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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences (IJMS)

Title: Assessment of mercury pollution through mercury resistant marine bacteria in Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, Odisha, India

Authors: Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Das, Surajit

Abstract: Level of mercury pollution by estimating the number of
mercury resistant marine bacteria is examined in this study. Total mercury
levels in the water and sediment samples were estimated between 0.14 and 0.66
ppb (0.00014 and 0.00066 ppm) and from 0.23 to 0.97 ppb (0.00023 to 0.00097
ppm) respectively. pH, temperature and salinity level of the water
samples were in the range of 7.13-7.16, 27.35-36.1ºC and 14.25-15.6 ppt
respectively during this period. Mercury resistant marine bacteria followed the
trend of mercury level and ranged from 2.60×103 to 7.05×104 CFU/mL and from
0.16×103 to 7.4×104 CFU/g in water and sediment respectively. Percentage of
mercury resistant bacteria varied from 0.12 to 89.28 in water and 0.14 to 88.88
in sediment. Some of the resistant isolates (positive for mer operon
mediated mercury resistance) were characterized further. They were found to be
under the genera Vibrio and Bacillus which can resist other toxic
metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, As) as well as antibiotics (AM, VA, NX, AZM, A, AC)
confirming the pollution level in the ecosystem.

Page(s): 1103-1115 2014/07/07 - 05:11

Title: Mercury exposure Aasessment in fish and humans from Sundarban Mangrove Wetland of India

Authors: Chatterjee, M.; Basu, N.; Sarkar, S. K.

Abstract: Present study had documented total mercury levels in
six commonly consumed fish species, and performed a

cross-sectional study on local residents to gauge their
intake of fish (via dietary survey) and mercury exposure (via hair biomarker
analyses). Mean total mercury content in edible composites of locally-caught
fishes (topse, hilsa, mackerel, topse, sardinella, khoira) was low and ranged
from 0.01 to 0.11 μg g-1 mercury, dry
weight. In a cross-sectional study of 58 area residents, the mercury content in
hair ranged from 0.25 to 1.23 μg g-1, with a mean of 0.65 ± 0.23 μg g-1. Hair
mercury level was not influenced by gender, age, or occupation. Mean number of
meals consumed per week was 3.1 ± 1.1, and all participants consumed at least
one fish meal per week. When related to fish consumption, a significant
positive association was found between number of fish meals consumed per week
and hair mercury levels.

Page(s): 1095-1101 2014/07/07 - 05:11

Title: Sedimentary geochemistry of Chorao Island, Mandovi mangrove estuarine complex, Goa

Authors: Sappal, Swati M.; Ramanathan, AL.; Ranjan, Rajesh K.; Singh, Gurmeet

Abstract: Present study highlighted significant anthropogenic
contributions in terms of heavy metal pollution in Mandovi estuarine complex.
Sediment core was collected which was analyzed for different physico-chemical
parameters. Sediments were found to be mature, quartz rich and weathering does
not seem to play any role. Biological activities were significant due to
abundance of S and OC in the sediments which along with the redox conditions
controlled the metal variability. Sediments were found to be enriched with
respect to heavy metals like Pb and Mn indicating anthropogenic influence in
this region.

Page(s): 1085-1094 2014/07/07 - 05:11

Title: Patterns of seasonal variability in granulometric characteristics of Bhitarkanika Mangrove – estuarine complex, East coast of India

Authors: Chauhan, Rita; Ramanathan, A. L.; Adhya, T. K.

Abstract: Textural attributes of recent sediments measured in
terms of
mean (Mz), Standard deviation (σ1),
Skewness (Sk1) and Kurtosis (KG) are widely used to
reconstruct the depositional environments of sediments. Sediments were
collected in three seasons from different areas of Bhitarkanika mangrove
estuary to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability and influence of
sediment transport on grain size characteristics. A marked variation in
granulometric parameters was observed with respect to its geomorphic location
in different seasons. Most of sediments were dominated by fine to very fine
grain size, which are poorly sorted throughout the year. These poorly sorted,
positively skewed fine grained sand indicate depositional process in a low
energy environment. Linear discriminant function (LDF) showed aeolian process
for mixed up sediment causing poor sorting of the sediments during all seasons.

Page(s): 1077-1084 2014/07/07 - 05:11

Title: Investigating the reactions of rip current pattern and sediment transport in rip channel against changes of bed parameters using numerical simulations

Authors: Valipour, A.; Khaniki, A. Karami; Bidokhti, A. A.

Abstract: This paper consists the
effects of bed parameters changes on rip current pattern and sediment transport
in channels by means of numerical simulations. Model predictions are compared
with field observations showing a reasonable agreement. Results of this
research show the general pattern of hydrodynamic current in the form of eddies
with reverse vorticity along the sides of rip current, so that the rate of
erosion along the rip channel and location of sedimentation towards the
offshore zone are affected by these eddies. Present study shows that
morphologic changes in rip channel have a direct relation with non-dimensional
rip flow velocity () and changes in bed parameters, in a way that changes in
non-dimensional cross-sectional flow area () are severely affected by
the distance of bar from the shoreline and slope.

Page(s): 831-840 2014/05/14 - 18:06

Title: Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in marine fish and shellfish

Authors: Anjay; Das, S.C.; Kumar, A.; Kaushik, P.; Kurmi, B.

Abstract: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine
bacterium that causes seafood borne gastroenteritis and traveler’s diarrhea in
humans, after consumption of contaminated raw or partially cooked fish or shell
fish. In this study a total of 224 marine fish and shellfish samples were
screened that included 34 of Bhetki (Lates calcarifer), 40 of Parse (Liza
parsia), 40 of Pabda (Ompok pabda), 30 of Pomfret (Pampus
chinensis), 38 of Lote fish (Harpodon nehereus) and 42 of Tiger
prawn (Penaeus monodon). V. parahaemolyticus was identified by
biochemical characterization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the toxR
gene. Out of 224 samples, V. parahaemolyticus could be isolated and
biochemically characterized from 170 (75.9 %) samples including L.
calcarifer 31 (91.2%), L. parsia 28 (70.0%), O. pabda 30
(75.0%), P. chinensis 22 (73.3%), H. nehereus 28 (73.7%) and P.
monodon 31 (73.8%). All the positive isolates were further confirmed by PCR
amplification of target gene, toxR.

Page(s): 887-890 2014/05/14 - 18:06

Title: New occurrence of big eye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus lowe, 1841 in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India.

Authors: Gowthaman, A M; Jawahar, P; Venkataramani, V K

Page(s): 883-885 2014/05/14 - 18:06

Title: Biodegradation of diesel using microbes from a clam (Meretrixmeretrix) shell

Authors: Mhatre, B A.; Kunde, R.

Abstract: Present study consists
the potential ability of microorganisms present on clam (Meretrixmeretrix)
shells to degrade diesel. Counts of crude oil degrading bacteria in oil
polluted soil fortified with Meretrixmeretrix shells were higher than
that of unfortified soil. Microorganism isolated from the Meretrixmeretrix shells
was found to be Bacillus subtilis, which is seen to have potent lipase
activity, thus capable of degrading diesel and releasing carbon dioxide. This
study show that

clam, Meretrixmeretrix
shells efficiently degrade diesel and can help in bioremediation of oil
polluted regions.

Page(s): 877-881 2014/05/14 - 18:06

Title: Report on one caryophylliid and two dendrophylliid corals in Indian water from Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Authors: Mondal, Tamal; Raghunathan, C; Venkataraman, K

Abstract: Diversity of
Scleractinian of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
has been showing a wide range of species composition of zooxanthallate corals. Thirteen species of azooxanthallete corals
belonging to two families have been reported so far from these islands. Paracyathus caeruleus Duncan,
1889 belonging to family
Caryophylliidae, Balanophyllia merguiensis Duncan, 1889 and Balanophyllia
vanderhorsti Cairns, 2001 belong to
Dendrophylliidae family have been identified and reported as new record to
Indian water from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Detailed taxonomic description of these three new
records of azooxanthallate corals is discussed this paper.

Page(s): 538-541 2014/04/29 - 09:00

Title: Crab biodiversity from Arukkattuthurai to Pasipattinam, south east coast of India

Authors: Varadharajan, D.; Soundarapandian, P.

Abstract: Coastal
environment provides a greater range of habitats and thus potentially supports
greater biodiversity. Before starting to produce seeds in a hatchery and
culture them in ponds, thorough knowledge about their distribution in nature is
important. So the present study is aimed to know the biodiversity of crabs from
Arukkattuthurai to Pasipattinam. Totally 79 individual crab species were
recorded belonging to 21 families from all 10 stations. Maximum crab species
were recorded belonging to the family Portunidae than others families and also
the maximum number of crab species 163 were recorded in Mallipattinam
(station5) and minimum 69 species in Pasipattinam (station10). Occurrence of
crab species in different stations were in the following order; Mallipattinam
(163) > Sethubavachatram (161) > Manamelkudi (127) > Pointcalimere
(117) > Muthupettai (116) > Jegathapattinam (110) > Kattumavadi (101)
> Arukkattuthurai (92) > Adirampattinam (85) > Pasipattinam (69).
Crabs were collected plenty during summer and monsoon than pre-monsoon and
post-monsoon. The crabs belonging to families viz., Calappidae,
Portunidae, Potamidae, Grapsidae, Sesarmidae and Ocypodidae were obtained
almost all seasons.

Page(s): 676-698 2014/04/29 - 09:00

Title: Status of Alcyonacean corals along Tuticorin coast of Gulf of Mannar, Southeastern India

Authors: Rajesh, S.; Raj, K. Diraviya; Mathews, G.; Sivaramakrishnan, T.; Edward, J.K. Patterson

Abstract: In this study, the assessment
of alcyonaceans was conducted in Tuticorin coast of the Gulf of Mannar during
the period between 2010 and 2012 in 5 locations; Vaan, Koswari, Kariyachalli
and Vilanguchalli islands and mainland Punnakayal patch reef. Average
alcyonacean coral cover in Tuticorin coast was 6.76% during 2011-12 which was
5.61% during 2010-2011. Percentage cover of alcyonacean corals increased in all
the study locations; Kariyachalli 12.04 to 13.96%; Vilanguchalli 8.94 to
10.23%; Koswari 1.6 to 3.69; Vaan 0.53 to 0.72; mainland Punnakayal patch reef
4.95 to 5.21% was documented. In total, 15 species from 7 genera were recorded
during the study period. Though anthropogenic threats in Tuticorin coast are
comparatively high, the abundance of alcyonacean corals has increased
considerably showing their resilience and adaptability.

Page(s): 666-675 2014/04/29 - 09:00

Title: A preliminary checklist of marine algae from the Coast of Goa

Authors: Pereira, N.; Almeida, M. R.

Abstract: An updated species list has been compiled
for the marine algae of the Goa coast-on the
basis of fresh collections.
Of the 145 specimens comprising of 64 species of red algae 41 species of green
algae and 40 brown algae, 70 species represent new records for the Goa coast.

Page(s): 655-665 2014/04/29 - 09:00

Title: Chelation technique for the removal of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd and Ni ) from green mussel, Perna viridis

Authors: Azelee, I Wan; Ismail, R; Ali, R; Bakar, W A W A Abu

Abstract: Present research was carried
out to study the efficiency of chelation method to remove heavy metals like
arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) from P. viridis. Chelation method was studied using three types of chelating agents,
namely trisodium citrate, disodium oxalate and sodium acetate.
Metals concentrations were analysed using ICP-MS technique. Results showed that the sodium acetate
gave the highest percentage removal of heavy metals (As 59.50%,
Pb 88.57%, Cd 68.01% and Ni 79.67%) followed by disodium oxalate (As 46.89%, Pb
85.46%, Cd 60.41% and Ni 47.80%) and trisodium citrate (As 38.13%, Pb 68.90%,
Cd 70.49% and Ni 36.92%). The findings showed that sodium acetate was able to
chelate and remove all the studied heavy metals to levels
below the permissible limit set forth by Malaysian Food Regulations (1985) and EU Commission
Regulation (2006).

Page(s): 372-376 2014/03/10 - 11:38

Title: Dinoflagellate [cyst] [S1] as signals for eutrophication in the eastern harbour of Alexandria-Egypt

Authors: Ismael, A; El-Masry, E; Khadr, A

Abstract: Present study provides
information about the cyst assemblages as an indication of eutrophication in
the harbour.
Two sediment core samples were collected from the Eastern Harbour during 2008.
Fifteen genera with 26 species were identified from the two cores with total
cyst abundance ranging from 138 to 1296 cysts [g-1] [s2] dry wt. Protoperidinium
spp. cysts contributed a maximum of 43% to the total cysts, followed by Alexandrium
spp. 21% and Diplopsalis cysts with
13%. During this study, six cyst genera with thirteen heterotrophic
dinoflagellate species were identified with cyst concentration ranging from 12
to 820 cyst [g-1] [s3] dry wt. Total heterotrophic cyst showed a significant
positive correlation with diatoms, sedimentary TP and TN, indicating that
increase in diatoms and nutrient concentrations are the main cause of
heterotrophic dinoflagellate.

Page(s): 365-371 2014/03/10 - 11:38

Title: Distribution of phytoplankton along an environmental gradient off Kakinada, East Coast of India

Authors: Ayajuddin, M.; Pandiyarajan, R. S.; Ansari, Z. A.

Abstract: In the present study phytoplankton distribution and species composition
was examined on a salinity gradient from
River (R), River Mouth (RM) and coastal water (RF) at surface and subsurface
layers along the coast off Kakinada, East Coast of India. Average numerical
abundance of phytoplankton at R, RM and RF are 336 nos.mL-1, 150
nos.mL-1 and
169 nos.mL-1 respectively. Percentage contribution of each group of phytoplankton was in the order: Pinnate
diatoms > Cyanophyceans > Centrales
> Prasinophyceans. However, total phytoplankton species at surface and subsurface water at
all the stations showed presence of 52 and 24 species respectively. At the
group level, cyanophyceans were significant at RF locations. Pennate diatoms
were more at the remaining locations. Species Oscillatoria limosa was found to be abundant at both the surface
and subsurface water with 340 and 488 filaments.mL-1
recpectively. Thalassiothrix longissima
was found to be maximum at surface water but absent in subsurface water. Wide
variation in evenness values (0.16-0.910) suggests uneven distribution of
species along the environmental gradient.

Page(s): 357-364 2014/03/10 - 11:38

Title: Distribution, abundance and diversity of phytoplankton in the inshore waters of Nizampatnam, South East coast of India

Authors: Pandiyarajan, R S; Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Ayajuddin, M; Ansari, Z A

Abstract: Distribution, abundance and species
assemblages of Phytoplankton were studied from inshore waters of Nizampatnam,
South East coast of India in March 2007. Significant spatial variations in temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO),
nitrites (NO2) –N), nitrates (NO3)
– N), phosphate (PO4) –P), silicate (SiO4)
– (Si) were
monitored. A total of 90 species of phytoplankton (net
hauls) represented by 5 groups were identified at nine stations, collected
along three transects during low tide.
Percentage contribution of each group of phytoplankton was in the order: Bacillariophyceans > Dinophyceans > Cyanophyceans >
Euglenophyceans. Pleurosigma angulatum, Navicula sp.
were dominant species in the study area.
Bray - Curtis similarity and group average clustering, recommended identifying
two assemblages of phytoplankton in the study area. High diversity of phytoplankton
in the present area suggests stable environmental conditions.

Page(s): 348-356 2014/03/10 - 11:38

Title: Seasonal variations of some heavy metals in bogue (boops boops l.) inhabiting Antalya bay- Mediterrenean sea, Turkey

Authors: Tekyn-Ozan, Selda

Abstract: Seasonal
accumulation of heavy metals were determined in bogue (Boops boops) collected
monthly from Antalya
Bay by using for ICP-AES
Vista. Two standard material DORM-3 and DOLT-4 were analyzed for each ten
elements. Analysis of these reference materials showed good accuracy. Cd, Cu,
Fe, Ni, Se and Zn were determined in all tissues in all seasons, but other
metals in tissues were below detection limit in some tissues. Fe was the
highest metal in tissues while the lowest was was Cd. Highest of heavy metals were
found in the liver while the lowest concentrations were found in muscle and
gill. Level of metals shows differences among seasons. Metal levels were
highest duirng spring. Positive and negative relationships were found between
metal levels and fish size. Metal concentrations in the muscle of examined fish
were compared with Turkish Food Codex, World Health organization and EC standarts.

Page(s): 198-207 2014/03/04 - 16:47

Title: Quantitative distribution of meiobenthos in the Gulf of Martaban, Myanmar Coast, north-east Andaman Sea

Authors: Ansari, Z. A.; Mehta, Pratik; Furtado, Ramila; Aung, Cherry; Pandiyarajan, R. S.

Abstract: Quantitative
distribution of meiofauna in the depth range 20 to 1000 m of the Gulf of
Martaban, Andaman
Sea was studied from 46
stations during a synaptic survey carried out in April-May 2002 of ORV Sagar
Kanya Cruise SK175. Fauna was dominated by three taxa: free living nematodes
(80%) benthic copepods (5.9%) and foraminiferans (2.8%). Other groups together
contributed more than copepods in total abundance. Total density ranged between
40 and 612/10 cm2 and dry weight biomass from 0.21 to 0.428 mg/10 cm2
in different sediment type and depth zone. Numerical abundance of meiofauna was
high in fine silty clay and low in sandy bottom. Formation of three main
clusters suggests the influence of dominant sediment texture of clayey sand
sand silt clay, silty-clay clayey-silt, and sandy substratum. Fauna was
contagiously distributed except at few stations where the distribution was

of the present study were similar to those of Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal and
the density changes appears to be related to hydrographic condition and
sediment characteristics of the region.

Page(s): 189-197 2014/03/04 - 16:47

Title: Geochemical evaluation of sea surface sediments along the continental shelf, south east coast of India

Authors: Nisha, V; Achyuthan, H

Abstract: Present
study consists geochemical variations and spatial distribution of trace
elements (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of the ocean floor sediments
collected along the continental shelf off East coast Tamil Nadu (Chennai to
Velanganni) during the 2009 southwest monsoon period. Results indicate sand
dominance with abundant calcareous debris and shell fragments. Normalisation of
trace metals with Al signifies a geogenic sediment origin. Enrichment factor
(EF) of trace metals namely Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mn and Zn exhibit an increasing
trend Pb>Cr>Co>Zn>Ni>Cu>Mn

high values of Pb, Cr, Co and Zn due to the anthropogenic source. However,
contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) point less than 1
indicating negligible contamination during the 2009 southwest monsoon


Page(s): 241-251 2014/03/04 - 16:47

Title: Distributional characteristics of surface-layer mesozooplankton in the Bay of Bengal during the 2005 winter monsoon

Authors: Fernandes, Veronica; Ramaiah, N.

Abstract: Present
study consists spatial patterns in biomass, abundance and composition of
mesozooplankton in Bay of Bengal. Surface
samples were collected from a central open ocean transect along 88ºE and
western coastal transect during the 2005 winter monsoon. During the sampling
period, both sea level- and sea surface temperature anomalies inferred from
satellite imagery were the lowest at the southern stations of the western Bay
transect. These anomalies coincided with the highest biomass and abundance of
zooplankton, of copepods in particular. Western region was richer in biomass
and abundance compared to the central waters. Zooplankton community comprised
28 taxonomic groups. Predominant copepod community exhibited low species
richness with just 46 identified species. They were evenly distributed over
stations and their diversity did not vary much between oceanic and coastal

Undinula vulgaris was common in the oceanic waters and Temora
stylifera in the coastal. This study highlights the occurrence of pockets
of dense zooplankton biomass in the moderately productive (primary) bay.

Page(s): 176-188 2014/03/04 - 16:47

Title: Sources of errors in the measurements of underwater profiling radiometer

Authors: Silveira, Noah; Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, Madhubala; Desa, Elgar; Matondkar, S.G. Prabhu; Lotlikar, Aneesh

Abstract: There are various sources of errors from
the measurements of optical parameters using a radiometer, which can be classified
as mode of deployment, instrument and environment. The errors from the
deployment are primarily from the ship and superstructure shadows. Instrument
could be a source of error arising from its self-shadow, drift in the calibration
and temperature effects. There could be large errors, which at times may be
unavoidable to environment factors such as wave focusing at the surface layers,
sea state conditions which may affect the tilt of the instrument, atmospheric
conditions such as cloud cover, solar elevation, wind and rain. Radiometric
optical data in water could also get affected due to Raman scattering and
fluorescence effects. Here we discuss the above sources of errors and how they could
be minimized. From the measurements carried out in the coastal waters off Goa
and Arabian Sea using the hypespectral radiometer,
we propose simple protocol to measure the data and also screen the erroneous
data measured from the radiometer.

Page(s): 88-95 2014/02/19 - 08:45

Title: Real Time wave forecasting using artificial neural network with varying input parameter

Authors: Vimala, J.; Latha, G.; Venkatesan, R.

Abstract: Prediction of significant wave heights
(Hs) is of immense importance in ocean and coastal engineering applications. The
aim of this study is to predict significant wave height values at buoy
locations with the lead time of 3,6,12 and 24 hours using past observations of
wind and wave parameters applying Artificial Neural Network. Although there
exists a number of wave height estimation models, they do not consider all
causative factors without any approximation and consequently their results are
more or less a general approximation of the overall dynamic behaviour. Since
soft computing techniques are totally data driven, based on the duration of the
data availability they can be used for prediction. In the National data buoy
program of National institute
of Ocean Technology, not
all the buoys have wind sensors and wave sensors and so it is attempted to
apply neural network algorithms for prediction of wave heights using wind speed
only as the input and then using only wave height as the input. The measurement
made by the data buoy at DS3 location in Bay of Bengal
(12o11’21"N and 90o43’33"E) are considered, for
the period 2003-2004. Out of this, the data of period Jan 2003-Dec 2003 was
used for training and the data for the period July 2004- Nov 2004 is used for
testing. Real time wave forecasting for 3,6,12 and 24 hours were carried out
for a month at the location chosen and the results show that the ANN technique
proves encouraging for wave forecasting. Performance of ANN for varying inputs
have been analysed and the results are discussed.

Page(s): 82-87 2014/02/19 - 08:45

Title: Prospects for developing a minor port facility at Betul, Goa

Authors: Mathai, Thomas; Kumar, Satish; Rajarama, K. N.; Kumar, P. Praveen; Chandran, M. Suresh

Abstract: Marine and Coastal Surveys Division of
Geological Survey of India, initiated preliminary, integrated geological, geotechnical
and geophysical surveys off Betul for making an appraisal of the developmental
possibilities of setting up a minor port in this sector. Detailed surveys
helped generate a bathymetric map of the area indicating a smooth and gently sloping
seafloor without any hazards, ideal for port development. Sediment cores were
studied to evaluate the sub-seabed sediment package and visualize the seabed
sediment distribution. Mean size of the seabed surface sediments broadly
signifies a sediment milieu encompassing variants from silt to clay, broadly
classified as silty clay. Geotechnical analysis of the sediments helped to
evaluate the engineering properties of the seabed and sub-seabed sediments
quintessential for development of a port in this sector. Clayey sediments have
a high degree of plasticity with a very high swelling potential. Shear
resistance is almost unregistered at almost all levels of the sediment package.
Geotechnical characteristics

of the sediments are generally conducive
for offshore structures. Side scan sonar surveys brought out a clear seafloor, generally
monotonous and thus well suited for a navigational channel access. Current
Observations carried out in the nearshore sector indicate low velocity currents
and are not influenced by tidal variations. Environmental parameters including
Temperature, pH, Salinity, Conductivity and Dissolved Oxygen were
studied to record the conditions prevalent in this sector, for post-development

Page(s): 76-81 2014/02/19 - 08:45

Title: Oscillating environmental responses of the eastern Arabian Sea

Authors: Gerson, Vijay John; Madhu, N V; Jyothibabu, R; Balachandran, K K; Nair, Maheswari; Revichandran, C

Abstract: Characteristics of two distinct physical
processes, the coastal upwelling and convective overturning, which enhance
phytoplankton productivity in the west coast of India, are discussed in this study.
Systematic in-situ data collected during the two contrasting monsoon
(summer and winter) periods were utilized for the study. During summer monsoon,
the colder (27°C), less oxygenated (<190 μM), nitrate rich (NO3-N
>2 μM) waters were evidenced in the upper layers of the southwest coast of
India, along with higher level of primary production (surface - 76 mgC m-3d-1
& column -1629 mgC m-2d-1) and chlorophyll a (surface
- 1.2 mgm-3 & column -45.7 mgm-2). In contrast,
during winter, the upper thermohaline layer of the northeastern Arabian Sea exhibited colder sea surface temperature
(SST, 25-26°C), and deeper mixed layer depth (MLD, >70 m). This area was
distinguished by less oxygenated (<180 μM), nitrate rich (>2μM) and high
productive (surface - >10 mgC m-3d-1 & column -
>800 mgC m-2 d-1) waters. I can be stated that the physically
forced chemical changes occurred in the upper layers of both southeastern and
northeastern Arabian Sea, appeared in an oscillating manner with respect to
monsoonal changes, seemed to trigger the enhancement of phytoplankton productivity
of the area.

Page(s): 67-75 2014/02/19 - 08:45

Title: Organic matter, nutrients and major ions in the sediments of coral reefs and seagrass beds of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, southeast coast of India

Authors: Vinithkurnar, N V; Kumaresan, S; Manjusha, M; Balasubrarnanian, T

Abstract: Comparative
investigations have been made to study the distribution pattern of organic
matter, nutrients and major ions in the Gulf of Mannar
biosphere reserve ecosystem. Sediment samples have been collected during
January 1996 from six islands (Shingle, Kurusadai, Kori, Pumarichan, Manauli
and Hare) of this region covering coral reef zone, seagrass bed and adjacent
areas. Although textural composition of sediment samples showed predominantly
sandy, coral bed areas were found to have greater percentage of coral stones
and shell fragments and with very low silt and clay fractions. About 0.5 to 40
% by dry weight of the sediments were made up of Ca derived from the coral and
molluscan organisms, due to weathering processes. The coral reef sediments
recorded low salinity and higher pH compared to seagrass bed and

areas. Total organic carbon
(TOC) content (1.38 to 9.11 mg/g) of the reef sediments were low when compared
to the seagrass bed and adjacent areas. Higher concentrations of total nitrogen
and total phosphorus were found in the coral reef zone and seagrass bed
revealed that these areas may be viewed as a sink for nutrients, whereas the
adjacent areas act as reservoir for nutrients. The contribution of seagrass and
reef associated organisms play an important role in the recycling of nutrients
in these environments. The seagrass bed sediments recorded higher Na and K
concentrations than the coral reef zone and adjacent areas could be due to the
utilization and trapping of these ions by seagrass and associated organisms.

Page(s): 383-393 2014/01/23 - 10:01

Title: The depositional history of late Quaternary sediments around Mangalore, west coast of India

Authors: Manjunatha, B R; Balakrishna, K

Abstract: Netravati
and Gurpur are relatively large rivers drain the hinterland near Mangalore,
form a common estuary before they debouching into the Arabian
Sea. Lithologic successions observed in a number of bore holes and
dug wells indicate that Netravati and Gurpur rivers drained into the Arabian Sea independently during the last glacial period
when the sea level was about 100-138 m below the present level. In contrast to
Netravati, the lower course of Gurpur has migrated southerly in four stages for
a distance of 8 km and at present forms a common estuary with the Netravati
river. This is because of

drowning of the river channel
due to rapid rise in sea level during the early Holocene and growth of barrier
spit under the strong influence of southerly littoral currents during late
Holocene when the sea level was relatively stabile. The rate of infilling of
alluvial and marshy sediments during late Pleistocene to early Holocene
(0.5-5.0 mm/yr and 0.33-4.33 mm/yr respectively) is about two-three times
slower than that for barrier spit sands accumulation (0.14-1.14 mm/yr) during
the late Holocene.

Page(s): 449-454 2014/01/23 - 10:01

Title: Heavy metal distribution in Pondicherry harbour, southeast coast of India

Authors: Senthilnathan, S; Balasubramanian, T

Abstract: Attempt was
made to evaluate the extent of distribution of selected heavy metals (Cu, Zn,
Cd and Ph) in water, sediment and plankton over a period of two years from
Pondicherry harbour (lat.11°47' N, long.79°50' E). A distinct

variation in the distribution of metals in the ambient water ,. sediment and
plankton was observed. The metals were high during monsoon and low during
summer. The order of metal abundance in water, sediment and plankton was
Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Plankton showed greater adsorption and absorption
capacity for most of the heavy metal as revealed by the concentration factor. A
significant linear relationship was also observed between metal level in the
ambient water and plankton. Salinity plays an important role in the
distribution of metal in the study area.

Page(s): 380-382 2014/01/23 - 10:01

Title: Seasonal and diurnal variation of hydrobiological characters of coastal water of Chennai (Madras), Bay of Bengal

Authors: Subramanian, B; Mahadevan, A

Abstract: Seasonal and
diurnal variations in the hydrobiological characters of coastal water of
southern Chennai, Bay of Bengal were studied.
Parameters such as current, pH, salinity, inorganic nutrients,
(NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, SiO3-
SiO2) and heavy metals exhibited unimodal oscillation and
temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and
suspended solids exhibited bimodal oscillation. Particulate organic carbon (POC)
was positively correlated with suspended solids. Chlorophyll-a (chl-a)
and phytoplankton density

showed two
maxima; one in summer and another in southwest monsoon season and minimum value
during the northeast monsoon. Productivity was low in northeast monsoon
compared with other seasons. Temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a
(chl-a) and productivity increased in the day time and vice versa for
inorganic nutrients. Low tide brought more nutrients and less saline water from
the estuarine region; high tide brought more chl-a from the offshore
water. All the parameters were highly influenced by monsoonal rain,

littoral drift and land
drainage in a season but diurnal variation was due to the combination of more
than one factors.

Page(s): 429-433 2014/01/23 - 10:01

Title: Study on the effect of body length on the hydrodynamic performance of an axi-symmetric underwater vehicle

Authors: Praveen, P C; Krishnankutty, P

Abstract: Present study
consists the effect of variation of the vehicle length on the hydrodynamic
forces and moments of axisymmetric underwater vehicles due to angle of attack.
Five different vehicle lengths are used for this study (L/D varying between 10
and 15) by experimental, numerical and empirical methods. Experimental
investigation is done in a tow tank using a VPMM. Numerical analysis is carried
out using commercial CFD code Fluent 6.2. The empirical estimation is based on
method suggested by Allen & Perkins. Results show that the linear
coefficients vary linearly with L/D, while the nonlinear coefficients vary
nonlinearly with L/D for the range tested.

Page(s): 1013-1022 2014/01/14 - 06:47

Title: Development of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ISiMI6000 for Deep-sea Observation

Authors: Lee, Gyeong-Mok; Park, Jin-Yeong; Kim, Banghyun; Baek, Hyuk; Park, Sungwoo; Shim, Hyungwon; Choi, Go; Kim, Bo-Ram; Kang, Han-Goo; Jun, Bong-Huan; Lee, Pan-Mook; Lee, Phil-Yeob; Jeong, Hun-Sang

Abstract: The Korea
Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) has developed AUVs for survey
on the swallow sea, and is under developing a deep-sea AUV based on the former
experience. Since 2010, the AUV named ISiMI6000 was designed to explore the
deep-seabed topography and hydrothermal vent up to 6,000 m depth. ISiMI6000 was
designed witha cylindrical shape having Myringform to minimize fluid resistance.
It has one main thruster and four control planes, of which the maximum speed is
4 knots and has over 1.5 knots in up/down direction. It equips with an
underwater navigation system composed of Ultra Short Baseline (USBL), Doppler
Velocity Log (DVL), Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS), Inertial
Measurement Unit (IMU), Obstacle Avoid System (OAS), and Global Positioning
System (GPS). Its communication tools are Acoustic Telemetry Modem (ATM) under
the sea and Radio Frequency (RF) modem at surface. Oceanographic sensors were
equipped for precise survey on the deep-sea floor, such as Conductivity
Temperature Depth (CTD), Side Scan Sonar (SSS), methane sensor, and sub-bottom
profiler (SBP) in optional. A HD Camera and LED light was installed for
monitoring the sea floor, and an emergency managing device was designed with a
weight drop system, a radio beacon and a xenon flash. This paper introduces the
system design and configuration of ISiMI6000 and describes the operating
software system in brief. This paper also describes a tank tests and field
tests to evaluate the operation process and navigation performance at the
Southern Sea.

Page(s): 1034-1041 2014/01/14 - 06:47

Title: Observation of Deep Seafloor by Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Ura, Tamaki

Abstract: The AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) is a dynamically stable platform
for visual and acoustic observation of the deep sea floor. It can automatically
take images of seafloor in high resolution. Two examples of observation carried
out by the AUVs r2D4 and Tuna-Sand show significant advantage of the AUV and
give us various ideas of AUV application. The first example is the dive to
Kuroshima Koll by the hovering type AUV Tuna-Sand in June 2010 following the
results of survey by the cruising type AUV r2D4 in January 2010. AUV Tuna-sand
brought us photo images of the seafloor where unusual features in the side
scanning sonar image captured by the AUV r2D4 were found. Second example is
twelve dives over the gas-hydrate field in Toyama bay and took about 7,000 pictures from
2.2 meters above the floor in 1,000 meter depth. One of the mosaic shows that
there are 3,500 snow crabs (Chionoecetes japonicas) in a 40 meters by 20 meters

Page(s): 1028-1033 2014/01/14 - 06:47

Title: A study on the swimming pattern of legged underwater robot

Authors: Kim, Daehyun; Lee, Jihong

Abstract: KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science and
Technology) in Korea
has been developing an underwater robot, Crabster. This robot has been designed
to be able to walk and swim with legs without screws. However, it is difficult
to get fluid dynamics of joint-robots in the water. Therefore, we conducted
simulations with an optimization algorithm for swimming by considering
simplified fluid dynamics in this paper. Drag-coefficient to be applied to the
simulation war approximated values calculated by CFD (Computational Fluid
Dynamics: Tecplot 360, ANSYS). In addition, Optimized swimming patterns were
applied to a real robot. As a result, we estimated drag coefficient by
comparing drag force from simulation with optimized algorithm with drag force
from the experiment with a real robot. And we will verify the swimming pattern
from the optimized algorithm for swimming is most efficient through the

Page(s): 1006-1012 2014/01/14 - 06:47

Title: An updated inventory of new records of coastal macrofauna along Goa, west coast of India

Authors: Hegde, Mahabaleshwar R; Padate, Vinay P; Velip, Dinesh T; Rivonker, Chandrashekher U

Abstract: An assessment of demersal macrofauna for 7
years (2005-2011) through continuous survey (250 trawls, 4 beach seines) with
total effort of 424 hours along the bay estuarine and nearshore waters of Goa,
yielded 84 new records for the region. Among these, Charybdis (Charybdis) goaensis was new to science. In
addition, two species (Thysanophrys
armata and Callionymus sublaevis)
were found to be first records for the Indian waters, seven were new to the
West coast of India
and 74 others were new reports for this region.

Page(s): 898-902 2013/12/17 - 06:33

Title: Screening and partial purification of antifungal metabolite from Streptomyces rochei MSA14: an isolate from marine mining soil of Southwest coast of India.

Authors: Prakash, S.; Ramasubburayan, R.; Iyapparaj, P.; Kumar, C.; Mary, C. Jinitha

Abstract: A total of
fourteen actinobacterial strains were isolated from the mining sediment of
Manavalakurichi, Southeast coast of India. Primary screening results
through agar well diffusion method revealed that 28.57% actinobacterial strains
had in vitro antifungal activity. Most potent actinobacterial isolate MSA14
showed strongest inhibitory activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei
through morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence
characteristics. Crude ethyl acetate extract of S. rochei exhibited wide
spectrum antifungal activity which was ranged between 12 and 17 mm. Further
evaluation of Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum fungicidal
concentration (MFC) showed the values ranged from 50 to 200 and 100 to 200
µg/ml, respectively. Partial purification of crude extract through TLC using
various gradient solvent system recorded different spots of active principles
with the respective Rf values between 0.22 and 0.90. TLC autobiography assay
evidenced that, spot with the Rf value of 0.54 had promising antagonistic

Page(s): 888-897 2013/12/17 - 06:33

Title: Recent benthic foraminifera from off the coast of Arkattuthurai (near Nagapattinam), south east coast of India

Authors: Elakkiya, P.; Manivannan, V.

Abstract: Sediment samples were collected from 12 stations ranging in depth from
<1 m to 6m for the study of foraminiferal fauna. In the present study, 41
foraminiferal species belonging to 22 genera have been identified. It consists
4 arenaceous agglutinated, 16 calcareous porcelaneous and the rest 21
calcareous perforate. Shore station is poorly populated while intermediate
stations of the traverse (station 6 and 7) have a large population. Among the
41 foraminiferal species, the following species viz., Ammonia beccarii, A. dentata, A. tepida, Asterorotalia inflata,
Elphidium crispum, Osangularia venusta, and Quinqueloculina seminulum are found to be widespread and
abundantly occurring. Sedimentological parameters such as CaCO3,
organic matter determined from all these samples ranging from 11.26 – 12.22%,
0.67 - 0.90%, respectively. Out of the possible 12 sediment types (Trefethen,
1950) only three namely, sand, silty sand and clay sand are represented in this
area. Among these three sediment types the most accommodative substrate for
foraminiferal species has been found to be clay sand in the present area. Main
ecological parameters which govern the distribution of foraminifera are organic
matter content, calcium carbonate content and nature of the substrate.

Page(s): 877-887 2013/12/17 - 06:33

Title: New trends of transmission capacity evaluation of submarine fiber cable systems with different ultra high multiplexing, amplification and propagation techniques

Authors: Mohammed, Abd-El-Naser A.; Metawe’e, Mohamed A.; Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki

Abstract: Present study consists new
trends of the performance evaluation of submarine fiber cable system with
different ultra high multiplexing and propagation techniques over wide range of
the affecting parameters. Ultimate optical transmission of 10000 channels huge
submarine cables under different depth conditions were considered in this
study. Two amplification techniques are considered (the engagement of Raman and
Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers). Double impact of both temperature and pressure
is investigated through the defined depth penalty. Three transmission times
division multiplexing techniques are studied namely soliton; nonlinear and
maximum time division multiplexing. Two multiplexing methods are considered in
the design of ultra-wide wavelength division multiplexing (UW-WDM) (10000
optical channels) and
ultra-wide space division multiplexing UW-SDM (400 fiber links). Based on
experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are
tailored as functions of water depth. Product of the transmitted bit rate and
the repeater spacing is processed over wide ranges of the affecting parameters,
where both the repeater spacing and the transmitted soliton bit rate are in
positive correlations with the total number of links.

Page(s): 868-876 2013/12/17 - 06:33

Title: Secondary structure prediction of scleractinia corals: a proteomic approach

Authors: Ramalingam, V; Rajaram, R; Suresh, V

Abstract: Frequency
component analysis of the three corals viz. Acropora
(AF +70), Favia pallida (FP +70) and Montipora digitata (MD +70) indicated
that the peptides were composed of Beta structure, comprising α-helix, β
turn/sheet, extended strend and Random coil. Chemical property of the three
sequences were calculated, the pI is 8.41 with molecular weight 35172.9 kDa,
8.24 with the molecular weight 42187.6 kDa and 9.25 with the molecular weight
36411.8 kDa. There are two domains were present in both AF +70 and FP +70,
under the family of Cytochrome B N and Cytochrome B C.
N-terminal refers to the start of a polypeptide terminated by an amino acid
with free amine group. C-terminal refers to the end of the amino acid chain
terminated by free carboxyl group. Transmembrane helix was predicted based on
the positive and negative charged amino acids. Calcified organic matrix of
scleractinian coral has a protein composition that is characterized by a
predominance of aspartic acid. A binding study indicates that the organic
matrix from the scleractinians has the ability to bind metal ions, cation and
protein complex etc.

Page(s): 503-509 2013/09/09 - 14:19

Title: Ecological status of cerethium caeruleum at dwarka coast, Gujarat (India)

Authors: Gohil, Bharatsinh; Kundu, Rahul

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to
study the present ecological status of Cerethium
caeruleum at Dwarka coast, Gujarat,
India. C. caeruleum is a dominating mollusc
species that are found mostly on the upper middle littoral zone as well as
lower middle littoral zone of the intertidal substratum. As they are covered
with a very hard and solid shell, fluctuation in physical condition hardly
brings any change on their distribution. It was observed from the present
investigation that the frequency values did not show any definite trend at the
sites. It is evident that there is no significant difference of the population
abundance existed between the sites as well as among the seasons.

Page(s): 481-486 2013/09/09 - 14:19

Title: Collection and rearing of marine ornamental fishes from coastal trawl fishery

Authors: Sajeevan, M K; Somvanshi, V S

Abstract: Marine ornamental fishes form a significant
share of trawl fishery, which are generally discarded. Methodology followed for
live collection of marine ornamental fish
and equipments used are presented in the paper. Occurrence of live ornamental fishes in the trawl
catches and factors affecting the survival rate of collected fishes are
discussed. A check list of 66 species belonging to 35 families collected during
the study is added in the text. Altogether 22 species were recommended as most
suitable species for beginners, as they are hardy and easy to maintain in the
tanks. Need for an in depth study on the distribution and abundance of the
marine ornamental fishes often caught in the trawl fishery of the country is
highlighted to evolve exploitation and utilization strategy. Results of present
study will helps to overcome the present hurdles in the industry i.e.
non-availability of continues supply of ornamental fishes for stocking.

Page(s): 476-480 2013/09/09 - 14:19

Title: Improvement in environmental parameters of a highly polluted Indian harbour

Authors: Pati, S K; Rao, M V; Balaji, M

Abstract: Environmental parameters such as, temperature,
salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO),
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and nutrients (nitrite, phosphate and silicate)
were monitored at three stations (Slipway Complex, Ore Berth and Marine Foreman
Jetty) in the highly polluted Visakhapatnam
harbour from February 2007 to January 2009. Above parameters varied spatially
and temporally in the study region. 
Possible causes to such variations were explained.  Results from the study of environmental
factor were compared with past 30 years data. Pollution still exists in Visakhapatnam harbour with
an increasing gradient from Slipway Complex to Ore Berth to Marine Foreman
Jetty. Improvement in environmental parameters was noticed as evidenced from an
increase in pH and reduction of BOD
as well as eutrophication.

Page(s): 487-497 2013/09/09 - 14:19