An experiment was conducted at Holetta Agricultural Research Center with the objective of analyzing genotypic diversity and interrelationship of characters in Ethiopian food barley (Hordium vulgare L.) landraces. One hundred two barley accessions and five checks were evaluated using augmented design plots consisting of four complete blocks in 2012 main cropping season. Ten quantitative characters were recorded. Analysis of variance showed significant difference (p<0.01) among accessions for plant height, awn length, peduncle extrusion, thousand seed weight, number of seeds per spike, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. Phenotypic correlation coefficient among characters showed that days to maturity had significant correlation with plant height (r = 0.31), number of seeds per spike (r = 0.30), days to 50% flowering (r = 0.81) and peduncle length (r = -0.31). Altitude had positive and significant correlation with number of seeds per spike (r = 0.40), days to 50% flowering (r = 0.47) and days to maturity (r = 0.44). Cluster analysis grouped accessions in to five distinct classes with maximum number of accessions 44 in cluster (I) and minimum 2 in cluster (V). Principal component analysis showed that variances of 30, 17, 15 and 10% were extracted from the first four principal components, respectively which contributed 72% of the total variation among accessions. Discriminant analysis indicated that around 49% (50 of the 102) and 53% (54 of 102) of the studied accessions were correctly classified to their respective regions of origin and altitude groups, respectively. Days to flowering, days to maturity and number of seeds per spike were the most characters which contributed variances among accessions. In general, this study demonstrated the existence of variation patterns in barley accessions of their regions of origin and altitude groups. Existence of diversity implies further attention and analysis on these accessions.
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