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International Journal of Poultry Science

Contaminated eggs produced by infected laying hens continue to pose a significant public health concern as a leading source of transmission of Salmonella enteritidis infections to humans. A recently implemented national regulatory program for egg-producing poultry in the United States seeks to control egg-borne transmission of illness to consumers via a diverse program of mandatory risk reduction practices plus testing to detect infected flocks. However, many aspects of S. enteritidis infections in laying hens, including the precise relationship between the magnitude of oral exposure and infection parameters such as the numbers of bacteria that reach internal tissues, remain unresolved. In the present study, groups of laying hens were experimentally infected with oral doses of 104, 106, or 108 CFU of a phage type 13a strain of S. enteritidis and the number of S. enteritidis cells in the livers of infected hens was determined at 5 d and 20 d post-inoculation. The frequency of S. enteritidis recovery from livers ranged from 30% (104 CFU dose) to 90% (108 CFU dose) at 5d post-inoculation and from 0% (104 CFU dose) to 40% (108 CFU dose) at 20 d post-inoculation. Significantly (p<0.05) greater numbers of S. enteritidis were isolated from livers at both 5 d and 20 d post-inoculation following inoculation with 108 CFU than after administration of either of the two lower doses. These results demonstrate that the oral exposure dose significantly affects important parameters of S. enteritidis infection in laying hens and could thereby influence the outcome of testing efforts. Interpreting the potential implications of testing results and improving the effectiveness of testing protocols are both contingent on understanding how different levels of exposure are likely to be detected by particular sampling methods 2011/08/03 - 21:06

This Study was conducted to investigate the potential effect of coriander seeds on physiological traits. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acer broiler chick were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments with three replicate pens (15 birds/pen). Birds were fed experimental diets containing 0% (T1), 1% (T2), 2% (T3) and 3% (T4) coriander seed. Feed and water were provided ad libitum during the experiment. Performance and physiological parameters were monitored at the end of the study (6 weeks of age) which includes live body weight, feed conversion ratio (g. Feed gain/g. Gain) total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, GTP, GOT, Alkaline phosphatase, glucose, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides, phospholipids, uric acid, creatinine and antibody titer (ND). Results showed that final body weight was (p<0.01) higher in 2% coriander seed (T3) than all other groups and feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) better for birds that were fed 2% (T3) and (T4) coriander seed than all other groups. Serum protein and albumin were (p<0.05) higher in 2% (T3), While serum globulin (p<0.05) lower in 2% coriander seed (T3) when compared with other groups. GOT and GPT were (p<0.05) lower for 2% (T3) and 3% (T4) coriander seed, while alkaline phosphatase was (p<0.05) lower in 2% (T3) group. Serum glucose (p<0.05) lower in 2% (T3) coriander seed than all other group, Serum cholesterol was (p<0.05) lower in 2% (T3) and 3% (T4) compared with other groups. LDL was (p<0.05) lower in (T3) group, while HDL was (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups when compared with the control. Serum triglycerides and antibody titers were (p<0.05) higher in 2% and 3% coriander seed when compared with other groups. It could be concluded from this study that the inclusion of coriander seeds at levels of 2% have a positive effect on blood pictures, broiler performance and immune system during heat stress (high ambient temperature). 2011/05/05 - 19:51

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of High Ambient Temperature (HAT) on performance of four genotypes of broiler [Rose (RS); Cobb (CB); Hubbard (HB) and Lohmann (LN)]. A total of 700 day-old unsexed broiler chicks were used. Broiler chicks were obtained from four commercial parent stocks all bred in Iraq. Chicks (175 per genotype), 25 per pen, were housed in hall contained 28 pens (seven pens per genotype). Individual Body Weight (BW), in males and females, was determined at hatch and weekly then after at the end of experiment at 49 days of age. Feed Consumption (FC) and Conversion Ratio (FCR) and mortality percentage were determined per pen. All four genotypes were received starter diets (3005 Kcal/Kg feed; 22% CP) from one day to 28 days of age and grower diets (3059 Kcal/Kg feed; 20% CP) from 29 to 49 days of age. The genotype group differed significantly in BW and body weight gain (BWG), FC, FCR and mortality. The hot season effect was largest on BWG form 29-49 days of age along with reduction in FC and partially in FCR. The reduction in BW and BWG in both sexes (males and females) due to HAT appeared to be independent of sex. The greater reduction in FC and FCR was occurred in last period of study (42-49 days of age). This study suggested that standard broiler genotypes must be tested in our hot climates in summer season in order to find the one most suited to perform better in these conditions. Furthermore, it was prefer to marketing broilers at early ages (less than 42 days of age) to avoid the deteriorate effect of HAT on productive performance of broilers. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay and conventional microbiological methods were used to detect bacterial contamination of egg shells and egg content in different commercial housing systems, the open house and evaporative cooling systems. A PCR assay was developed for direct detection using a set of primers specific for the invasion by invA gene for Salmonella and uidA gene, encoding β-glucuronidase for Escherichia coli. PCR detected the presence of Salmonella in 2 (5%) samples of egg shells from the evaporative cooling system, while conventional cultural methods detected no Salmonella from the same samples. No Salmonella was detected from the open house system. The frequency of PCR positive samples for E. coli was 35% (16/40) isolated from the open house system and 42% (16/38) from the evaporative cooling system. Two samples screened for E. coli in egg content was also detected by PCR. In comparison, detection of E. coli by culture, done simultaneously with PCR, was 17.5% (7/40) sensitive in the open house system and 31.5% (12/38) sensitive in the evaporative cooling system. Results indicated that this PCR procedure is a sensitive method for Salmonella and E. coli detection. The contamination of Salmonella and E. coli was found at a high frequency in the evaporative cooling system compared with the open house system. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

Since 2002, control of Newcastle Disease (ND) in South Africa has become complicated following the introduction of lineage 5d/VIId Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) strain (locally known as “goose paramyxovirus” - GPMV). Commercially available ND vaccines appeared less effective. In this study, commercial and SPF hens in lay were vaccinated with La Sota vaccine and challenged with GPMV isolate to assess the effect of both vaccination and challenge on egg production. This study also compared the efficacy of cloacal and ocular routes of vaccination against challenge, following reports that cloacal vaccination offered a better protection against egg production losses than the oro-nasal route of vaccination. Vaccinated birds were fully protected (100%) against challenge by La Sota vaccine, but not against infection and replication of the virus, as birds showed varying degrees of macropathology and confirms the ability of virulent ND strains to infect and replicate even in vaccinated birds. Results also showed no clear difference in the protection of the birds against challenge with GPMV by either the cloacal and ocular routes of vaccination. Mmarginal to severe egg production drop was observed in both commercial and SPF birds after vaccination and challenge experiments. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

This study was carried out to establish the profitability
of small scale broiler production in Onitsha north local government area of
Anambra state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to determine the effects
of socioeconomic characteristics of broiler producers on output and to estimate
the returns of broiler enterprise in the study area. Primary data were collected
from one hundred and thirty five (135) broiler farmers by use of well structured
questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools such as means,
percentages and multiple regression analysis as well as enterprise budget were
applied to analyze the data collected for the study. Findings indicated that
most of the respondents (70%) were males and same were aged between 36-55 years
while most of the farmers have long years of experience in broiler production.
Regression estimates indicated that six variables including experience in broiler
production, farming status, access to credit, labour, number of Day-old chicks
and quantity of feeds exerted statistically significant influence on broiler
production with an R2 of 0.79 and an F-ratio of 39.1. A single broiler
nurtured to maturity had a total cost of
942.14 made up of
30.40 fixed cost and
911.74 variable cost. With gross revenue per bird at
1334.00, net revenue of
391.86 per bird was calculated and this gave a net margin-to-cost ratio of 0.42
which implies that a
1.00 investment in broiler production all things being equal would yield
0.42 in return. It is the recommendation of this study that state and local
governments should improve their credit delivery to farmers as this will go
a long way in improving output. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

Four diets with different crude protein levels 17.75%, 19.95%, 21.85%, 24.08% were used to feed 192 seven-week-old yellow quails in this experiment. During 50-day-old to 95-day-old, laying rate, feed intake and egg weight were recorded to analysis the effect of different levels of dietary protein on the performance of yellow quails. All fences were collected and analysis the effect of different levels of dietary protein on feed digestibility and Crude Protein utilizablity of yellow quails. The results showed that there was no significant difference of the average egg weight in four diets. The laying rate of diet 2 is significant high than others (p<0.05). The difference of the average feed intake was significant (p<0.05) and feed intake of the diet 1 was the highest. Feed intake/egg was significant (p<0.05). There was no significant difference of crude fiber digestibility (p>0.05) but significant of EE and total organism and the utilizability of crude protein was significant difference (p<0.05) in four diets. Result showed that dietary crude protein had significant effect not only on laying performance but also on nutrient digestibility and 20% dietary crude protein was optimum for yellow-feather quails. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

This study concerns the effect of improving health status on testicular development of local guinea fowl reared under natural photoperiod. Two groups of 100 males of guinea fowls chicks were used for the study. One group (T1) served as control and did not received any treatment while the second group (T2) received several treatments including anti-stress, trichonomacid, anticoccidies, dewormer and vaccination against New Castle disease. Results showed no difference in body weight at 28 weeks of age between the 2 groups. However at 24 weeks of age birds in T2 had higher values for mean testicle weight (286±70 versus 148±34 mg). Parameters for seminiferous tubes were also higher for T2 birds: mean volume (74±0.3 versus 63±6.6% of testicle volume), mean diameter (126±24 versus 89±13 μ) and mean length (6.4±0.4 versus 5.1±1 mm). Improved health status also increased population numbers of spermatocytes I, rounds spermatides and interstitial cells. Differences were significant at 20 weeks of age for Sertoli cells. Spermatogenesis starts at 24 weeks of age for T2 birds but at 28 weeks for T1 birds. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

Molting is a natural physiological phenomenon involving the periodic replacement of old feathers with new ones in the avian species. During mid-November an extensive loss of feathers in Japanese quail was observed in our breeding colony. The cause of molting could not be established, however, lower ambient temperatures may have played a major role and the decrease in day length could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. This study was conducted to correlate some aspects of the molting process using various physiological and morphometric parameters. Forty healthy 125-days old layers, hatch-mates, of approximately similar body weights (130.0±3.9 g) and in peak production were used for cohort evaluation of the molting process. Most of the birds lost feathers extensively from the cervical, thorax and dorsum areas, while some did not molt and continued laying eggs as usual, serving as a premolting control group. The molting birds drastically lost body weight weighing on average 117.5 g compared to 130.0 g in the control group and ceased egg production completely. There was a significant increase in blood glucose (293.03 mg/dL vs. 222.11 mg/dL), an increase in PCV values (47.14% vs. 41.43%) and a decrease in total plasma proteins (3.5 g/dl vs. 5.56 g/dl) and oviducts (1.55 g vs. 5.78 g, a decrease of 73.2%). Ovarian follicles underwent atresia and resorption. Birds that recovered from the molt resumed egg production and regained their body weights showing similar morpho-physiological measures of the control values, which changed during the molting phase. Scientists working with Japanese quail should be fully aware of the physiology of the molting process and its impact on on-going studies involving growth, physiology, endocrinology, nutrition, reproduction and toxicology. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

The objective of this study is to determine the production efficiency of egg production in Khorasan Razavi. A cross-sectional data collected from 47 farms in the Khorasan province, as well as secondary data from the Iranian Statistical Year Book, were used to estimate production functions. The analysis was carried in three stages. In the first stage, the Transcendental and Cobb-Douglas production functions were estimated using OLS method. It was found that the transcendental production fit the data better than the Cobb-Douglas production function. The result showed that feed, pullet and cost of Energy inputs are the important factors in egg production. The second stage of the analysis estimated a Transcendental Stochastic production frontier model. The mean Technical, Allocation and Economic efficiency indices were 0. 92, 0.92 and 0.85 respectively. The results showed that farmers did not have major inefficiency in egg production with this current technology and should improve it for increasing production. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

This experiment was performed to investigate the influence of different oils in the diets of laying quail on their egg quality characteristics. One hundred and twenty 7-wk old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were allocated to four groups with three replicates containing 10 quail each (30 quail per each treatment group). They were fed for 13 weeks (including one week of adaptation period) on diets containing 3% oil from different sources, viz. either sunflower (T1), linseed (T2), maize (T3), or fish oil (T4). Inclusion the diet of laying quail with fish oil (T4) and maize oil (T2) resulted in significant increase with respect to egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, albumen diameter, albumen height, shell thickness and Haugh unit during all periods of experiment and in total means of these parameters. However, the addition of different oil sources used in this experiment to quail diets did not significantly affect total means of shell weight, relative weight of albumen and relative weight of shell, while total means of relative weight of yolk, yolk index and albumen index were higher in the birds receiving diets containing fish (T4) and maize (T2) oil than in other treatments (T1 and T3). The results of this experiment clearly demonstrated that supplementation the laying quail diet with fish and maize oil improved most criteria of egg quality. Therefore, incorporation of fish and maize oil into the diets of Japanese quail may have practical value in manipulating egg quality. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

The study examined the profit efficiency and poultry waste management in Egba division of Ogun State, Nigeria. A sample of seventy-two (72) poultry farmers was randomly selected from the study area through structured questionnaires. The data analysis was based on complete responses from a cross-sectional survey of the respondents. The data were analyzed using frequency distribution and frontier profit function. Results showed that poultry production was dominated by males (84.7%) and majority (73.6%) was below 50 years of age. About 98.6% of the poultry farmers had minimum of primary education while 86.1% had less than 10 years of farming experience. 70.9% of the household had up to 6 members in their family while 29.1% had between 7-12 members. Statistics shows that 93.1% of the respondents collected their poultry waste manually using shovel and spade. Majority (76.39%) of the farmers did not treat their farm waste before or after disposal thereby polluting their environment. The poultry ‘waste’ was not considered useful by 63.9% of the farmers. However, the mean level of efficiency for poultry production in the area is 68.44 indicating that there is opportunity to still increase profit by 31.6% if technical, allocative and scale efficiencies are improved upon. Meanwhile, age, experience and sex significantly contributed to inefficiency in poultry farming in the area. It is therefore suggested that livestock farmers should be trained through workshops, conferences and extension services on the conversion and utilization of livestock waste or manure e.g. into organic fertilizers which can easily be made available to the numerous small scale crop farmers to augment the scarce and very expensive inorganic fertilizer. Effective monitoring services should be operated by government to sensitize poultry farmers to reduce environmental pollution and incidence of disease outbreak. Government should reduce import duties on poultry drugs so as to enhance increased production and profitability. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of feeding leucaena seeds supplemented with choline on broiler chicks’ performance. Two levels of choline chloride (0, 0.1%) were added to three levels of leucaena seeds (0, 6 and 12%) and incorporated in broiler starter and finisher diets. All performance parameters were depressed with the inclusion of leucaena seed diets. PCV% of birds fed any level of leucaena seed diets was not significantly different compared to control. Plasma GOT, ALP, Na, Pi, K and globulin were not affected by the dietary treatments. Plasma cholesterol of birds fed leucaena seed diets was significantly lower than that of control. Leg score of birds fed leucaena seed diets was significantly (p<0.05) poorer compared to the control except for birds fed 6% choline supplemented leucaena seeds. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

The present experiment was carried out to determine the effect of dietary methionine levels higher than NRC recommendation on broiler performance and carcass traits. Four dietary levels of methionine 0, 100, 120 and 130% of NRC recommendation were used. Dietary levels of methionine, expressed as percentage of NRC recommendations, significantly (p<0.05) affected feed intake, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER). Feed intake was numerically improved with 110 and 130% of NRC methionine, but was not improved by 120% NRC methionine. Body weight gain was significantly (p<0.05) improved by 110 and 130% of NRC methionine compared to the control. The broiler chicks on methionine higher than NRC showed significant (p<0.05) increase in absolute and relative weight of breast and significant (p<0.05) decrease in abdominal fat. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

The present study was planed to evaluate the effect of adding 2% of Mint, Thyme and Cardamom to the broiler finisher diet for 0, 6, 12 and 18 days before slaughter at 42 days old on the performance, carcase yield and meat flavouring using the two-way ANOVA method for means analysis. The final results showed that there was no significant negative affect for the dried medicinal crops on the performance and carcase traits. On the other hand a significant (p<0.01) positive flavour was indicated for the medicinal crop fed broilers compared to the control, when a cooked samples from breast were evaluated though a taste panel test using a Triangle test method. Serum biochemistry parameters did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) means were numerically 17.8 and 4.5% low in cardamom and thyme fed broiler serum and the High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) means were 1.7, 11.2 and 17.4% high in cardamom, mint and thyme crop fed broiler serum compared with the control respectively. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

This study was performed with broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of adding beta-glucanase on bird performances and digestive organs weights. A total of 1600 1-day-old broilers (Arbor Acres) were divided into 2 groups and fed either a control diet (group C) based on corn, wheat and barley or a control diet supplemented with beta-glucanase preparation (Safizym GP 40, Lesaffre Feed Additives, France) at the dose of 40 mg per kg of diet (group G). Body weight, feed intake were recorded at 40 days of age. The same day, 8 chickens from each group were slaughtered for carcass yield and digestive organs weights. Experimental data were statistically analyzed by using the ANOVA procedure of Stat View programme. Throughout the whole trial period (1-40 days of age), body weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased (+2.9%) in birds of group G (1723 g) compared to those of group C (1674 g). Moreover, there was no significant difference in feed intake between broilers consuming the control diet supplemented or not with beta-glucanase activity (4052 g). However, the feed conversion ratio was significantly reduced by 4% when the basal diet was supplemented with beta-glucanase (p<0.05). The addition of beta-glucanase reduced (p<0.05) the small intestine weight related to the body weight compared to C group (5.40 vs.6.98%, respectively). Thus, it is possible to introduce in the broiler diet up to 35% of barley when beta-glucanase is used at the recommended dose of 40 mg per kg of diet. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

The efficacy and safety of a novel microbial 6-phytase expressed via the use of synthetic genes in Aspergillus oryzae was investigated from d 8 to 22 of age using 480 Ross PM3 broiler chickens. Five treatments were tested. A diet containing 5.6 g/kg of Phosphorus (P) was fed to the control treatment. Another diet containing 4.1 g/kg P was fed to another treatment as negative control. This diet was fed in 3 other treatments with the addition of phytase (500, 1000, or 2000 U/kg). Feed intake, body weight, tibia ash (%) and strength (N) and P and Ca utilization (% of intake) and excretion (g/kg DM) were measured. Enzyme safety was determined by genotoxicity and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies. Lower feed intake and higher weight gain was obtained with the treatment containing 2000 U/kg phytase compared to the two control treatments and the treatment containing 500 U/kg phytase, leading to a significant improvement in FCR with the 2000 U/kg phytase. Tibia strength and ash were improved with the latter and were dose-dependent described by an exponential function. Safety test using a concentrated preparation of the novel 6-phytase enzyme did not reveal any toxicological significant findings. The enzyme did not induce mutagenic activity in the Ames test and did not increase the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells in the micronucleus assay. In conclusion, this novel microbial 6-phytase improved broiler performance and reduces the need for phosphate fortification of feed. In addition, it can be Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) feed ingredient according to the safety test carried out. 2011/05/05 - 19:51

An experiment was conducted to investigate Fungus Myceliated Grain (FMG) feed inclusion strategies for broilers and the effects of this feed on natural Eimeria oocyst excretion and bird performance. Two hundred ninety-four straight-run day-of-hatch broiler chicks were obtained from a local commercial hatchery and randomly distributed in seven treatment groups with three replications of 14 chicks as follows: 1) Control-No FMG; 2) 5% FMG-starter feed; 3) 5% FMG-grower feed; 4) 5% FMG-starter, grower, finisher feed; 5) 10% FMG-starter feed; 6) 10% FMG-grower feed and 7) 10% FMG starter, grower, finisher feed. Fecal oocyst count, mortality, live body and bursa weight were determined at the end of the 7 wk trial. Results showed that broilers in treatments 1 and 2 produced the highest counts of Eimeria, which was significantly higher than that of treatment 6 (p<0.05) with the lowest count of Eimeria. Mortality was not significantly influenced by treatments. There were significant differences in the live and bursa weights, but not in the relative bursa percent. The results suggest the best response in terms of anticoccidial protection occurs with the 10% inclusion in the growers feed and for body weight at the 5% inclusion level in the starter feed. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

Duckweed, a prolific aquatic plant, can be used for products including: biofuels (ethanol) and animal feeds. Researchers at North Carolina State University have worked for a decade to develop a system to produce high-protein duckweed biomass utilizing the nutrient-rich effluent from anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater. This aspect of the project was to evaluate a feeding trial utilizing duckweed materials as a protein source in laying hen feed. The nutrient and energy composition of the Duckweed grown in these conditions was determined, then the impact of duckweed in a commercial layer diet on egg production and feed conversion was evaluated. The duckweed samples analyzed contained 29.05% CP, 25.08% C Fiber and 695 kcal/kg AMEn based on a feeding trial with marker. The analysis was used to formulate a layer diet containing 12.6% duckweed. Both the Control (C) and Duckweed (D) diets were formulated to be Iso-nitrogenous (18.1% Crude Protein) and Iso-caloric (2930 kcal/kg). Sixty Hy-Line, w-36 hens were randomly divided into 4 replicates each containing 15 hens from 76-88 wks of age, 2 replicates were placed on the C Diet and the remaining 2 were fed the D diet. Feed consumption and egg production monitored daily and each wk one days collection was analyzed for USDA Grades, haugh unit, shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and yolk color. On wks 3, 7 and 11 whole 6 egg pooled samples were collected and sent in for nutrient composition laboratory analysis. The D diet had no impact on the hen performance over that of the C diet group, 71.1 and 69.5% hen-day production, respectively. There was a significant increase in the percent Grade B eggs in the hens fed the D by 2% over the C hens. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the nutrient composition of the eggs except for Omega 3 levels which were 0.06 % higher (P<0.0001) than in the C hens. The results indicate that duckweed can be fed at a 12.6% inclusion rate and not impact the performance of laying hens and may be a means of enhancing Omega 3 levels in eggs. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

Human consumption of omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 PUFA) has increased due to reported health benefits. Despite the benefits of n-3 PUFA eggs, the addition of omega-3 enriched feedstuffs like flaxseed and fish oil may reduce egg quality. A standard n-PUFA diet containing flaxseed and fish oil (Diet A), a standard n-PUFA diet supplemented with vitamin B6 (Diet B), a standard n-PUFA diet without fish oil (Diet C) and a conventional milo ration (Diet D) were fed to four separate groups of laying hens to evaluate the effect of these diets on egg quality. Three individual shipments of eggs collected from hens fed these diets were received from a commercial layer operation, where these hens were reared. The eggs were stored for three weeks in a refrigerator to simulate consumer storage conditions. The eggs were evaluated for quality by determining whole egg weight, yolk weight, albumen thickness and Vitelline Membrane Strength (VMS). Significant increases in egg weights were observed in Diet B samples in the first egg shipment and Diets B, C and D in the third egg shipment. Yolk weights were significantly increased with Diet B samples from the third collection. No differences were observed in albumen thickness in any of the three shipments of eggs. Numerical increases in VMS were observed in Diets B, C and D in each of the three shipments, but only the third shipment had significant differences with these treatments. These data suggests that the addition of flaxseed and fish oil may negatively affect egg quality. The addition of vitamin B6 or the removal of fish oil to a standard n-PUFA diet may be comparable to a conventional layer ration’s effect on egg quality. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

The effects of different concentrations (0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg samples) of antioxidant from Tea Catechins (TC) on oxidative stability of raw and cooked spent hen Pectoralis major muscles during chilled storage were studied. Adding TC could delay the accumulation of oxidation in both meat without any effect on shear force value and yield throughout chilled storage. However, discoloration of meat caused by adding TC was more pronounced in cooked samples than that found in raw meat. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of various environmental temperatures and time of sampling on physiological dynamic of broilers. The effect of treatment on level of triiodothyronine hormone (T3), cholesterol, glucose and protein plasma as well as the weight of bursa of Fabricius and spleen in broilers was also estimated. One hundred and fourty 14-d old broilers with 500-600 g of body weight were used as materials. The treatments had two factors, the first factors were consisted of five experiment temperatures (25.55±1.45 with feeding ad libitum; 25.55±1.45 with pair feeding as T2; 25.55±1.45 with pair feeding as T3; 29.29±1.27 with feeding ad libitum and 31.59±1.05oC with feeding ad libitum as T1, T1FP1, T1FP2, T2A and T3A respectively) and the second factors were three times of sampling (4, 8 and 16 days after factor of experiment temperature as D4, D8 and D16 respectively). 5 x 3 split plot experimental design was used to analyze the data (five experiment temperatures and three times of sampling). Data collected were analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was further used to test the significant differences. The experiment resulted that T3 level of T1FP1, T1FP2, T2A and T3A, lower than T1A, meanwhile of D16 and D8 were higher than D4. The cholesterol of T1A was lower than others. Level of glucose of T1A was lower than others too. The weight of bursa of Fabricius of T1A, T1PF1, T1PF2, were higher than T2A and T3A. The weight of spleen of D16 was higher than D8 and D4. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

The effects of posthatch fasting on villi height and number, crypt depth and number of globet cells in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of broiler chicks from heavy and light eggs were compared. The 2 x 3 x 3 factorial design (egg weight: light and heavy eggs; treatments: with water and feed, with water, without water and feed; treatment duration: 24, 48 and 72 h) was used. The villi presented higher size in chicks from heavy than from light eggs. The fasting resulted in lower villi in duodenum (at 48 h), jejunum and ileum (at 72 h). The villi number increased in duodenum and jejunum of chicks from light eggs and only in jejunum of chicks from heavy eggs, but the increase was more accented in chicks from light ones. The fasting reduced the globet cells number in jejunum. Water intake avoided the fasting effects on villi height but had no effect on villi number. Chicks from heavy eggs fed with water and ration presented deeper crypts in all regions of the small intestine. The duodenum and ileum crypt depth of the chicks from heavy eggs reduced when they were submitted to fasting and when they were fed only with water. The results showed that chicks from light eggs were more affected than chicks from heavy eggs. The water intake partially avoided the fasting effects. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

Quail meatballs using different types of flour were analyzed for their proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash and total carbohydrate) and physicochemical properties (cooking yield, moisture retention, fat retention, juiciness, folding test, color, texture profile analysis and sensory qualities). Meatballs were produced using 65% quail meat, 3% flour (cassava, corn, wheat, sago and potato flour), 3.2% soy protein isolate, 10% palm oil, 2.1% salt, 2% sugar, 0.9% mixed spices and 13.8% cool water. The proximate composition of the quail meatballs produced was comprised of 64.94-66.33% moisture, 13.43-14.47% protein, 10.32-13.77% fat, 2.30-2.95% ash and 4.80-7.67% carbohydrates. The cooking yield was highest for the quail meatball formulation using potato flour (98.97%), followed by the yields of formulations using, cassava (97.99%), sago (97.46%), corn (91.06%) and wheat flour (91.00%). Folding test scores were in the range of 3.50-4.67. Lightness (L*) was in the range of 66.06-69.10, redness (a*) was in the range of 1.79-2.25 and yellowness (b*) was in the range of 17.75-17.98. The analyzed texture profiles were significantly different (p<0.05). The hardness of the quail meatballs using potato flour was highest (10.08 kg), followed by the hardness of formulations using wheat (9.18 kg), corn (9.08 kg), sago (8.45) and cassava flour (7.90). The sensory evaluation of the quail meatballs generally produced a moderate score (5) on a 7-point hedonic scale. The sensory score showed that quail meat can be successfully used in the manufacture of meatballs as an alternative to other meats such as beef and chicken, using different types of flour. Cassava flour is one of the best formulations produced and is the most acceptable. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

The functional properties of foods can be preserved when they are coated with edible films, which are especially reduce the moisture loss and the transportation of O2 and CO2. The present research is conducted to study the effect of shellac as coating material and storage time on the internal quality of chicken eggs. 448 fresh chicken eggs were divided into 4 groups of treatments 0, 1, 3 and 5% shellac solutions and stored for 0, 10, 20 and 30 days at 40oC. There was a proportional relationship between the weight loss of eggs and the pH values of untreated eggs (control) during the storage time. A reverse relationship was appeared with coated chicken eggs. The Haugh unit (Hu) usually decrease with the time of storage, but this was limited with coated eggs. No bad changes were associated with internal quality of chicken eggs, so we recommend shellac solution as coating material. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

Our objective was to investigate and elucidate the iron status of the late term broiler (Gallus gallus) embryo and young chick. This would be vital for better understanding of the transition period that the hatchling experience immediately after hatch. For that, blood, liver and small intestinal samples from broiler embryos were taken on embryonic days 12 (12E), 14E, 17E, 19E, day of hatch and 3 days post hatch. Expression of transporters and enzyme involved in Fe uptake and transfer, ie. Divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1; iron uptake transporter), ferroportin (iron transport across the enterocyte) and duodenal cytochrome-B reductase (DcytB; reduces iron at brush border membrane) were determined. In addition, liver tissue samples were analyzed for iron and ferritin (cellular iron storage protein) contents. Samples were also collected from the intestinal contents, yolk sac, amniotic fluid and intestinal content for iron concentration analysis. The intestinal mRNA abundance of DMT1 and DcytB were shown to increase as from day 12E until day 17E, whereas ferroportin expression was unchanged. As from 19E a graduate decrease in relative expression occurred. Liver iron and ferritin concentrations were shown to decrease as from day 12E and as day of hatch approaches. In addition, yolk iron concentrations decreased while iron concentrations in amniotic fluid have increased (days 12E through 17E). This was followed by iron concentrations increase in the intestinal content (day 17E trough day of hatch). In this study, we first document the late term broiler embryo iron related enzyme and transporters gene expression as well as the changes in liver ferritin and liver iron contents. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

A 6 week long experimental trial was conducted to study whether the supplementation of herbal products Superliv liq. and Repchol (supplied by M/S Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, India) are efficacious in treatment of liver and kidney due to CCl4. A total of 75 Cobb day old broilers were divided into three equal groups (n = 25). Group A served as negative control, group B (positive control) and C (treatment group) were induced with FLKS with CCL4 @1 ml/kg body weight orally, administered every 3rd day during 15-28 days of trial. Treated group C were given Superliv Liq. @5 ml/100 chicks/day for first 2 weeks and @ 10 ml/100 chicks/day for 3-6 weeks along with drinking water in combination with Repchol@500 gm/ton of feed from 0-6 weeks. Fatty liver and kidney syndrome lead to depression in growth rate, lowered feed efficiency and disturbances in immunopathological and biochemical parameters. Final mean body weight of group C was significantly (p<0.01) higher than group A and B. A significant (p<0.01) decrease in feed conversion ratio was observed in group C as compared to group B. A significant (p<0.01) decrease in level of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, creatinine, liver enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and increase in serum protein level was recorded in group C as compared to group B on 28th and 42nd day of experiment, which was in confirmation with the values of negative control group A, falling into normal range. Gross and histopathology of liver and kidney revealed that there was mild congestion and negligible degenerative changes in group C in contrast to severe changes of FLKS syndrome in group B. It can be concluded that liver tonic Superliv liquid along with phytoadditive Repchol (supplement for choline and biotin) efficaciously ameliorated the CCl4 induced toxicity, when administered prophylactically in broilers. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

In this investigation, a trial for preparation and evaluation of locally prepared (autogenous) bacterin against the infection with Avibacterium paragallinarum (Avi. paragallinarum) causing infectious coryza disease in layer chickens was done. Two types of adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide and mineral oil based) were compared. At 6 weeks of age, one hundred layer chickens were divided into equally distributed 4 groups each containing 25 birds. Group (1) was vaccinated with Avi. paragallinarum autogenous bacterin containing aluminum hydroxide, while group (2) received Avi. paragallinarum autogenous bacterin containing mineral oil. Both types of bacterins were given in a dose of 0.5 ml/bird and administered intramuscularly (IM). Booster dose of both types of the autogenous bacterins was given in group 1 and 2 at 9 weeks of age. Chickens of group (3) were kept without vaccination. Birds in groups 1, 2 and 3 were challenged with (106 CFU) of live Avi. paragallinarum culture by inoculation into the nasal sinus at 12 weeks old. Group (4) was left as blank control negative (not vaccinated or challenged). Birds after challenge were kept under complete daily observation for 7 days. Signs, mortalities, postmortem lesions, protection rate and reisolation rate of the organism were taken as criteria for bacterin evaluation, also agglutination test were performed on sera to determine the immune response to bacterin at the doses intervals. The results revealed that whatever the type of adjuvant, both different adjuvanted types' bacterines were effective and safe in prevention of infection against Avi. paragallinarum in layers when administered at 6 and boosted at 9 weeks of age. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

In the process of manufacturing duck meatballs, three different fillers (corn, sago and cassava) are used as representatives of grain, root and palm sources of fillers. Different stages of duck meatball processing, such as dough, pre-heating and heating, were analyzed to further the research on the manufacturing process of duck meatballs. In this study, the nutritional contents, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes are collected. In general, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the fillers in the characteristics that we examined. However, there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the different stages of the processing. After preheating and heating, the moisture contents were significantly increased (p<0.05) and the increase in moisture content directly caused other nutrient components to decrease. The pH, lightness, texture, cooking yield, moisture retention, diameter and folding test results were increased (p<0.05) after the preheating and heating stages. Cassava treatment showed a significant higher (p<0.05) in the terms of aroma of the final products meanwhile other sensory attributes were not significantly different (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation for overall acceptability showed that all treatments were acceptable. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

This study investigates the political economy of policy processes surrounding the response to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Cambodia, identifying key actors, networks, associated narratives and practices of policy. With the emergence and spread of HPAI in Cambodia in 2004, international donors and governments intervened in their self-interest in supplying foreign aid in order to control the outbreak as an emergency response to a global health threat. Although the outbreak subsided in 2007 with the assistance of foreign aid, the livelihood of those affected was inadequately addressed. Because 90 per cent of Cambodian poultry is raised in backyards, almost anything achieved with poultry (or livestock) can be considered pro-poor, but this, regrettably, is not of particular interest do donors. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

A case-control study on Newcastle Disease (ND) in avian species was conducted using ten year (from January 2000 to December 2009) clinic records of the avian Clinic of the ultramodern Veterinary Hospital Maiduguri. A total of four thousand six hundred and forty seven (4647) with mean of 38.40±4.391 (Mean±SE) cases of various diseases of avian species were presented to the ultramodern veterinary hospital Maiduguri within the ten year period. Out of these cases ND accounted for 2427 (52.23%), from which 811 (17.5%) were male while 1616 (34.7%) were female avian species. Local fowls (L/Fowls) accounted for 755 (46±9) of all the cases, of which 459 (60.8%) were ND cases. Out of 1293 (74±14) cases in layers 740 (57.2%) were ND while from 709 (27±5) cases recorded in broilers, ND accounted for 268 (37.8%). A total of the 186 (10±2) cases recorded in turkeys, 99 (53.2%) were ND. Out of the 26 (2±0) cases in peacocks, 10 (38.5%) were ND. A total of 76 (4±1) cases recorded in ducks, 19 (25.0%) were ND while out of 46 (3±1) cases in geese, ND accounted for 5 (10.9%) cases. From 753 (45±7) cases in cockerels, 447 (59.4%) were ND. From the total of 106 (6±1) cases recorded in ostriches, 61 (57.5%) were ND. Out of 7 (2±0) cases in African crowned cranes (Cranes), 3 (42.9%) were ND while from 91 (1±0) cases in pigeons, ND accounted for 7 (7.7%) cases. Out of 575 (31±6) cases of guinea fowl (G/Fowls), 306 (53.2%) were ND cases; out of 24 (2±0) cases in psittacines, 3 (12.5%) were ND cases. The distribution of ND among flock size of various avian species showed that flock size 1-50 had 623 (13.40) cases, 51-100 had 548 (11.79%); 101-150 had 595 (12.80%) while flock size 151 and above had 661(14.22%) cases. Newcastle disease among age groups of various avian species showed that birds within the age range of 0-9 weeks had 718 (15.45%), 10-19 weeks 958 (20.61%), 20 weeks and above 412 (8.86%) while 339 (7.29%) cases were birds of unknown age. In the year 2000, 144 (56.7) ND cases were recorded among various avian species, 99 (49.0%) 2001 while 95 (48.2%) in 2002. In the year 2003, 243 (56.2%) cases were ND, 271 (52.7%) in 2004, 265 (46.0%) in 2005, 470 (66.7%) in 2006, 355 (51.2%) in 2007, 242 (35.1%) and 243 (62.9%) in 2008 and 2009 were ND cases respectively. Seasonal peaks of ND cases were shown to occur in January, November and December while the trend for other months showed relative stability. 2011/04/09 - 03:18

Very little is known about the indices of health in free-range helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris); particularly body mass and haematological values. The objective of the study was to determine baseline haematological and body mass values of free-range guinea fowls in Zambia. Body weights were measured and blood samples were collected from 90 clinically healthy adult guinea fowl. The blood was tested for total erythrocyte count, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total plasma proteins, haemoglobin content, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte counts. Erythrocyte indices were also calculated. The study revealed the following results in male guinea fowl 2.650.09 x 1012/l erythrocytes, haemoglobin content 14.20.54 g/dl, packed cells volume 40.80.66%, total plasma protein 3.80.07 g/dl, 22.41.7 x 106/l leucocytes (1.1% basophils, 2.2% eosinophils, 16.5% heterophils, 79.7% lymphocytes and 1.0% monocytes) and body weights 1.240.02 kg. Statistically significant differences between male guinea fowl and female guinea fowl were only found in PCV, haemoglobin and bodyweight values where males had higher PCVs and haemoglobin content and lower body weights. The paper provides comprehensive information on haematological values of adult free-range guinea fowls in Zambia that will be a useful reference resource. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

Fear can be a damaging factor, resulting in poor production and impaired animal welfare. Often fear reactions are elicited in situations that are in some way related to predator defense. As males have a guarding role, mixing the sexes might be a way of reducing fear in flocks of laying hens. Tonic Immobility (TI) is anti-predator behaviours shown by poultry and has been used in behavioural studies to measure the level of fear or stress. A runway test was used in many studies to measure level of sociality in poultry. The effect of males on duration of TI and sociality in female laying hens was studied. ISA Brown and Lohmann Tradition lines were used in each treatment. The treatments were: 1- Female hens and males mixed in a ratio of 1 male to 10 females; 2- All female hens. The presence of males had an effect (p<0.05) on TI-duration and Emergence Time (ET) and Social Reinstatement Time (SRT); females in the mixed-sex groups had shorter TI-duration and showed shorter latency to emerge from the start box and quicker to reinstate with a companion bird than females in the all-female groups. These results indicate that female laying hens show less signs of fear and higher level of sociality if the flock contains males. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

A 8 week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of Toasted Mucuna Seed Meal (TMSM) on the performance and egg qualities of Japanese quail layers. Four (4) isonitrogenous (20% cp) diets were formulated to contain toasted mucuna seed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. Each of the dietary treatments was triplicated with 10 birds per replicate (making a total of 120 birds for the experiment) in a completely randomized design. The birds were offered feed and water ad libitum. The results showed that the quail layers fed up to 15% dietary levels of TMSM had percent hen-day and hen housed egg production, average feed intake, feed intake per egg production and feed intake per gram egg production values that were not statistically different (p>0.05) from those fed the 0% TMSM (control) diet. Albumen width and shell thickness were significantly (p<0.05) lowered by the increasing levels of TMSM, while egg circumference and all yolk parameters were not affected significantly (p>0.05). Dietary inclusion of TMSM at all levels reduced feed cost which was also reflected in feed cost per egg produced and feed cost per bird produced. Therefore the use of TMSM as a feed ingredient up to 15% level in quail layer diets is profitable, feasible and desirable. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

A total of 150 day-old chicks were fed five diets consisted of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% local fish meal instead of imported protein concentration. The trail lasted for 42 days. All fish meal levels chicks obtained similar body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion and mortality to those of control group. The percentage of carcass protein was significantly (p<0.05) increased, while the percentage of fat significantly (p<0.05) decreased. Tenderness and juiciness were not affected by the fish meal levels. The fish flavor of chicks carcasses was observed in the diets contains 75 and 100% local fishmeal. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

In poultry, the reduction in genetic variability of native chicken populations has led to the use of microsatellites in many genetic studies of chicken ecotypes. To be of maximum usefulness as a genetic marker, microsatellite primers should be amplifying the same locus other than the source of the primer sequence in different populations. Even in closely related lines or breeds microsatellite genotyping errors may be introduced from primer mismatches as a result of mutations in the primer binding sites. Therefore, the selection, use and optimization of microsatellites are considered to be a fundamental step towards full success in genetic studies. Herein, 20 microsatellite loci are presented with great potential for diversity studies in Brazilian chicken ecotypes. The analyses of these ecotypes revealed a total of 191 robust alleles, ranging from three to 18, with an average of 9.6 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.785, while the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.688. Additionally, the mean polymorphic information content value (0.731) further reflected high level of polymorphism across all microsatellite loci. The topology of the dendrogram constructed with the neighbour-joining method showed probable patterns of relationship and genetic differentiation among the individual ecotypes. Overall, microsatellite loci have proven to be highly useful for studying the variability of chicken ecotypes in the Mid-North region of Brazil. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Lemmon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) Leaf Meal (LGLM) on growth performances of broiler chickens and its ability to be utilized as a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. The experiment involved two hundred and seventy day-old Abor-acre broiler chickens randomly separated into 3 experimental diet groups, with each being replicated 3 times. Ninety day-old birds were randomly allocated to each group and thirty birds per replicate. The diet groups were: Diet 1 (D 1 = control = basal diet), Diet 2 (D 2 = basal diet +1% LGLM) and Diet 3 (D 3 = basal diet+1% Teramycin antibiotic growth promoter). The birds were brood-reared for six weeks. At day-old the birds were weighed to obtain the initial weight and subsequently weighed weekly to determine weekly body weights and weekly body weight gains. Other parameters taken weekly included feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality rates. All the parameters were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 2006. The results obtained indicate that the performances of the birds placed on control diet (D1) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in all parameters than those placed on D2 and D3. The results further indicated that, although the final body weight of the birds on D2 (1895.56 g) was quantitatively higher than that of the birds in D3 (1875.92 g), the difference was not significant (p>0.05). With respect to feed intake and feed conversion ratio, it was observed that there were no significant differences between the birds in D2 and D3. At the end of the experiment the cumulative mortality rate in D2 (3.67%) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) lower than the mortality rate for the birds in D3 (3.98%). Based on these results, it can be concluded that, considering the risk of drug resistance which the antibiotics tend to impose on broilers, Lemmon grass leaf meal can be considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics growth promoters. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

Field outbreaks of coccidiosis all over the world were commonly reported in chickens over 3-weeks of age. Outbreak of coccidiosis in birds in the first few weeks of life is becoming increasing important but chickens less than 1-week of age appeared not to be susceptible. This case report describes the clinical signs and gross lesions of coccidiosis as well as its microscopic appearance in a five-day old intensively managed broiler breeder chicks. The outbreak occurred in December, 2009 and was characterized by early onset of an acute disease with high mortality. Other clinical features of the disease were: progressive increase and sudden decline of high chick mortality of up to 50%, ruffled feathers, blood stained whitish to brownish diarrhea, weakness and anorexia. Gross lesions seen were congested carcasses, distended caeca and intestinal segments with blood, mucus and tissue debris; retained yolk sac was also observed in some birds. Whole intestines were submitted to the Protozoology and retained yolk sac to Microbiology Laboratories for investigations. A farm visit revealed very poor housing ventilation and wet litter. Laboratory results confirmed coccidian schizonts and gametocytes from caeca and intestinal scrapings. Escherichia coli was isolated from the yolk sac. High hygienic standards must be maintained in hatcheries and poultry houses, damp and warm litter must be avoided and adequate ventilation should always be provided in poultry houses to prevent coccidiosis. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

This report describes an outbreak of an acute, highly lethal, Newcastle Disease (ND) in two broiler flocks that were intensively managed and vaccinated against Newcastle disease. The broiler flocks (325) were four weeks and (450) were six weeks old at the time of the outbreak. Clinical characteristics of the disease included a 100% morbidity, increasing high mortality i.e. 40 birds (day one), 70 birds (day two), 180 (day three) and the entire flocks consisting of 755 birds were lost by the fifth day. Clinical features observed included severe depression, gasping, anorexia, cyanosis and subcutaneous haemorrhages of the legs and shank. Gross lesions seen were severe congestion of skeletal muscles and visceral organs and severe haemorrhages and congestion of the proventriculus, cecal tonsils and trachea, air saculitis with severely congested and pneumonic lungs were observed as well. Ten cloacal swabs from dead and sick birds were tested using a Rapid Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Antigen Detection Test Kits. This Chromatographic- immunoassay tested positive for ND and negative for AI confirming the presence of ND viral antigen. Four dead and live birds taken to National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vom, Nigeria for further confirmation were tested using rapid test kit, haemagglutination inhibition test and viral isolation. These tests were also negative for AI but positive for vvND. Clinical signs and gross lesions of ND and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) seem not to be distinguishable in the field. This is likely going to affect disease reporting and actions to be taken. Vaccination against ND should not be totally relied upon especially when birds are not seromonitored pre and post vaccination. 2011/02/25 - 14:38

A study was carried out in broiler chicken for comparative anthelmintic efficacy of neem and pineapple leave powder with piperazin hydrate for treatment of experimental Ascaridia galli infection. The affected birds had lower levels of Hb, PCV, Ca and P. The profile changed after treatment with neem and pineapple leave powder which was comparable to that observed after treatment with piperazine hydrate. Neem and pineapple leave powder treatment caused cent percent evacuation of the worms on 28th and 56th day post treatment respectively. 2011/02/25 - 14:38