results suggested that heavy metal stress does trigger the accumulation of osmolytes
such as sucrose, mannitol and glycine betaine. In contrast proline accumulation
was not observed. Studies of heavy metal stress on the endogenous levels of
polyamines showed presence of free polyamines, while conjugated and bound forms
were not detected. Among free polyamines, Putrescine (Put) and Spermidine (Spd)
did not show significant decrease in heavy metal exposed Salvinia except
Pb and Fe exposed plants. Spermine (Spm) content showed decline in heavy metal
exposed Salvinia. The decrease in polyamine levels indicated their possible
role in combating oxidative stress induced by heavy metals. Studies suggest
that accumulation of osmolytes under heavy metal stress might help in imparting
tolerance in Salvinia. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

In this study, the effect of host specificity in parasitic
in some mineral nutrient distribution was investigated in four Loranthaceae/host
couples grown in the coastal region of Cameroon in order to determine physiological
criteria of identification for the degree of specificity of Loranthaceae-host
relationship. The distribution of potassium and sodium in plant parts of generalist
Loranthaceae/host couples (Phragmanthera capitata/Citrus maxima,
P. capitata/Psidium guajava and P. capitata/Theobroma cacao)
was compared to a specialist Loranthaceae/couple (Tapinanthus ogowensis/Dacryodes
edulis). After mineralization of plant organs of the parasite and the hosts,
sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) concentrations were determined
by Flame photometer on 36 samples belonging to four Loranthaceae/host couples.
Results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in Na+ and K+
partitioning in T. ogowensis and D. edulis except in the non parasitized
host leaf and parasitized sucker (p>0.05). The K+ distribution
in generalist Loranthaceae (P. capitata) and its hosts (C. maxima,
P. guajava and T. cacao) were higher in the plant parts than Na+
for C. maxima and T. cacao. It was not significantly (p>0.05)
different on Na+ distribution in plant organs of P. capitata
and its hosts. The results also revealed high accumulation (p<0.05) of Na+
in non parasitized host leaf and parasite leaf of D. edulis and low storage
in T. cacao roots. The accumulation of K+ in the plant parts
of T. ogowensis and its host (D. edulis) was lower (p<0.001)
than those of P. capitata and his hosts (C. maxima, P. guajava
and T. cacao). The distribution of K+ in plant parts could
contribute to verify the degree of the host specificity in parasitic which could
contribute to determine the potential for infestation of plant population by
Loranthaceae in a natural ecosystem. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

Root flavonoids of 5 Scirpus L. species: Cypereae
Colla. Tribe, Cyperaideae Kostel. subfamily and Cyperaceae family (S.
holoschenus L., S. lacustris L., S. littoralis Kuntze, S.
maritimus L. and S. multicaule) from different parts of Markazi Province,
Iran area were studied using 2-dimentional Paper Chromatography (2-DPC) and
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Flavonoids are as one set of the polyphenolic
compounds among secondary metabolites in different organs of plants that are
used in chemotaxonomy. Also many flavonoids are active principles of medicinal
plants, exhibit pharmacological effects and contribute to human health. Voucher
samples were prepared for reference as herbarium vouchers. Results showed all
of studied taxa contain flavonoid sulphates, flavone C and C-/O-glycosides and
aglycones in their roots while Rutin, Myricetin and Vitexin were just found
in S. maritimus. Also presence of Morin, Tricin and Loteulin in all of
the species roots with the exception of S. maritimus are more valuable
tools for taxa separation. Kaempferol was found in S. lacustris and
S. littoralis species, where as others lack. 2012/10/10 - 22:33

In order to compare differential growth, physiological and biochemical responses of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance, four rice cultivars; tolerant Pokkali (PK), moderately tolerant Luang Anan (LA) and two sensitive cultivars Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) and Pathumthani 60 (PT 60) were grown in hydroponic culture for 2 weeks and then subjected to NaCl stress at 6 or 12 dS m-1 for thirteen days. The tolerant cultivar (PK) exhibited clearly different pattern of responses from the other cultivars in most of the examined aspects including lower growth inhibition, lower inhibition of net photosynthetic rate, lower Na+/K+ ratio in the shoots, less proline accumulation in the shoots, less membrane damage, lower hydrogen peroxide production, higher catalase and lower guaiacol peroxidase activities. Other parameters including Na+/K+ ratio in roots, proline accumulation in roots and osmotic potential in both roots and shoots did not show appropriate association with the level of salt tolerance. The reduction in growth resulted from drastic reduction in net photosynthetic rate which was observed as early as 24 h after exposure to stress and continued to decrease dramatically. Growth retardation was also related to salt-induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide which caused lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage. Higher catalase activity in the tolerant cultivar played an important role in combating the hydrogen peroxide, leading to less damage and higher tolerance. The activity of peroxidase was lower in the tolerant cultivar than in the sensitive ones. The observed negative relationship between the amount of proline accumulation and the level of salt tolerance did not support the widely advocated role of proline as an osmoprotectant under salt stress. Further investigation needs to be done to determine the role of this compatible osmolyte in salinity stress response in rice. For practical purpose, those parameters which showed differential pattern of responses including lower Na+/K+ ratio in the shoots, less proline accumulation in the shoots, lower reduction in net photosynthesis rate, lower electrolyte leakage, lower hydrogen peroxide accumulation, higher catalase and lower guaiacol peroxidase activities may be regarded as potential biochemical indicators for selection of salt tolerant rice and targets for improvement through transgenic approaches. 2012/07/11 - 07:15

The phenological studies of two tree species Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. and Ficus hispida L.f. occurring in Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS), a tropical moist deciduous forest in Northern India along Indo-Nepal border has been carried out to gather information about the different phenophases of the plants. Both the candidate species are the co-dominant constituents of the sanctuary area. For each species ten trees were selected and a total of 160 twigs were tagged to collect phenological data. The initiation and completion of different phenophases such as leaf bud initiation, leaf emergence, young leaf formation, leaf fall, flower bud development, formation of flowers and fruits were recorded at monthly basis. In addition, the number of leaf buds, young leaves, matured leaves and total leaves has also been recorded. The individual leaf area was measured by using graph paper once they became stable in their growth and ultimately average leaf area was obtained. In both the species leaf bud busting and flowering/figing initiate in post winter (March to April) and maximum leaf fall was recorded in the post monsoon season (November to February). In Shorea robusta the young fruits start to appear in dry season (May) and get matured before the arrival of the monsoon (June) so that the seeds get proper moist condition to germinate. 2012/07/11 - 07:15

The community composition and distribution of weed flora in
the rice field agro-ecosystems of Kashmir valley was studied. The investigation
revealed a presence of 64 species of weeds including 41 dicotyledons, 20 monocotyledons
and 3 pteridophytes from the 6 representative sites located in different administrative
zones of the valley. The sites of study included Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam,
Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag. Monthly samplings were performed throughout
the fallow as well as vegetation phase. The taxocoenosis was inclusive of 23
families. Gramineae was the most dominant family represented by 11 species of
weeds. Qualitatively Bandipora was the most dominant site recording a total
of 57 species. The overall qualitative dominance pattern exhibited by the study
sites was: Bandipora (57 spp.)>Kupwara (55 spp.)>Budgam (54 spp.)>Pulwama
(52 spp.)>Srinagar (50 spp.)>Anantnag (46 spp.). Biodiversity was calculated
through Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) and Margalef’s richness
index (d). The results were indicative of the richness of diversity at Bandipora
site (H’ = 3.755; d = 9.527) whereas, Anantnag (H’ = 3.271; d = 7.670)
was marked as the least diverse site. Anthropogenic disturbances and climatic
factors seemed to govern the growth patterns of the flora. The importance of
rice field ecosystems as significant contributor of biodiversity in the region
was recognized. 2012/07/11 - 07:15

Ciboria coryli (Schellenb.) N.F. Buchw. (Sclerotiniaceae) and Peziza saniosa Schrad. (Pezizaceae) are new records for the macromycota of Turkey. Short descriptions and photographs of macro and micromorphologies of the taxa are given. 2012/07/11 - 07:15

Pollen fertility status of 30 species including mangroves, mangrove associates as well as other coastal species from Maharashtra and Goa States of India is studied by using Alexander’s Differential staining technique. Three different groups of plants are considered on the basis of the population size viz. large sized, medium sized and small sized populations including narrowly distributed species. The results obtained show there is slight decrease in the pollen fertility from large sized populations to small sized populations. Overall, pollen fertility of the studied species ranges from 53 to 98%. 2012/07/11 - 07:15

Generally, biodiversity is being threatened globally by climate change as well as human activities and this has aroused concerns about the conservation status. This study was designed with the aim of searching for existing, new and unrecorded plant species of the family Sapindaceae in West Africa so as to better understand the extent of diversity and distribution of the species in the family remaining in existence and conserve them for maximum use. The methodology employed include: field sampling, preservation of voucher specimens in secured repositories and DNA conservation of the collected samples. It was observed that the family Sapindaceae are represented by 26 genera and 104 species in western Africa. The most species rich regions are Nigeria (47 taxa), Cameroon (45 taxa) and Ghana (25 taxa). Southern highlands of Nigeria have the highest number of species followed by western river banks of Ghana. Taxa shared are highest between Nigeria and Ghana and endemism is highest in the western regions with 9 species endemic to the mountains and coasts. High quality genomic DNA were obtained and deposited in the DNA bank at the Royal Botanic gardens Kew. This research can be seen as a key step in the conservation of the family Sapindaceae as it reveals that most of the plants are endangered mainly due to deforestation and agricultural practices in forest reserves across West Africa. 2012/04/25 - 19:08

Generally, biodiversity is being threatened globally by climate change as well as human activities and this has aroused concerns about the conservation status. This study was designed with the aim of searching for existing, new and unrecorded plant species of the family Sapindaceae in West Africa so as to better understand the extent of diversity and distribution of the species in the family remaining in existence and conserve them for maximum use. The methodology employed include: field sampling, preservation of voucher specimens in secured repositories and DNA conservation of the collected samples. It was observed that the family Sapindaceae are represented by 26 genera and 104 species in western Africa. The most species rich regions are Nigeria (47 taxa), Cameroon (45 taxa) and Ghana (25 taxa). Southern highlands of Nigeria have the highest number of species followed by western river banks of Ghana. Taxa shared are highest between Nigeria and Ghana and endemism is highest in the western regions with 9 species endemic to the mountains and coasts. High quality genomic DNA were obtained and deposited in the DNA bank at the Royal Botanic gardens Kew. This research can be seen as a key step in the conservation of the family Sapindaceae as it reveals that most of the plants are endangered mainly due to deforestation and agricultural practices in forest reserves across West Africa. 2012/04/25 - 19:08

Cyperus pangorei is a sedge extensively and exclusively used in silk mat weaving. It is a plant that grows along river banks and canals in rice fields and is considered as a weed, expect for its use in silk mat weaving. The objective of the present study was to analyze the chemical composition and wax micro morphology on the culms (stems) of Cyperus pangorei to decipher its role in silky texture of the mats and to know the abundance of waxes that may find use in commercial applications. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and GC-MS studies revealed several new chemical entities and their accumulation as cuticular wax layers. The analysis of components and morphological features of epicuticular waxes have provided information on four different classes of waxes and one very long chain wax ester-nona-hexacontanoic acid ester (C69). The epicuticular waxes determined in this sedge also form first of its kind in Cyperaceae. The wax morphologies observed over the culm do not vary among the different culm regions. Wax morphologies such as thick amorphous film, fissured layers, thick crusts, platelets with orthorhombic symmetry and granules were observed. 2012/04/25 - 19:08

Cyperus pangorei is a sedge extensively and exclusively used in silk mat weaving. It is a plant that grows along river banks and canals in rice fields and is considered as a weed, expect for its use in silk mat weaving. The objective of the present study was to analyze the chemical composition and wax micro morphology on the culms (stems) of Cyperus pangorei to decipher its role in silky texture of the mats and to know the abundance of waxes that may find use in commercial applications. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and GC-MS studies revealed several new chemical entities and their accumulation as cuticular wax layers. The analysis of components and morphological features of epicuticular waxes have provided information on four different classes of waxes and one very long chain wax ester-nona-hexacontanoic acid ester (C69). The epicuticular waxes determined in this sedge also form first of its kind in Cyperaceae. The wax morphologies observed over the culm do not vary among the different culm regions. Wax morphologies such as thick amorphous film, fissured layers, thick crusts, platelets with orthorhombic symmetry and granules were observed. 2012/04/25 - 19:08

Members of the family Sapindaceae provides various benefits in combating increasing malnutrition and poverty in West Africa. Due to their multiple uses, their high nutritional and medicinal value, members of Sapindaceae have been identified as one of the most important forest species to be conserved and valued in Africa. Therefore, it is important to study the potential future distribution of this species and determine strategies for conservation. In order to achieve these, suitability of sites in Africa was evaluated for potential conservation using spatial environmental data in MAXENT modelling framework. A total of 153 geo-referenced records of Sapindaceae were assembled from herbarium records and fieldwork and climatic data were acquired from the Worldclim Database. The main variables that contributed towards predicting the species distribution were annual precipitation and temperature seasonality. Results suggest that the distribution model was excellent with training AUC value of 0.974 and test AUC value of 0.960 confirming the wide distribution of Sapindaceae in West Africa. Also, the environmental variables that affected the model the most are minimum temperature of the coldest month (35.4%), precipitation of the coldest quarter (16.9%) and precipitation of wettest month (14.9%). Recommendations for different conservation strategies include in situ conservation in Protected Areas; ex situ conservation in seed banks and conservation through ‘sustainable utilization’. 2012/04/25 - 19:08