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The International Journal of Bahamian Studies

Classical music has been traditionally not the domain of European musicians -- so we have been led to believe from publications, concerts, and text books. But it is not European property and was never claimed as such. This myth was perpetuated by the musicologists, who were also, not accidentally European. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

The second volume of the Caribbean Art Music Bibliography will include many of the Caribbean countries with a strong art music tradition: Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica, Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Barbados, and Martinique. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

The steel pan was introduced from Trinidad in 1945 and quickly gained popularity (De Jong, 2005). The first steel band in the Caribbean, the Hell's Gate Steel Orchestra, was formed in the late 1940's and is still a force in the Antiguan steel pan scene (De Jong, 2005). More steel bands quickly arose and “the steel pan became the center of cultural life on Antigua and Barbuda” (De Jong, 2005, para. 3). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Most Aruban cultural traditions are the result of the intermingling of the diverse heritages of its inhabitants (Razak, 2005). Musical influences in Aruba are likewise varied, though the most major influences are “African rhythms and European melodies” (Razak, 2005, para. 3). European-influenced dance music exists in the forms of the “Aruban waltz, the danza, the mazurka and the tumba” (Razak, 2005, para. 4). One uniquely Aruban musical tradition is the dande. Dande is a part of Aruban New Year's celebrations, during which groups of musicians visit the homes of friends, family and other members of their community to present holiday greetings in song and music (Razak, 2005). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Owing much to its dual heritage, Barbadian culture is a mix of primarily African and British traditions. Unique forms of indigenous folk music include tuk and spouge music. Tuk music, a local version of the common fife-and-drum marching band, dates back to the 18th century (Bilby, 2008). Tuk music is “lively, with an intricate, pulsating and quick rhythm” (Marshall & Watson, 2008, p. 347). Spouge is a 20th century development (Best, 2005). The Crop Over festival, which originated during colonial times as a harvest festival and which was revived in the 1970s as both a cultural and commercial event, provides an annual venue for traditional and popular music as well as other cultural activities. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Bonaire has musical traditions similar to those of its Antillean neighbors, Aruba and Curacao. All three islands “share a neo-African, drum-centred tradition known as tambu (in Bonaire often referred to as bari), a quintessential Netherlands Antilles folk music” (Bilby, 2013, para. 4). Tumba, a unique mixture of tambu music with other, more modern musical elements, is a particularly popular local musical style (Bilby, 2012). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Folk musical traditions of Curaçao include tambu (also known as “the Curaçao blues”) and tumba (Razak, 2005). Art music has long had a presence in Curaçao. Orchestras, concert societies, and art musical instruction have been in place since the early 19th century (Gansemans, 2008). Composed dance music, for localized versions of dances such as waltz, polkas and mazurkas, is particularly popular in Curaçao (Gansemans, 2008). “The most important of these is the Antillean waltz (also known as the Curaçaoan waltz), distinguished from its European relatives chiefly by its differently accented rhythmic patterns” (Bilby, 2013, para. 10) 2013/12/13 - 10:50

The cultures and traditions of both the French and British colonizers have strong influence in Dominica. Both English and a French Creole are widely spoken (Bilby, 2005). Musical styles in Dominica include folk styles such as bélé; quadrille, influenced by French contradanse; and popular styles such as calypso and the local “cadence-lypso” (Guilbault, 1998). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Calypso is “the dominant popular music genre in the country” (Bugros-McLean, 2005, para. 6). At the annual Carnival, bands parade in a festive display of dance, costume, and music – steel pan in particular. “European dances lost in Europe survive in Carriacou” (McDaniel, 1998, p. 868). The music and movements of the quadrille on Carriacou have adapted “indigenous meaning and stylistic reinterpretation” (p. 871). The island of Carriacou also continues to enjoy the traditional “string band music that had been an integral part of the local culture during the Christmas season” (Bugros-McLean, 2005, para. 10). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Along with its political affiliation, the island maintains cultural ties to France. French is the official language and Creole is also widely spoken (Cyrille, 2008). The “dance repertoire of nineteenth-century French ballrooms” influenced the local styles of music in Martinique (Cyrille, 2005, para. 3). “French contradances, waltzes, polkas and mazurkas were frequently played by bands composed of black musicians who gave them a new twist. They evolved into the Creole waltz, the polka and the mazouk” (Cyrille, 2005, para. 3). The biguine is another musical genre native to Martinique but inspired by French ballroom music. “Characterized by a lively 2/4 meter and an eight-bar structure, the biguine merges rhythmic elements of African origin with European-style harmony” (Cyrille, 2005, para. 3). Other musical styles, such as mazonn and bélé, were inspired by the African heritage of Martinique. Casinos and ballrooms with entry fees, long provided popular performance venues for local musicians (Cyrille, 2005). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Steel pans, arriving from Trinidad in the 1940s, quickly became popular and a wealth of steel bands proliferated (Cramer-Armony & Robinson, 2008). Steel bands became “the musical ensemble of choice for public dances and private parties, concerts and street jamming, displacing the pre-eminence of the horn-based orchestra, the String Band which had always been few in numbers, and the Big Drum” (Armony, n.d., para. 20). The annual St. Kitts Music Festival, held during the summer, brings international popular and jazz musical artists to Basseterre. On Nevis, a new Performing Arts Center (opened in 2012) provides performance and rehearsal space for a variety of performing artists and, it is hoped, will help “to raise the bar of excellence in the arts” (Washington, 2012, para. 6). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Musical traditions of St. Lucia are in many ways similar to those of the other Caribbean islands colonized by the French. Lamagrit (La Marguerite) and Lawóz (La Rose), two societies founded in the 19th century, maintain and influence musical traditions. Both societies hold annual Flower Festivals which feature traditional and popular music (Renard, 2005). Music and dance derived from European dance traditions appear in indigenous forms on St. Lucia. Kwadril (the local creole spelling of quadrille), in particular was, until recently, a popular evening entertainment (Guilbault, 1998). The melodies for quadrilles and other Caribbean contra-dances are “predominantly European in character, although they may be enlivened by conventional improvised embellishments and syncopations, as when St. Lucian fiddlers alternate phrases (and often renditions of a given tune fragment) in binary and ternary meter” (Manuel, 2009, p. 24). 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Traditional music includes string band, quadrille and bélé (Embassy, 2013). String bands and fife-and-drum bands are common on St. Vincent; quadrille and other ballroom music are often performed by such ensembles (Bilby & Neely, 2009). Quadrille is particularly popular in north-eastern parts of St. Vincent, where a large number of the residents are descended from the original Carib inhabitants of the island. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Trinidad and Tobago is most famous for its indigenous musical traditions, calypso and soca and is the birthplace of the steel pan. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Nassau Music Society & the College of the Bahamas present the 2013 Bahamas International Symposium on Composers of African and Afro-Caribbean Descent. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Sharing a history similar to its Caribbean neighbours, yet endowed with greater economic and logistic liquidity, Nassau, The Bahamas’ capital city (on the island of New Providence), seemed the best venue for the first International Symposium on Composers of African & Afro-Caribbean Descent, held on February 21, 2013. New York-based orchestral conductor Marlon Daniel, with his Ensemble du Monde (in tow courtesy of the Nassau Music Society), and enterprising flutist Dr. Christine Gangelhoff, Assistant Professor of Music at the College of The Bahamas (where the symposium was held), built it; and they all came from the USA, Great Britain, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and The Bahamas. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

This article is a transcription of the presentations of the participants of the first session of the International Symposium on Composers of African and Afro-Caribbean Descent held at the College of The Bahamas in February 2013. Edward Bethel moderated the session, which included guest artists Cleophas Adderley, Audrey Dean-Wright, Christian Justilien, and K. Quincy Parker. These four prominent Bahamian composers discussed their pieces, focusing on their compositional style and how/if cultural identity is a strong component of their works. Featured compositions contain hyperlinks to audio/video-recorded examples. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Living up to its name, the CD Fresh Paint certainly introduces a revamp to Bahamian favorites. Performed by Fred Ferguson and Graffiti, this exciting CD quickly captures the attention of listeners. 2013/12/13 - 10:50

Editorial for 2013 Volume 19 2013/10/22 - 18:40

The Arthur Hailey collection at the Harry C. Moore Library of the College of The Bahamas contains over 800 items from Hailey's home at Lyford Cay, New Providence. This collection of commercially published editions of his work is a resource that scholars may use for research on this bestselling author. 2013/10/22 - 18:40

This study focused on law enforcement officers’ perception of factors within a Bahamian law enforcement agency that impede transfer of training. The study design was qualitative. Fifteen participants took part in the study. Data were collected using two focus groups consisting of managers (Sergeants) and subordinates (Corporals and Constables). The analysis used open coding. The overall results of the study revealed that the officers do not perceive the organization as supporting transfer of training. Recommendations were made to promote a supportive work environment. The findings and practical applications are discussed. 2013/10/22 - 18:40

For many Haitians in the Bahamas, migration and the process of adapting to life in an often hostile environment creates stress and may be correlated with high blood pressure. This study examines the social determinants of hypertension among Haitians in the Bahamas by exploring how experiences of migration create stress that is believed to cause high blood pressure. The Haitian explanatory model of high blood pressure, tansyon, explains the relationships between variables such as diet, stress, and poverty, and the blood. Research was conducted in several Haitian communities in New Providence and Abaco using ethnographic methods such as interviews and participant observation. Information about hypertension was also obtained during community blood pressure education workshops conducted in collaboration with Haitian community associations. This study offers valuable insights for public health efforts in the Bahamas on the issue of hypertension in the Haitian community. This study is relevant to researchers studying the connections between hypertension and migration for populations originating from less developed countries. 2013/10/22 - 18:40

Discovery of a hitherto unknown printed catalogue of the collection of the Public Library in Nassau, Bahamas published in 1862 has given library historians a glimpse at the type of books and periodicals available to residents of Nassau during the first decades after emancipation. An analysis of the library’s collection may help to understand the role the library played in the cultural and intellectual life of the Colony and whether it had any influence on the cultural values of 19th century Bahamian society. 2013/10/22 - 18:40

Dogs in the Caribbean have been traditionally viewed as low maintenance pets which are fed leftovers from the household. Changes in the lifestyle of Caribbean families have resulted in changes in their eating patterns. These changes can be expected to have consequences for the feeding of dogs, which may require households to switch to commercial dog food. This paper reports the finding of a survey of groups involved with pets and animal welfare in the Caribbean conducted on behalf of the Pet Food Institute, a non-profit industry association. The study examined perspectives on how dogs are fed in the Caribbean and activities conducted to educate pet owners and the public. Use of household scraps and commercial dog food was associated with household income, except in the case of some high income dependent territories. The findings indicate that while many animal welfare groups in the Caribbean provide educational programs, not all of these provide recommendations on feeding pets and so they neglect to provide information on an important aspect of animal welfare. 2013/10/22 - 18:40

In recent years there has been increasing interest in the use of restorative justice, including its use within the prison environment. This literature review first considers some of the theory and practice of restorative approaches in general terms before turning to consider their application in the Bahamian and wider Caribbean setting, particularly Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The literature review was undertaken collaboratively with the College of The Bahamas faculty involved in a profiling study of the inmates held at Her Majesty’s Prison Fox Hill, Nassau. The findings of that study relating to restorative justice are referred to in the review of sources. 2013/10/22 - 18:40

Plenary address at the College of The Bahamas Independence conference, The Bahamas at 40: Reflecting on the Past, Envisioning the Future. 2013/10/22 - 18:40

This year marks the fifth consecutive year of publication of a research journal by The College of The Bahamas. Conducting and publishing the results of research is the hallmark of a university and The College of The Bahamas is moving steadily toward that goal. The journal is one shard of evidence of the scholarly activity in the College and it is with great pride that we can announce that all articles in this year’s volume were written by College faculty. 2012/10/24 - 10:42

An on-line survey of 1,447 persons indicate that almost all participants (98.4%) knew both their biological father and mother. However, few (7.6%) knew the names of all their great grandparents. The direct female relations on the maternal side were more likely to be known than other similar relations on the paternal side. This knowledge of names confirms the matrifocal nature of Bahamian families and indicates the need for families to take steps to preserve their own history, so as to provide a sense of identity. 2012/10/24 - 10:42

Between 1943 and 1965 an estimated 30,000 Bahamian men and women migrated temporarily to the United States on short-term contracts to work in the agricultural sector. The programme, known as the British West Indies Labor Program, was created to fill labour shortages caused when Americans left the farms to work in more profitable war industries or to serve in the armed forces during World War II. In the Bahamas the programme was sometimes referred to as “The Contract” because each worker signed a contractual agreement to work in the United States. Drawing upon oral histories collected in the early 1990s, this paper uses the recollections of former Contract workers to explore the personal, economic and social ramifications of their experiences working on the Contract. 2012/10/24 - 10:42

This bibliography was compiled to bring together books, scholarly articles, governmental reports and biographical accounts relating to migration of Bahamians to the United States on The Contract between 1943 and 1965. It is intended to supplement the paper by Thompson that is published in this volume of the International Journal of Bahamian Studies and to provide the student of Bahamian history with the stepping stones needed to delve into further research on this fascinating topic. 2012/10/24 - 10:42

We examined the coverage appearing in two Bahamian newspapers of the public debate regarding a proposed bill in 2009 to criminalize marital rape in The Bahamas. We examined the arguments that appeared in newspaper coverage to analyze the ways the newspaper media framed the debate and found that coverage of the debate was mixed but relied heavily on opinions and stereotypical beliefs rather than on facts. 2012/10/24 - 10:42

This study focused on determining whether the learning preference of law enforcement officers in the Bahamas was either pedagogical (teacher-centered) or andragogical (student-centered). Law enforcement personnel in a Bahamian police department were administered the Student Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ) developed by Christian (1982). One hundred and sixty-eight individuals completed the SOQ. Chi square statistics were calculated on the variables of educational level and gender. The preferred learning orientation was primarily andragogical; those with higher education levels tended to have a higher andragogical orientation. There were no differences by gender. As a result of the findings, a three-step approach is proposed to transition the training environment from one that is teacher-centered to one that is learner-centered. 2012/10/24 - 10:42

It has been four years since the International Journal of Bahamian Studies last published a compilation of doctoral dissertations written by College of the Bahamas faculty or dissertations by scholars worldwide with content relevant to Bahamian studies. 2012/10/24 - 10:42

Message from the President of the College of The Bahamas 2011/10/26 - 23:15

Editorial for Volume 17 Isues 1 & 2 2011/10/26 - 23:15

Short report on the discovery of the social wasp polistes Bahamensis located on Great Inagua. 2011/10/26 - 23:15

During a 10-day period between December 2010 and January 2011, a variety of habitats on the island of Great Inagua, Bahamas, West Indies, were surveyed for the presence of spiders. Sampling efforts produced roughly equal species richness in both natural habitats and those that were man made or altered by human activity. Members of the families Araneidae and Tetragnathidae comprised almost half of the species found. Five localities were surveyed from six habitats, including three altered and three natural. Twenty-five species representing ten families were collected. 2011/10/26 - 23:15

This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted), six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%). There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed), sections (north, middle, southwest) and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007). Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances. 2011/10/26 - 23:15

This paper reports the first known study on childhood cruelty towards animals in The Bahamas. An internet survey involving 1,558 respondents allowed childhood cruelty, using the Children and Animals Inventory (CAI), to be investigated in the context of other violent behaviours in the child’s home. The homes of children who did no harm animals were less violent than the homes of children who harmed animals. Consistent with other studies, males were more likely to harm animals than females. Males were more likely than females to harm sentient animals. While the use of violence to train children was not associated with a higher CAI score, domestic violence and the presence of a gun in the home were associated with a higher CAI score. The implications of these findings as they relate to the treatment of living creatures are discussed. 2011/10/26 - 23:15