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International Journal of Poultry Science

To investigate the effects of Zingiber Officinale on male reproductive functions and study the mechanisms underlying these effects, aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale were administered in drinking water to two groups of male broilers breeder (24wk age) at 5% and 10%. A third group served as control and received the treatment vehicle, distilled water. Treatment lasted for 28, 32, 36, 40 and 44 wk age. Ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, counts, movements, motility and abnormality, semen plasma cholesterol, protein and glucose, the antioxidant malonhydialdehyde, glutathione and blood serum LH, FSH and testosterone, were determined. The treatment caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in the weight of the testis and There were dose and duration dependent increases in ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, counts, movements and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in motility and abnormality. There was also a significant increase (p<0.05) in semen plasma cholesterol, glucose and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in protein. Antioxidant malonhydialdehyde were significantly reduced (p<0.05), glutathione and blood serum LH, FSH and testosterone serum level were significantly increase (p<0.05). Our results indicated that extract of Zingiber officinale possesses pro-fertility properties in male broiler which might be a product of both its potent antioxidant properties and androgenic activities. 2011/12/25 - 02:39

This study was conducted to investigate the potential effect of Iraqians High Environmental Temperature on Growth Performance in two lines of Japanese quail. Four-hundred eighty mixed 1-day old chicks were randomly assigned to 12 replicates of 20 chicks per replicate for each strain. The birds were exposed to ambient Iraqi environmental conditions. The average daily high temperature during the experimental period, averaged 30°C ranging between 24-36°C. The results showed that there was Brown strain had higher body weight than those white strain. Feed intake level of White strain and Brown strain and gain day less body weight and had significantly (p<0.05) poorer FRC. The mean values of dry matter, protein and ash in breast and thigh quail meat were not influenced by different strains, fat and free water content in breast and thigh meat were significantly higher (p<0.05) in Brown strain than those of White strain. 2011/12/25 - 02:39

The main objective of this study was to determine the relation between the incidence of ascites syndrome and the ventilation factor in broiler chickens in the northwest region of Iran. We studied seven flocks which showed ascites syndrome. We started to correct unsuitable ventilation conditions in all seven poultry houses. After correction of the ventilation conditions, the incidence rate of ascites syndrome decreased by 1% in all seven poultry houses and we could nearly reduce the prevalence of CRD complex from 7% to 1% in these flocks too. 2011/12/25 - 02:39

The Japanese quail is a popular laboratory animal for scientific research. Its continued characterization is essential for attaining accurate and reliable results. This includes refining genetic and environmental variables that could affect its use in developmental biology, reproduction, physiology, nutrition, endocrinology and toxicology. The role of body weight as a means of assessing reproductive and physiological traits is presented here. Two groups of random bred Japanese quail layers of 240-days of age having a well-established production and fertility records but differing in body weights were used in the project. One group of birds (n = 10) weighed 120-130 grams (lighter birds) and the second group (n = 10) weighed 150-160 grams (heavier birds). The heavier birds had significantly higher weights of ovaries and oviducts as well as larger yellow-yolk containing ovarian follicles (p<0.05). The eggs laid by the heavier birds were also larger (p>0.05). Conversely, there was an increase in packed cell volume, plasma proteins and decrease in blood sugar levels (p<0.05) in the heavier birds as compared to the lighter birds. The body weight was found to have a distinct bearing on the weight of reproductive and physiological traits. One should be mindful of body weight when selecting Japanese quail for research projects. 2011/12/25 - 02:39

A HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of fosfomycin in chicken muscle, liver and kidney. Organ samples were dispersed in silica gel with a subsequent clean up and elusion in a vacuum chamber followed by filtration with activated carbon to eliminate matrix components which are prone to produce unwanted matrix effects. Response was linear and recovery was determined to be between 81-106% for muscle, 92-102% for liver and 99-107% for kidney. The method developed is suitable to be used in withdrawal time studies. The withdrawal time of fosfomycin in broiler chickens, considering a MRL of 0.5 μg/g was studied. Twenty-four broiler chickens were assigned to two groups; in group one, fosfomycin was orally administered daily with 40 mg/kg bw and to the other group a dose of 10 mg/kg bw of the antibiotic was intramuscularly administered. Broilers were slaughtered 24, 48, 72 and 96 h later of oral treatment withdrawn and post intramuscular treatment. Although the longer WDT was of 2.55 days, a WDT of 3 days could be assigned as a precautionary principle for public health, without a significant economic impact for the broiler producer. 2011/12/25 - 02:39

Gallinacins are antimicrobial peptides that play a significant role in innate immunity in chicken. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gallinacin genes and resistance to Marek's disease and to predict whether the amino acids substitutions lead to produce new phenotypes. We used in current study two inbred White Leghorn Lines 6 and 7. We examined gallinacins genes (3-5 and 10) by sequenced a 2.29 kb in two directions from two inbred lines (6 and 7). A total of 10 SNPs were identified within the sequenced regions. This equates to an SNP rate of 4.36 SNPs/kb, nearly to the previously reported 5 SNPs/kb across the entire chicken genome. The current study showed that the gallinacin genes are polymorphic because there are many (SNPs) in both inbred lines of White Leghorn chickens and some of these SNPs are nonsynonymous and others are synonymous. We are concluded that a new chromosomal region with effects on the response to Marek's disease in chickens was characterized in this study. Within this region, the SNPs in the gallinacin candidate genes could potentially be used in a marker assisted selection program to enhance the response to Marek's disease. Analysis of the gallinacin genes in the protective pathways of disease resistance has also opened the possibilities for therapeutic strategies using endogenous antimicrobial peptides. 2011/12/25 - 02:39

Thirty healthy starling obtained to describe the histological structures of uropygial glands. The gland lies on base of tail over the pyostyle muscle and surrounded by a thin capsule consist of dense connective tissue and devoid by smooth muscle. The glands parenchyma composed of a large number of secretary tubules that filled with fat droplets, the tubules radiate out from the center and end blindly at the capsule of the glands. 2011/12/25 - 02:39

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.2% dietary Aspergillus Meal (AM) on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. A total of 200 day-of-hatch turkey poults were used for this experiment. Two dietary treatments, similar in energy and protein content differing only by the addition of 0.2% AM, were used. Poults were divided into 2 treatment groups with 25 birds per treatment and four replicates each. Group 1 received a basal non medicated control diet and group 2 received dietary AM. At the end of 30 d, poults were weighed, euthanized and tibias were collected to evaluate bone quality using an Instron shear press machine and bone parameters such as tibia weight, diameter, ash, calcium and phosphorus assays. Samples of distal ileum were collected and the content subjected to protein and energy analysis. Poults fed with dietary AM had a significant improvement in BW and feed conversion ratios (p<0.05). Distal ileum content showed significantly less concentration of energy and protein when compared with the poults receiving control diet. Tibia weight, diameter, breaking strength, ash, calcium and phosphorus were significantly higher in poults that received dietary AM prebiotic. These results suggest that the increase in performance and bone parameters in neonatal turkey poults fed with 0.2% AM, is improved upon feeding Aspergillus niger mycelium prebiotic. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

The effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) on the bactericidal activity of Fatty Acids (FA) was examined. A 0.5 M concentration of caproic, caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in 1.0 M Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) was supplemented with 0, 5, or 10 mM of EDTA and adjusted to pH 11.0 with citric acid. FA-KOH-EDTA was added to wells in agar seeded with 106 cfu/ml of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, or Staphylococcus simulans. Agar plates were incubated aerobically at 35°C for 24 h, except for C. jejuni plates which were incubated microaerophilically at 42°C for 48 h and zones of inhibition around the wells were measured. Results indicated that although caproic acid-KOH inhibited growth of C. jejuni only, caproic acid-KOH supplemented with EDTA produced significantly (p<0.05) larger zones of C. jejuni as well as zones of inhibition of A. calcoaceticus, E. faecalis and P. fluorescens. Caprylic acid-KOH produced zones of inhibition of all isolates except A. calcoaceticus, L. monocytogenes and S. simulans, but supplementation with EDTA produced zones of inhibition of the 3 isolates in addition to increases in the size of zones of inhibition of E. faecalis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Capric acid-KOH and lauric acid-KOH inhibited all isolates and supplementing both mixtures with EDTA generally produced larger zones of inhibition. Findings indicate that the addition of EDTA to formulations of FA-KOH may increase the ability of these sanitizers to reduce contamination of poultry processing operations. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

An experiment was conduced to evaluate the inclusion of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in commercial layer diets with Avizyme 1500® supplementation. Two hundred eighty-eight 40-week-old Bovans brown layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with the variables being (DDGS) substitution for soybean meal at four levels (0 or 25% or 50% or 75%) and Avizyme 1500 at two levels (0 or 0.075%). Layer performance, egg quality, nutrients digestibility and blood parameters were evaluated. Results showed that average egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio and the change in body weight of laying hens were significantly (p<0.05) decreased as dietary inclusion of DDGS increased. Avizyme supplementation relatively improved (p<0.05) egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio for DDGS inclusion levels at 25 and 50% when compared to those fed diets without Avizyme supplementation. No significant effect of DDGS, Avizyme, or their interaction on feed intake was observed. Yolk color was significantly increased, when DDGS was included in the diet. No significant differences in digestion coefficient values of Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Ether Extract (EE) and Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) while, there were significant differences (p<0.05) for Crude Protein (CP) and Crude Fiber (CF) digestibility. Dietary inclusion of DDGS without Avizyme linearly reduced cost of feed. Although Avizyme supplementation increased the cost per kilogram of formulated diet, but improves economical efficiency value. The results suggest that diets containing DDGS at less than 15.45% level (50% of SBM) with Avizyme 1500® supplementation could improve the nutritive value of DDGS for layers. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

Three hundred one day-old of unsexed Cobb broiler chicks were used in present study to examine the ability of Cuminum cyminum L (CC), Citric Acid (CA) or Sodium Sulphate (SS) either alone or in combination to increase nitrogen retention and utilization of the Low Protein Low Energy Diet (LPLE), containing 4% lower protein and 200 kcal/kg lower energy than control diets. At 42 days of age, LPLE diets decreased weight gain and degrade feed conversion by 23.24% and 19.47%, respectively compared to control diet. Besides, LPLE diet decreased daily nitrogen excretion by 25.92% compared to control diet. Supplementing LPLE diet with CC, CA and SS together improved weight gain, feed conversion and nitrogen retention percentage by 7.21, 6.16 and 16.69%, respectively. Compared to control diet, the combination of such feed additives succeeded in reducing daily nitrogen excretion by 64.81%. It can be conclude that the three additives used in present study work in synergy under low protein and low energy conditions. Further studies are needed to determine the optimum level of these additives mixture with different levels of protein and energy. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

This research evaluates amino acid density in two phases throughout life in Arian male broilers to better understand the impact of increase and decrease dietary amino acids density in live weight performance. Four diets with different levels of amino acids density, High (H), Medium (M), Standard (S) and Low (L) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers fed H diet, body weight in 42 d was increased by 202 g compared with standard group (p<0.05). Levels of amino acids density had a significant effect on body weight in weeks 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6. Feeding broilers with H diet was significant highest in body weight in weeks 4, 5 and 6. H treatment was significant highest daily body weight gain from 22 to 42 (grower phase) and 1 to 42 day of age compared with S treatment (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that high amino acids density throughout life optimized live weight and growth, whereas reductions in amino acids density reduced growth and live weight. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

Data from sixty day old Harco cockerel were used to determine the effect of Crude oil contaminated water on the internal organs of cockerel. There were four treatment groups with fifteen replicates each. Treatment one (T1) which received crude oil free water served as control. Treatment 2, 3 and 4 received crude oil contaminated water at the rate of 5 ml, 10 ml and 15 ml respectively. Both feed and water were provided ad libitum. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment two birds were picked randomly from each compartment and slaughtered for post mortem examination, from the result gizzard, heart, liver and spleen, were significantly (p<0.05) depressive as a result of the toxic effect of crude oil, while the intestine and testis were not significantly (p<0.05) affected. This could be as a result of the body’s ability to build up resistance against the toxic effect of crude oil. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

The objective of this experiment was to determine the normal values of Bone Radiographic Density (BRD) by using the optical densitometry in radiographic images and the Bone Breaking Strength (BBS) of broiler femurs at different ages (8, 22 and 42 d of age). A total of 60 Cobb male broilers were distributed in three age groups of 20 birds. The BRD and the BBS (maxim force and rigidity) values increased (p<0.01) over the course of ages, presenting greater values at 42 d of age when comparing to 8 and 22 d of age, evidencing a biomechanical adaptation of femur to growth. This experiment offers results that can be used in other experiments of broilers fed with different nutritional levels and they can also be related to pathological values, allowing the diagnosis of diseases that affect the integrity of the poultry leg. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

A study was carried out to determine the effect of crude protein level in diets on Serum Biochemical Indexes and Gastrointestinal Micro flora of yellow quails. Four diets with different crude protein levels 17.75%, 19.95%, 21.85%, 24.08% were used to feed 192 yellow quails during 50-day-old to 95-day-old in this experiment. The quails were randomly assigned to 4 groups by similar body weight, each of which was subdivided into 4 replicates of 12 quails each. At 95-day-old, two quails per replicates were selected randomly and slaughtered to collect the blood the caecal contents. The blood sample was used to analysis serum biochemical. The caecal contents was detected the colibacillus, lactobacillus and bifidobacterium. The results showed that ALT of diet 1 was significant low (p<0.05); there was no significant of AST in all treatment (p>0.05). Serum TP of treatment 3 is high than treatment 1 (p<0.05). And serum BUN and P was no significant in all treatment (p>0.05). The colibacillus and bifidobacterium were decreased and lactobacillus increased with the increased in dietary protein though there were no significant difference (p>0.05). These results indicated that the different level of dietary protein could not effect on gastrointestinal microflora significantly but significantly effect on serum biochemical indexes of yellow quails. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

An experiment was conducted for the evaluation of Palm Kernel Cake Fermented (PKCF) by Aspergillus niger as a substitute for soybean meal protein in the diet of broiler. The experiment used a Complete Randomize Design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were arranged as follows: 1) 0% basic ration (0% PKCF), 2) 20% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 3) 40% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 4) 60% substitution of soybean meal protein with PKCF, 5) 80% substitution of soybean meal with PKCF, 6) 100% substitution of soybean meal with PKCF. The ration were formulated in iso protein 22% and iso caloric 3000 k cal/kg ration. This study used a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The parameters of this study were feed consumption, body weight gained, feed conversion and percentage of carcass. The result of this study showed that feed consumption, body weight gained, feed conversion and percentage of carcase were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by any treatment. In conclusion the Palm Kernel Cake Fermented (PKCF) by Aspergillus niger can be 100% a substitute of soybean meal protein or 17% in broiler ration. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

A study was carried out to evaluate the change in serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli on treatment with powdered leaves of neem and pineapple and with piperazin hydrate. The control and birds treated with piperazine, neem and pineapple show changes in the level of glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, magnesium, potassium and SGPT. The piperazine treated groups can resist better the decreased in the glucose level compare to the groups treated with neem and pineapple. The serum cholesterol level of the control and treated birds shows increased in level while the total protein and albumin contents decreased in control and treated groups. However the decreased in the neem treated group was higher for total protein while the pipeapple treated group shows higher decrease in the level of albumin. The serum level of the potassium and SGPT level also changes in control as well as treated groups. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

Data on 272 eggs collected from Pearl (175 eggs) and Black (97 eggs) adult guinea fowl strains were analyzed to determine the egg production performance and egg quality characteristics of the birds. Data generated were analyzed using Student’s t-test. The external egg quality traits measured were egg weight, egg length, egg width, shell weight, shell thickness and egg shape index. Internal egg quality traits studied include egg mass, yolk weight, yolk height, yolk diameter, yolk index, albumen weight, albumen height and albumen diameter and albumen index. The production performance traits measured were egg number and Hen-Day Production (HDP). In addition, weekly body weight of the hens was also recorded. Egg number was significantly (p<0.05) different between the two strains. The mean values were 22.71±0.30 and 12.84±0.29, respectively for Pearl and Black. Although there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between HDP of the two strains, the Black strain had higher HDP in all the weeks except in weeks 1, 5 and 6. Among the internal traits, albumen diameter differed significantly (p<0.05) between Pearl and Black with mean values of 61.27±2.02 mm and 66.97±1.20 mm, respectively. Effect of strain was not observed for all the other egg traits measured. However, the significant difference (p<0.05) observed for egg number and albumen diameter between the strains suggests at least some degree of genetic dissimilarity, which implies that the strains could be used to improve egg production and egg quality characteristics of guinea fowl in the study region. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

Local and indigenous poultry in Tunisia represent very diversified and heterogeneous populations which remain largely unknown and understudied in spite of the real economic assets that they seemed to represent mainly in rural areas. The present study was envisaged in the objective of conservation, valorization and development of this rustic and well adapted genetic substrate. In this respect growth parameters were measured and meat quality measurements on pH and color (L*: luminance, a*: yellowness b*: redness) were operated. Results showed that a mean Body Weight (BW) of 632 g was reached at week 8, 923 g at week 12 and 1249 g at week 16, with mean Daily Weight Gain (DWG) of 16.72, 11.26 and 10.89 g/d respectively. Males were found to be more (p<0.05) performing than females both in BW and DWG at all ages. The ultime meat pH value after 24 h of slaughtering was relatively high (6.1) and color parameters in the main muscles were particularly intense. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was relatively low (3.97) and remained far lower than several other local populations studied in some European and African countries. It was concluded that Tunisian local poultry presented potentially interesting growth parameters and meat quality characteristics. In addition to the high potential of selection and crosses possibilities, they could represent a strong argument of development of local production systems for rural populations. Thereby, an urgent program of screening, evaluation and conservation of these populations is to be conceived and applied. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

A study was conducted in 75 dayold Vencobb broiler chicks to evaluate toxic effects
of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A and efficacy of herbomineral toxin binder product
(Toxiroak Gold) in preventing co-mycotoxicosis. Chicks were randomly divided into
three groups of 25 each. Group I served as healthy control (C) and given standard
basal ration and no treatment, Group T0 and T1 comprised
healthy birds fed standard basal diet and mycotoxicated with 100 ppb each of aflatoxin
B1 and ochratoxin A from 0-42 days. Group T0 is not given any treatment
and served as positive control; however, mycotoxicated group T1 was
administered herbomineral toxin binder product Toxiroak Gold@1kg/tonne of feed
for 6 weeks. Mycotoxin adversely affected body weight gain, feed consumption,
feed efficiency, haematobiochemical profile. However, supplementation of herbomineral
toxin binder feed supplement has provided amelioration in mixed mycotoxicosis
in broilers. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of protein sources and growth promoter Zinc bacitracin on the lipid profile of broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted, comprising of 240 day-old chicks and 120 day-old chicks respectively, they were housed in battery cages in a broiler pen, randomly distributed into four (4) major groups each receiving diets with protein derived from plant or animal protein with or without the addition of Zinc bacitracin. The plant and animal diets were compiled, milled and analysed, before been subdivided into two subgroups with Zinc bacitracin included at 300 g per tonne. The feeding trial lasted for six (6) weeks. On terminating the feeding trial, 30 marked birds from each group were slaughtered and blood samples were analysed for, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the broiler plasma cholesterol levels, as observed in total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels while there was no significant difference in the triglyceride levels. Animal protein diet induced the highest cholesterol levels but on addition of Zinc bacitracin the level was reduced, as was also the case in plant diets. Reduction of plasma cholesterol levels on the inclusion of Zinc bacitracin could indicate that cholesterol is been deposited in the tissues. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

Newcastle disease is a serious and commonly fatal disease of chickens caused by a Paramyxovirus. Other avian species are also infected, but usually with less severe consequences. In most developing countries Newcastle disease is the most important infectious disease affecting village chickens. The usual source of infection for village chickens is usually other chickens. The role of other birds as carriers to initiate outbreaks in villages is not well documented. Both epidemic and endemic forms of Newcastle disease occur in village conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Newcastle disease on broiler breeder performance. In this study, four ND afflicted broiler breeder flocks were selected and the effect of this disease was appraised on these flocks. Of cases studied can be refer the mortality rate, production loss, clinical signs, necropsy signs and disease period. Also in afflicted flocks blood sampling was taken in early and 14 days after of involvement to recording the antibody titer by HI test. Of each saloon number of 16 samples was taken. Samples were referred to lab immediately. In lab, HI test was carried out and antibody titer of ND was measured. It must be noted that race of all flocks was Ross. After sampling from chicks on mentioned days were used of HI method for measurement of serum antibody titer. In this study revealed that antibody titer in before and after N.D has significant difference (p<0.05) and antibody titer was increased totally about 2 log after N.D. 2011/10/21 - 06:18

Ammonia volatilization from poultry litter commonly causes a buildup of ammonia in the atmosphere of chicken houses that can have a negative impact on both farm workers and birds. The release of ammonia from poultry houses can also contribute to environmental problems such as atmospheric haze. The most widely accepted management strategy to control ammonia volatilization from poultry houses is the use of litter amendments that are added to the litter. The poultry industry routinely uses dry acids such as aluminum sulfate and sodium bisulfate to reduce ammonia emissions inside the poultry house. Although these products are very effective in controlling ammonia release in poultry houses, they typically only work for about the first three weeks of the grow-out period, after which time litter pH and ammonia levels will begin to rise. As a result, these litter amendments must be reapplied prior to the placement of new chicks in order for ammonia levels to continually remain low. Therefore this research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative product for long-term control of ammonia release in poultry houses. This research investigated the efficacy of a single application of superabsorbent polymers to poultry litter for long term in-house ammonia control which could reduce the negative impacts of ammonia on bird health and performance and potentially the environment. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

Previous research has indicated that a single exposure of eggs to Ultraviolet Light (UV) in combination with 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) results in a greater reduction of eggshell microorganisms compared to eggs treated with either UV or H2O2 alone. The objective of this study was to determine if hatchability would be affected if eggs were treated by repeated applications of UV and H2O2. In the first experiment, eggs receiving H2O2 and UV light for 2 min 6 times yielded the greatest reduction in aerobic plate counts (5.3 log10CFU/egg) when compared to other treatment groups that utilized various repetitions of H2O2 and UV light. The second experiment determined the effect on hatchability when using this combination tested in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a 4 log10CFU/egg reduction in eggshell aerobic plate counts was observed for eggs treated with UV and H2O2 when compared to untreated control eggs. There were no differences in hatchability, hatch residue, chick weight, residual yolk weight, or egg weight loss between control and treated groups. In conclusion, multiple applications of UV and H2O2 effectively reduced aerobic microorganisms on the eggshell to low levels with no detrimental effects on broiler breeder egg hatchability or chick quality parameters. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

Three trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) that were either hot-boned or cold-deboned postmortem. Broiler carcasses were hot-boned (about 45 min postmortem) and cold-deboned 2 h postmortem (2 h) and 24 h postmortem (24 h). Descriptive sensory flavor as well as texture attributes were evaluated by 8 trained descriptive panelists using 0-15 universal intensity scales. There were no significant differences in average sensory descriptive flavor intensity scores between hot-boned and 2 h fillets. However, the average score of 24 h samples for the flavor attribute cardboardy was significantly lower than hot-boned fillets and was not different from 2 h fillets and the score for the attribute sweet was significantly higher than hot-boned and 2 h samples. These results indicate that sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked hot-boned and 2 h broiler fillets are similar to each other. However, cooked 24 h fillets have different sensory descriptive flavor profiles from either hot-boned or 2 h fillets. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the relationship of an Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast (EHY) and yeast culture combined with flavomycin and monensin (F + M) under two levels of Digestible Lysine (DLYS) on the growth performance, carcass measurements, nutrient retention and AMEn in broilers. One hundred and thirty two 35 d old Ross B308 male broilers individually housed in holding cages were used. Broilers were assigned to a factorial arrangement of 2 levels of EHY (0 and 1 kg/ton of feed) x 2 levels of F + M (0.0 and 0.05,0.50 kg/ton) x 2 DLYS levels (0.85 and 0.95%). The experiment lasted 2 wks. Results were subjected to analysis of varianza. EHY-fed broilers showed a trend for greater (p<0.10) feed intake, had improved (p<0.05) weight gain, feed conversion ratio and had greater (p<0.01) weight and yield of the carcass, breast and legs. Broilers fed EHY and 0.95% DLYS had higher nitrogen intake and retention and lower AMEn than those with 0.85% DLYS (EHY and DLYS interaction, p<0.05). EHY-fed broilers also had greater dry matter and ashes intake (p<0.01) and retention (p<0.05). The addition of F+M to the diet improved the weight gain (p<0.05), feed conversion ratio (p<0.01), nitrogen retention and AMEn (p<0.05). Broilers fed the 0.95% DLYS diet had greater feed conversion (p<0.05). The addition of EHY and F+M improved the production and nutrient use in broilers but their effects were independent. The EHY and DLYS showed an additive or synergistic relationship on the nitrogen intake and retention and AMEn. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

The Japanese quail is a very popular animal model for various
biomedical disciplines such as growth and development, reproduction, physiology,
endocrinology, nutrition, drug testing and toxicology. Hematological and clinical
chemistry parameters are important diagnostic tools and experimental studies
invariably draw on them for evaluating the outcomes of treatments. For blood
collection, a wide variety of sites are utilized for sampling blood from animals
including the heart. Cardiac puncture is being practiced in rodents, birds and
rabbits particularly when larger quantities are needed for diagnostic and serological
work. One should, however, be fully aware of possible complications that may
result from this method. On this aspect, information on the post-collection
responses are lacking in the Japanese quail. This report highlights some important
observations made on the Japanese quail following a one-time collection of blood
via cardiac puncture. The results were very considerably variable. Of the nineteen
(19) experimental birds used in this project, one (1) bird succumbed to the
procedure and died instantaneously and the others (n = 18) experienced some
temporary loss in body weight, cessation in egg production and regression of
the reproductive organs. The loss in body weight was the maximum by d6 post-collection.
At this time (d6), five (5) birds which weighed between 115-118g during the
pause and had lost a significant amount of body weight (loss of ~ 12% from the
initial weight at day 0) were, after blood collection, euthanized with carbon
dioxide and their hearts and reproductive organs were examined and fixed in
10% formalin. Most of the surviving birds (n = 8) regained weight between d3
to d12 post-collection and resumed egg production; however, some birds (n =
2) did not lay eggs even by d12 post collection. Both Hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed
Cell Volume (PCV) were significantly elevated during the pause and then returned
to their initial values of d0 upon resumption of egg production after the healing
process had been compromised. It was implicit that cardiac puncture traumatized
the heart and triggered various changes in hormonal and physio-chemical parameters.
Post collection pathological alterations included hemopericardium, ventricular
hemorrhage and the formation of fibrous tissues in the myocardium and other
complications. These points should be kept in mind while planning an experiment
or evaluating the outcome of an experiment involving cardiac puncture. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

The study was conducted to characterize Local chickens of Dekina based on some phenotypic traits. A total of two thousand four hundred and twenty (2, 420) mature scavenging local chickens were covered. The most predominant plumage colour, shank colour and comb type were brown (41.75%), yellow (40.50%) and single (51%), respectively. Mean bodyweight of mature males (1.32±0.02 kg) was significantly (p<0.05) heavier than the mean of mature females (1.05±0.01 kg). Males were also superior to females in other body parameters measured. Mean egg weight was (28.95±1.21 g). Mean clutch size (7.20±0.20), clutches per hen per year (3.10±0.10) and hatchability of 69.30±1.60% were recorded. Positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation were found between body weight and egg weight and body weight and clutch size. The study showed that the local chickens in Dekina are of the light ecotype class that can be improved by selection and other breeding strategies. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

Zeolite (clinopitolites) was added to broiler feed at concentrations of 1.0%, 1.5% or 2.0% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce Salmonella in broilers and its effects on production performance. These experiments were conducted both in the summer and winter seasons. It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced Salmonella levels, as compared to the control, on the chicken body, in the ceca and on the chicken carcass, both in the winter and summer seasons. In addition, it was found that zeolite treatments had a positive effect on the production parameters that were measured, but only in the winter season. This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control Salmonella at the broiler farm. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

To investigate the effects of heat stress on body weight, intestinal length, mucous area, crypt’s depth, villus height and percentage of cells in proliferation activity in male broiler chickens, one hundred birds of Avian Farms strain were housed in cages and divided into two groups, the reared under heat stress and in thermoneutrality. The group reared under heat stress was submitted daily, from 12-13 h, to 38oC from first to 27th day old and 40oC from 28 to 42nd day. The group reared in thermoneutrality was maintained for 24 h in comfort temperature. The body weight of ten birds of each group was obtained weekly from the first until 42nd day old. Each week, five birds from each group were euthanased by cervical dislocation to obtain intestinal length, the mucous area, crypt’s depth, villus height and percentage of cells in proliferation activity. A completely randomized design was used in a factorial schema 6 x 2 (six ages: one, seven, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days and two ambient temperatures: thermoneutral and heat stress). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5%. The birds stressed by heat presented less crypt depth, mucous area and villus height of duodenum and lower intestinal length at 42 days old. However, heat stress did not influence the percentage of PCNA positive cells, the area of the mucosa, crypt’s depth and villus height in jejunum and ileum. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

The concentration and particle size distribution of airborne particles and toxic gases in two commercial poultry houses were measured and analyzed. This field study was conducted at Al-Ahsa of Saudi Arabia in order to characterize air contaminants in the mechanically ventilated poultry houses under the climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia. In the mechanically ventilated poultry houses (M.V.), the mean Total Suspended Particle concentration (TSP) was 4.25 and 3.64 mg/m3, respectively, the PM10 concentration (particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 μm) was 2.26 and 1.79 mg/m3, respectively and the PM2.5 concentration (particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) was 0.08 and 0.07 mg/m3 respectively. The TSP values were greater than the suggested threshold values for indoor air contaminants in livestock buildings; however, the PM2.5 values of both houses did not exceed the suggested threshold values for indoor air contaminants in livestock buildings. The Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD) based on the mass concentration of particles in both houses was 8.45 and 8.31 μm, respectively. The concentration of NH3, CO2, SO2, NO2 and H2S was measured and the results indicated that ammonia was the dominant gas in both houses. Moreover, the majority of gases did not exceed the threshold values. At the M.V. poultry house, the concentration of airborne particles and toxic gases was strongly affected by the barn ventilation rate. The current results suggested that the increase of air contaminants and gases negatively affect the general productive performance and immune response under commercial conditions. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

The aim of the present research was to, evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of zinc (0, 50, 75, 100 mg/kg diet) on egg quality traits of Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens. The four experimental diets were as follows: T1 = the basal diet (control) without any addition (0 Zn). T2 = 50 mg Zn (pure zinc)/kg diet. T3 = 75 mg Zn (pure zinc)/kg diet T4 = 100 mg Zn(pure zinc)/kg diet. From the applied results which were selected a long the entire research period, we could be conclude the following: All of the egg quality traits and total mean of egg quality of broiler breeders hens were significantly affected by the different levels of dietary zinc supplementation except in both ESG and shell thickness. On the other hand, supplemental dietary zinc detected the highest (p<0.05) egg weight/week as compared to control group and had a significant effect (p<0.05) in accumulative egg weight. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of zinc (0, 50, 75, 100 mg/kg diet) on semen quality of Cobb500 broiler breeder males. The four experimental diets were as follows: T1 = the basal diet (control) without any addition (0 Zn). T2 = 50 mg Zn (pure zinc)/kg diet. T3 = 75 mg Zn (pure zinc)/kg diet T4 = 100 mg Zn (pure zinc)/kg diet. The results showed that, Zinc supplementation had significantly (p<0.05) increased spermatocrit, ejaculate volume, mass motility, individual motility, while dead, abnormal sperm percentage and acrosome deformities were depressed (p<0.05) as affected by zinc supplementation throughout study. As well as, dietary treatments influenced sperm concentration and ejaculate volume during the experimental long. Moreover, results also revealed the superiority (p<0.05) of dietary treatments as compared with control group in respect of total mean of all semen quality. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

Poultry production at all scales of operation is wholly dependent on the supply of day-old chicks. Fertility and hatchability are two major parameters that highly influence the supply of day-old chicks. Fertility refers to the percentage of incubated eggs that are fertile while hatchability is the percentage of fertile eggs that hatch. It is therefore important to understand the factors that influence fertility and hatchability of eggs. For the hatchability traits, breed has little effect on hatchability of poultry eggs, although light breeds have been reported to have higher fertility and hatchability. The diet of breeder poultry should be adequate in both quality and quantity to meet the recommended levels set out in the feed standards for the category. The most influential egg parameters that influence hatchability are: weight, shell thickness and porosity, shape index (described as maximum breadth to length ratio) and the consistency of the contents. Heat stress reduces the external and internal egg qualities. Heat stress affects all phases of semen production in breeder cocks. Hatchability for small eggs is lower compared to that of medium and large eggs. There are many factors contributing to the failure of a fertile egg to hatch which include lethal genes, insufficient nutrients in the egg and exposure to conditions that do not meet the needs of the developing embryo. Breeder factors that affect hatchability include strain, health, nutrition and age of the flock, egg size, weight and quality, egg storage duration and conditions. The optimum temperature range for poultry is 12-26oC. Fertile eggs should not be stored for more than 10-14 days, after 14 days of storage; hatchability begins to decline significantly. The position (large end up or vice versa) of egg storage influences hatchability. Eggs stored with the small end up have higher hatchability as compared to the large end up. Incubation of fertile eggs can be done naturally by a broody hen or in an incubator. The broody hen provides the fertile eggs with optimum environmental conditions (temperature, egg turning and humidity) to stimulate embryonic development until hatching. The incubator is a simulated artificial design that mimics the broody hen’s role of providing fertile eggs with optimum environmental conditions (temperature, egg turning and humidity) to stimulate embryonic development until hatching. A constant incubation temperature of 37.8oC is the thermal homeostasis in the chick embryo and gives the best embryo development and hatchability. Mortality is seen if the temperature drops below 35.6oC or rises above 39.4oC for a number of hours. Egg turning during incubation is critical for successful hatching and influences hatchability. No turning of eggs during incubation results in low hatchability and delays hatch by a few days. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

Most poultry equipments available in Nigeria are imported and the expensive nature of these equipment, the difficulties encountered in purchasing them, coupled with the problem of lack of fund has made large-scale production of poultry very difficult in Nigeria. This paper therefore, discusses the concept of indigenous technology and the relevance of indigenous technology to the economy of Nigeria. The paper further highlighted the food production problems in the country and finally explained the construction of poultry incubator using indigenous knowledge with the aid of local materials. 2011/09/10 - 06:08

Recent work has indicated that phytase enzymes may influence Sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick but to date no work has conclusively demonstrated that the Na requirement of the chick for live performance is influenced by phytase supplementation. In this study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10-0.28% using sodium bicarbonate as the primary source of supplemental Na. Diets were supplemented with no phytase, 500 FTU/kg (1x) or 2,000 FTU/kg (4x) of phytase. When phytase was added the dietary Ca and Nonphytate P (NPP) were adjusted in accordance with anticipated release of these minerals. For 1x phytase the Ca and NPP were reduced 0.10% each and for 4x phytase were reduced by 0.20% each. The combination of seven Na levels and three phytase treatments resulted in 21 dietary treatments, each of which was fed to six replicate pens of five male chicks housed in electrically heated battery brooders with wire floors. Experimental diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum consumption from day of hatch to 18 d. At 16 d of age excreta from each pen was collected and freeze dried to determine moisture content and the excreta analyzed to determine amounts of Ca, P and Na. There were no significant differences in Body Weight (BW), Feed Conversion (FCR), Feed Intake (FI), fecal moisture (FH2O), or mortality of broilers fed diets with different levels of phytase indicating that the dietary adjustment in NPP and Ca levels for the addition of the phytase did not adversely affect performance of the birds. The dietary Na level significantly affected BW, FCR, FI or FH2O. There were no significant interactions of dietary Na and level of phytase supplementation. Regression analysis showed an overall estimate of 0.18±0.01% Na for BW and 0.19±0.01% Na for FCR. There was little indication that the Na requirement was affected by phytase. The level of phytase and Na in the diet had significant effects on excreta levels of P, Ca and Na. The use of lower dietary levels of NPP and Ca in association with the addition of the phytase resulted in significant reduction in excreta levels of these minerals, but had no significant effect on levels of excreted Na. Increasing the dietary Na level significantly affected the levels of all three minerals in the excreta. Although the dietary Na level had significant effects on both excreta P and Ca, these followed no consistent trends with no significant difference in Ca or P excretion between chicks fed diets with the lowest and highest Na levels. There were significant interactions between dietary Na levels and levels of phytase supplementation for all three minerals in the excreta. However, these did not appear to follow any consistent pattern. While it is apparent that phytase influences the metabolism of Na within the body, the data from the present study suggests that this has little impact on the dietary need for Na. 2011/08/03 - 21:06

Pathogenesis of liver steatosis in laying hen remains poorly understood. However, it has been suggested that regulation of the expression of Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase-1 (SCD-1) may alter hepatic lipid metabolism and prevent liver steatosis in laying hens. SCD-1 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids required for the synthesis of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and phospholipids. This study was conducted to determine whether Njangsa Oil Seed (NOS) (Ricinodendron heudelotii) which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically omega-3 fatty acids can regulate the expression of SCD-1 gene and lower hepatic lipid accumulation in laying hens. The experiment was carried out with seventy-two white leghorn hens (24 months old) which were randomly assigned to three layer diet supplemented with 0%, 10% or 20% NOS for 6 weeks. The mRNA levels in SCD-1 gene was quantified using forward and reverse primers specific to chicken SCD-1 in real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique with SYBER Green detection. Histological studies with liver tissues were performed with oil red stain and electron transmission microscope. Results indicate that NOS supplementation at 10% level tended to increase (p>0.05) SCD-1 mRNA expression in hens. Histological examination revealed micro-vesicular fat accumulation in the liver of hen fed NOS diets, indicating that supplementation of NOS in the diet may not prevent development of fatty liver. Results from this study suggest that NOS supplementation may regulate genes involve in lipid biosynthesis but may not prevent liver steatosis. 2011/08/03 - 21:06

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry and it causes major economic losses in the poultry industry. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies for Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) in birds of Grenada. Serum samples from 474 birds including free range chickens (210), broilers (172), Muscovy ducks (50), turkeys (10), rock pigeons (31) and guinea fowl (1) were collected and screened for the presence of antibodies by a flock check ELISA kit. Overall 147 sera were positive for IBV (31.01%). This study demonstrates for the first time, the prevalence of IBV in the island and the Caribbean indicating natural exposure to the virus. 2011/08/03 - 21:06

The impact of winter climate on indoor and outdoor air particulate concentrations (ID and ODPC), concentrations of TSP, sizes and nature in broiler houses were recorded weekly. In closed and Open houses (Chs and OHs) significant positive correlations were recorded between ID and OD climate. Significantly decreased ID Ta.oC and A.V m/sec and increased RH% in open vs closed. OD Ta.oC significantly decreased and RH% increased around OHs vs CHs. In CHs increased (OPC) vs (IPC) except at the 3rd and 4th week. The Indoor Organic Particulate (IOP) started small in sizes (1-2 μm ID and < 5 μm OD). The maximum Particulate Concentration (PC) and sizes were at 3rd week old age on floor litter. In OHs the IPC were permanently increased vs OPC except at the 1st week. Before chicks admission (IOP) were dominated. The Chemical Composition of Organic Particulate Ones (CCOP) showed higher SIO % vs Inorganic Particulate (IP). The indoor organic and inorganic particulates (IOP and IIP) were of big sizes and contained variable percents of non organic oxides of Si+4, AL+3 and Ca+2. IP was smaller than OP at early age but increased with age and contained variable percents of SI, Fe and Ca oxides. Conclusively the dominancy of IOP and OOP with large sizes before admission to 3rd week may induce health risk for birds and keepers. Improper controlled system in stocked poultry houses and the outdoor climate positively affected the indoor one especially in winter. 2011/08/03 - 21:06

The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four protein sources (soyabean meal, fish silage, sardine fish and fishmeal) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated; representing four different proteins sources and was evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckel’s diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the protein sources than the local birds. Out of the four protein sources evaluated in this study, fishmeal had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for fish silage was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001). The lower digestibility of amino acids for soyabean meal is related to the presence of; antinutritional factor, trypsin inhibitor. Fish silage shows a great potential to be used as protein supplements for poultry feeding. The results suggest that the class of chickens and protein source significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study. 2011/08/03 - 21:06