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Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

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Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)

Title: Identification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins by peptide mass fingerprinting in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Authors: Kumar, Pradeep; Saxena, Abhishake; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, I; Agarwal, S K

Abstract: Ruminant
placentas synthesize pregnancy-associated glycoproteins
(PAGs) during pregnancy, which serve as biomarkers of pregnancy. The present
study was conducted to verify, whether PAGs are expressed in buffalo placenta
by using lectin-based affinity chromatography and peptide mass finger printing
(PMF). Fetal cotyledonary tissues were collected from gravid uteri procured from
slaughtered house. Proteins were extracted and subjected to wheat germ
agglutinin (WGA) lectin affinity chromatography to isolate the PAGs. The
isolated glycoproteins were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. PMF results
of the 75 kDa protein revealed presence of two PAGs (PAG-7
and -11). The PAG-7 consisted of about 170 mass signals, of which 16 were
assigned to corresponding/translated cDNA sequences of buffalo PAG-7, leading to sequence coverage of 40%. PMF result of PAG-11 showed 170 mass signals, of which 15 were
assigned to buffalo PAG-11, leading to
sequence coverage of 34%. In conclusion, the glycoprotein isolated from
placental extract corresponding to 75 kDa band on SDS PAGE gel was a mixture of
PAG-7 and -11, which may help in development of suitable diagnostics for
pregnancy in buffalo.

Page(s): 326-330 2014/09/08 - 19:34

Title: Anti-fatigue effects of polysaccharides extracted from Portulaca oleracea L. in mice

Authors: Xu, Zhongxin; Shan, Ying

Abstract: Portulaca
oleracea L. has been used as a food and medicinal
plant for thousands of years in China. Polysaccharides extracted from P. oleracea L. (POP) are its main
bioactive compound and have multiple pharmacological activities. However,
anti-fatigue effects of POP have not yet been tested. This study was designed
to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of POP in mice using the rotarod and
forced swimming tests. The mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely
normal control group, low-dose POP supplementation group, medium-dose POP
supplementation group and high-dose POP supplementation group. The normal
control group received distilled water and the supplementation groups received
different doses of POP (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively). The POP or
distilled water was administered orally and daily for 30 day. After 30 days,
the rotarod and forced swimming tests were performed and then several
biochemical parameters related to fatigue were determined. The data showed that POP prolonged the riding times and
exhaustive swimming times of mice, decreasing blood lactic acid and serum urea
nitrogen levels, as well as increasing the liver and muscle glycogen contents.
These results indicated that POP had
the anti-fatigue effects.

Page(s): 321-325 2014/09/08 - 19:34

Title: Immobilization of cellulase on TiO2 nanoparticles by physical and covalent methods: A comparative study

Authors: Ahmad, Razi; Sardar, Meryam

Abstract: Immobilization of cellulase from Aspergillus niger on
TiO2 nanoparticles was studied by two different
approaches — physical adsorption and covalent coupling. A. niger was
selected, as it is generally non-pathogenic, is found in nature in the broad
range of habitats and produces cellulase extracellulary. For covalent method,
TiO2 nanoparticles were modified with aminopropyltriethoxysilane
(APTS). The adsorbed and covalently immobilized enzymes showed 76% and 93%
activity, respectively, as compared to the free enzyme. The catalytic
efficiency Vmax/Km increased from
0.4 to 4.0 after covalent attachment, whereas in adsorption method, it
increased slightly from 0.4 to 1.2. The covalently-immobilized and adsorbed
cellulase lost only 25% and 50% of their activity, respectively after 60 min of
incubation at 75°C. The reusability and operational stability data also showed
that covalent coupling increased the stability of the enzyme. The presence of
enzyme on TiO2 nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier-transform
infrared spectroscopy. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM)
and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies indicated aggregation of enzyme when
adsorbed on TiO2 surface and a monolayer of enzyme in covalent
attachment. In conclusion, covalently attached cellulase retained good activity
and thermal stability, as compared to physically adsorbed enzyme. The lower
amount of enzyme activity and thermal stability in case of physically adsorbed
immobilized enzyme was due to aggregation of the enzyme after adsorption on TiO2
nanoparticles, as revealed by HR-TEM and AFM. Thus, TiO2
nanoparticles could be suitable candidates for immobilization of cellulase for
industrial applications like paper, textile, detergent and food industries.

Page(s): 314-320 2014/09/08 - 19:34

Title: Molecular mechanism of interaction of mitocurcumin-1 with Akt1 and STAT3: An In silico approach

Authors: Vasagiri, Nagarjuna; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

Abstract: The bioavailability of curcumin is the
limiting factor for its effective use in anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we
reported a novel approach to enhance the
cellular uptake by conjugating curcumin with triphenyl phosphonium, named
mitocurcumin-1. We found that such conjugation significantly increased
the uptake of curcumin in various cancer cells and caused cancer cell death by
inducing apoptosis by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt1 (Thr308) and STAT3
(Tyr705). In this study, a molecular mechanistic model deciphering the
regulation of phosphorylation of Akt1 and STAT3 by mitocurcumin-1 was
investigated and compared with curcumin. The protein structures were obtained
from protein data bank data base and protein-ligand interaction studies were
performed with mitocurcumin-1 and curcumin. Docking interaction studies of
mitocurcumin-1 with Akt1 and STAT3 active sites showed a strong binding
affinity of -60.4107 Kcal/mol and
-51.1734 Kcal/mol respectively, suggesting mitocurcumin-1 interacted with the
residues at the active sites of phosphorylation of these molecules. Further, a Chi
rotationary root mean square deviation of 1.468 Å and 3.965 Å at the active
sites in Akt1 and STAT3, respectively indicated that changes in the
conformation of protein structure at the active site resulted in the inhibition
of phosphorylation of these molecules. To conclude, by using molecular modeling
approaches for the first time, we demonstrated the inhibition of Akt1 and STAT3
phosphorylation by mitocurcumin-1.

Page(s): 308-313 2014/09/08 - 19:34

Title: Deciphering the binding modes of hematoporphyrin to bovine serum albumin

Authors: Ahmed, Mohammed; Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar; Sarkar, Sisir K

Abstract: Interaction of proteins with small molecules
is important in understanding delivery and transport of different therapeutic
agents, including drugs. In the present study, we investigated the interaction
between hematoporphyrin (HP), the principal component of photosensitizing drug
with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous buffer solution using UV-Vis
absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence measurements. The results were further
substantiated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our
results revealed that fluorescence of BSA was dominantly quenched by the
ground-state complex formation with HP accompanied by the electronic energy
transfer (EET) to the later. We experimentally determined the thermodynamic
parameters such as G0,
H0, and S0
for the HP-BSA system which were -35.5 kJ mole-1,
 -56.4 kJ mole-1 and -0.06 kJ
mole-1 K-1, respectively. These parameters suggested
hydrogen-bonding and Van der Waals forces playing major role in the
complexation. This was also supported by the binding energy parameters
calculated by molecular docking. Moreover, the experimentally determined G0 nicely correlated with those determined by molecular
docking and MD-simulation. Further, computational results clearly showed that
the binding of HP with BSA in the subdomains IB and IIA.

Page(s): 175-187 2014/07/19 - 19:16

Title: A comparative 2D QSAR study on a series of hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors vis-à-vis comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA)

Authors: Bajpai, Anubha; Agarwal, Neeraj; Gupta, Satya P

Abstract: A quantitative structure-activity
relationship (QSAR) study was performed on a series of indole amide analogues
reported by Dai et al. [Bioorg Med
Chem Lett (2003), 13, 1897-1901] to act as histone
deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. The multiple regression analysis (MRA) revealed
a model showing the significant dependence of the activity on molar
refractivity (MR) and global topological charge index (GTCI) of the compounds,
suggesting that inhibition of the HDAC by this series of compounds might
involve the dispersion interaction with the receptor, where charge transfer
between pairs of atoms might greatly help to polarize the molecule. The MRA
results were then compared with those obtained by Guo et al. [Bioorg Med Chem (2005), 13, 5424-5434]
by comparative
molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices
analysis (CoMSIA). It was found that MRA gave as good results and had as good
predictive ability as CoMFA and CoMSIA. Besides, MRA was also able to throw the
light on the physicochemical properties of the molecules that were involved in
drug-receptor interactions, while CoMFA and CoMSIA could not. The dispersion
interaction between the molecule and the active site of the receptor is
suggested to be the main interaction.

Page(s): 244-252 2014/07/19 - 19:16

Title: Some critical aspects of FT-IR, TGA, powder XRD, EDAX and SEM studies of calcium oxalate urinary calculi

Authors: Joshi, Vimal S; Vasant, Sonal R; Bhatt, J G; Joshi, Mihir J

Abstract: Urinary calculi constitute one of the oldest
afflictions of humans as well as animals, which are occurring globally. The
calculi vary in shape, size and composition, which influence their clinical
course. They are usually of the mixed-type with varying percentages of the
ingredients. In medical management of urinary calculi, either the nature of
calculi is to be known or the exact composition of calculi is required. In the
present study, two selected calculi were recovered after
surgery from two different patients for detailed examination and
investigated by using Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),
thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning
electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) techniques.
The study demonstrated that the nature of urinary calculi and presence of major
phase in mixed calculi could be identified by FT-IR, TGA and powder XRD,
however, the exact content of various elements could be found by EDAX only.

Page(s): 237-243 2014/07/19 - 19:16

Title: Fibrinogen, bFGF and VEGF levels during antibiotic therapy in gynecologic cancer: A preliminary report

Authors: Palatyńska-Ulatowska, Aleksandra; Michalska, Marta; Łazarenkow, Andrzej; Nawrot-Modranka, Jolanta; Mirowski, Marek; Palatyński, Antoni; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota

Abstract: The role of angiogenesis in the development of neoplasia has been identified and characterized. However, anti-angiogenic therapeutic
intervention still requires more evidence to become recognized and successful.
The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of selected proangiogenic factors,
such as fibrinogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic
fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in serum of patients with the gynecologic
cancer on the first, third and sixth day of
antibiotic therapy, routinely administered as a perioperative treatment. In
addition, serum concentrations of γ-γ dimers and α-polymers of cross-linked fibrin
structure and the degree of bFGF binding with the fibrin network were
investigated. Immunohistochemistry staining of the excised tumor tissue was
also performed. We observed higher levels of bFGF, VEGF, as well as fibrinogen
in patients with gynecologic malignancy, as compared to healthy women. In
cancer patients, the concentration of α-polymers and γ-γ dimers
of fibrin network increased. Further only γ-γ dimers fraction of fibrin was found
to bind to bFGF. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the presence of bFGF in
an excised tumor tissue. In conclusion, the decrease of proangiogenic bFGF and
fibrinogen levels in a clinical trial of gynecologic patients may confirm
anti-angiogenic properties of selected antibiotic therapy.

Page(s): 230-236 2014/07/19 - 19:16

Title: A study on human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in paediatric bronchial asthma

Authors: Mishra, Mahendra N; Dudeja, Puja; Gupta, Rakesh K

Abstract: Childhood
asthma, often associated with atopy, is more common in boys and may persist
throughout life in 50% of cases. This case-control study was carried out to examine if any association of paediatric bronchial asthma with human
leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens. Thirty-six children with bronchial
asthma diagnosed on basis of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria and
an equal number of healthy controls without
history of bronchial asthma were studied. Low resolution
HLA- ABC typing was performed by sequence specific primers (SSP) and the
frequency of HLA–ABC antigens in the two groups was compared. Total serum
immunoglobulin E (IgE) estimation was done as a marker of atopy by ELISA. The
study included 24 boys and 12 girls aged 13 months to 11 yrs, of which 16 (44%)
had positive family history. Serum IgE levels were elevated in 20 (55%) of the
cases and 33% of controls with peak values of 4877 and 627 IU/ml, respectively.
No statistically significant correlation was observed between childhood asthma
and HLA class I antigens, however, a statistically significant correlation was
observed between serum IgE levels and asthma, which was elevated in cases, as
compared to normal population. Serum IgE levels did not show a linear trend, in
that a direct correlation with the severity of disease was not observed.

Page(s): 160-163 2014/05/13 - 21:49

Title: Effect of gold nanoparticles on superoxide dismutase and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in various rat tissues

Authors: Siddiqi, N J

Abstract: Gold
nanoparticles have diverse applications and are being used in food and cosmetic
industry, for drug delivery and in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
However there is a need to study their biochemical mode of action. In this
study, in vivo effect of gold nanoparticles on the activities of the two
antioxidant enzymes — superoxide dismutase (SOD) and indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was investigated in various tissues of rats. Rats were
injected with 20 μg/kg body wt of 20 nm gold nanoparticles for three
consecutive days through intraperitoneal route. The animals were sacrificed by
CO2 asphyxiation 24 h after the last dose of gold nanoparticles.
Results showed that treatment with gold nanoparticles caused no significant change
in SOD activity in most of the tissues, except kidneys. In kidneys, gold
nanoparticles caused a significant increase in SOD activity, when compared to
the activity in control rats. However, treatment with gold nanoparticles
altered the expression pattern of SOD activity in various tissues. For example,
in control rats highest SOD activity was demonstrated in heart and least in
kidneys and spleen. But, in gold nanoparticles treated rats, maximum SOD
activity was observed in liver and the lowest in spleen. Gold nanoparticles
caused no significant change in IDO activity in the studied tissues.

Page(s): 156-159 2014/05/13 - 21:49

Title: A novel pullulanase from a fungus Hypocrea jecorina QM9414: production and biochemical characterization

Authors: Orhan, Nurdagul; Kiymaz, Nilay Altas; Peksel, Aysegul

Abstract: Pullulanase
production from a fungus Hypocrea jecorina QM9414 that produces native
extracellular hydrolases having industrial applications was carried out in a
shaking flask culture containing 0.5% amylopectin at a pH of 6.50 at 30°C.
The enzyme was purified 11-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation,
anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographies with a yield of 10.12% and a
specific activity of 1.36 ± 0.14
U/mg protein. The molecular mass of pullulanase was estimated to be 130.56 kDa
by PAGE and SDS-PAGE, indicating that the native enzyme was a monomer. The
optimum pH and temperature for purified enzyme was 6.5 and between 35°-65°C, respectively. The Km
values for amylopectin, starch and
pullulan as substrates were 10.7, 15.5
and 38.4 mg/mL, respectively. The Vmax
values were found to be 3.32, 3.32 and 3.82 ΔA/min for amylopectin, starch and pullulan, respectively.
The enzyme was stable at 40-70°C for 30
min, but lost about 33% of its activity at 80°C and about 43% of activity at 90°C and 100°C for the
same incubation period. Pullulanase activity was stimulated by CoCl2,
NiCl2, KI, NaCl, MgCl2, and LiSO4. The enzyme
was slightly inhibited by urea, CaCl2 and
b-mercaptoethanol. The enyzmatic characteristics, substrate specificity
and the products of hydrolysis indicated that the enzyme was similar to those
of type II pullulanases.

Page(s): 149-155 2014/05/13 - 21:49

Title: Purification of a novel chitin-binding lectin with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities from a Bangladeshi cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Authors: Hasan, Imtiaj; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kabir, Syed Rashel

Abstract: A new chitin-binding lectin was purified from a Bangladeshi cultivar ‘Deshi’ of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through
anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies using a chitin column. Sodium dodecyl
sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the molecular
mass of the lectin as 20,000 Daltons.
This molecular mass was almost half of the molecular masses of chitin-binding
lectins derived from other potatoes. The lectin showed both bactericidal and
growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella boydii) pathogenic bacteria.
It also showed antifungal activity against Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger. Biofilm
produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was dose-dependently reduced by 5-20% in 24 h after administration of the
lectin, which was attributed to the glycan-binding property of the lectin
having affinity to GlcNAc polymers. It was the first observation that any
potato lectin prevented biofilm formation by
P. aeruginosa and, therefore, could have possible
applications in clinical microbiology and biomedical science.

Page(s): 142-148 2014/05/13 - 21:49

Title: A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on a few series of potent, highly selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase

Authors: Bharti, Vishwa Deepak; Gupta, Satya P; Kumar, Harish

Abstract: QSAR study was performed on a
series of 1,2-dihydro-4-quinazolinamines,
4,5-dialkylsubstituted-2-imino-1,3-thiazolidine derivatives and
4,5-disubstituted-1,3-oxazolidin-2-imine derivatives studied by Tinker et al. [J Med Chem
(2003), 46, 913-916], Ueda et al. [Bioorg
Med Chem (2004) 12,
4101-4116] and Ueda
et al. [Bioorg Med Chem Lett (2004) 14, 313-316], respectively, as potent, highly selective
inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The iNOS inhibition activity of the whole series of compounds was
analyzed in relation to the physicochemical and molecular properties of the
compounds. The QSAR analysis revealed that the inhibition potency of the
compounds was controlled by a topological parameter 1v (Kier’s first order valence molecular connectivity
index), density (D), surface tension (St) and length (steric parameter) of a substituent. This suggested that the
drug-receptor interaction predominantly involved the dispersion interaction,
but the bulky molecule would face steric problem because of which the molecule
may not completely fit in active sites of the receptor and thus may not have
the optimum interaction.

Page(s): 29-36 2014/03/04 - 21:25

Title: Study of photodynamic, sonodynamic and antioxidative influence on HeLa cell line

Authors: Tomankova, Katerina; Kolarova, Hana; Vachutka, Jaromir; Zapletalova, Jana; Hanakova, Adela; Kaplova, Eva

Abstract: Photodynamic treatment (PDT) in combination
with sonodynamic treatment (SDT) can be used as suitable methods to treat
malignant and benign diseases or combat resistant bacteria. Both methods affect
the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand,
antioxidants are useful for cell protection against ROS. This work was aimed to
study the effect of PDT and SDT treatments on the HeLa cell line using
antioxidant Pronalen Sensitive Skin® as a protection from free radicals in the
cells. We evaluated the effect of sensitizer ClAlPcS2 using battery
of in vitro methods, including MTT assay, kinetic production of ROS,
mitochondrial membrane potential change, type of cell death and microscopic
analysis. Ultrasound treatment was observed to increase the production of ROS,
only in combination with PDT, particularly at higher concentrations of ClAlPcS2.
The added antioxidant acts as protection against free radicals and has
potential as a dietary supplement against aging or free radicals. The results
of study suggested that ClAlPcS2 could be used as a potential
photosensitizer for treatment of a specific type of cancers.

Page(s): 19-28 2014/03/04 - 21:25

Title: Conformational study of N-methylated alanine peptides and design of A inhibitor

Authors: Nandel, Fateh S; Jaswal, Radhika R

Abstract: N-Methylation increases
the proteolytic stability of peptides and leads to improved pharmacological and
increased nematicidal property against plant pathogens. In this study, the
quantum mechanical and molecular dynamic simulation approaches were used to
investigate conformational behavior of peptides containing only N-methylated
alanine (NMeAla) residues and N-methylated alanine and alanine residues at
alternate positions. The amide bond geometry was found to be trans
and the poly NMeAla peptides were shown to populate in the helical
structure without hydrogen bond with
values of ~ 0, 90˚ stabilized by carbonyl-carbonyl interactions. Molecular
dynamic simulations in water/methanol revealed the formation of β-strand
structure, irrespective of the starting geometry due to the interaction of
solvent molecules with the carbonyl groups of peptide backbone. Analysis of
simulation results as a function of time suggested that the opening of helical
structure without hydrogen bond started from C-terminal. Conformational behavior of peptides containing
N-MeAla and Ala
was used to design Ab peptide inhibitor and the model tetrapeptide Ac-Ala-NMeAla-Ala-NHMe in the
β-strand structure was shown to interact with the hydrophobic stretch of
Aβ15-42 peptide.

Page(s): 7-18 2014/03/04 - 21:25

Title: New mathematical derivations for calculation of ATP yield due to the complete oxidation of different types of fatty acids

Authors: Reddy, Banda Venkat; Prasad, Bommena Rajendra; Sinha, Sukesh Narayan; Ahmed, Noor

Abstract: During the
complete oxidation of fatty acids, the electrons removed from fatty acids in
different forms (FADH2 and NADH2) pass through the
respiratory chain, driving the ATP synthesis. Generally, the ATP yield due to
the complete oxidation of fatty acids is calculated by sum total the ATPs
obtained due to the oxidation of FADH2 and NADH2 due to
lack of any particular method. This calculation is simple for saturated even
numbered fatty acids, but in the case of saturated and unsaturated odd numbered
fatty acids the calculation of ATP yield is difficult and needs mathematical
calculations due to some changes in their β-oxidation pathway when compared to
the pathway of saturated even numbered fatty acids. These calculations are made
simple by our derivations and following formulae where we require only number
of carbon atoms and double bonds present in a fatty acid. Our method is
superior and easier in comparison to long mathematical calculations that are in
the practice.

Page(s): 52-57 2014/03/04 - 21:25

Title: Purification and characterization of structural and functional properties of two lectins from a marine sponge Spheciospongia vesparia

Authors: Fenton, Bertha; Espinosa, Roberto Arreguín; Contreras, Edgar Vázquez; Lozano, Barbarin Arreguín; Sánchez, Norma Sánchez; Hernández, Enrique García; Galindo, Edgar Zenteno

Abstract: The purification, structural and functional
characterization of two different lectins (named Svl-1 and Svl-2) has been
reported from the marine sponge Spheciospongia vesparia. Purification
procedure includes ammonium sulfate precipitation, combined with chromatography
including Octyl-Sepharose-(NH4)SO4 hydrophobic column and
anion-exchange column using a high performance liquid chromatography. The
similarities in function, specificity for saccharides, molecular weight, amino
acid content and the N-terminal sequence of two lectins suggest that these
proteins are isolectins. Amino acid composition and fluorescence analyses
reveal that they contain an intrachain disulfide bridge, which might contribute
to their high thermal stability. Furthermore, the purified lectins exhibit
antibacterial activity against the gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and E. coli, indicating that they may be involved in a
recognition strategy and may play a role in the defense response function of
the sponge. This is the first report on the isolation of lectins from the S.
vesparia. The purified lectins represent a potential possible candidate for
future application in the recognition or treatment of cancer cells.

Page(s): 562-569 2013/12/27 - 21:12

Title: Purification and characterization of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hepatopancreas

Authors: Sun, Lin-Dan; Luo, Zhi; Hu, Wei; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Chen, Qi-Liang; Liang, Xu-Fang; Xiong, Bang-Xi

Abstract: 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD, E.C.: was
purified and characterized from the hepatopancreas of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
for the first time. Grass carp represents the second largest aquaculture industry
in the world after silver carp, constituting 14.7% of the world aquaculture
production, with an average annual increase of 14% in China, mainly as a source of food.
The purification procedure involved a single 2’, 5’-ADP-Sepharose
4B affinity chromatographic step by using different elution buffers. The enzyme
was purified 309-fold with a specific activity of
5.259 U/mg protein and yield of 68%. The purity and subunit molecular weights
of the 6-PGD were checked on SDS-PAGE and purified enzyme showed a single band
on the gel. The subunit molecular mass was 57 kDa, with an optimum pH,
temperature and ionic strength at 7.96, 50oC and 100 mM Tris-HCl, respectively. The Km values of 6-PGA and NADP+ were 0.019 and 0.0052 mM, respectively, while Vm of 6-PGA and NADP+
was 0.69 U/ml. Dissociation constants (Ki)
for 6-PGA and NADP+ were 2.05 and 0.12 mM, respectively. NADPH inhibited the enzyme in a
competitive manner and its Ki
value was 0.032 mM. The
Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Al3+ showed
inhibitory effects on the enzyme with IC50 values of 0.293, 0.099,
0.045 and 1.526 mM,
respectively. All tested metals inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner,
indicating that these metals might be toxic even at low concentrations for the
6-PGD. As the fish is one of valuable foodstuff of animal sources for human
consumption, under certain environmental conditions, metal ions accumulated in
fish up to a lethal concentration may be harmful for human health. Therefore,
it is impending to reduce the concentration of metal ions in contaminated lakes
and rivers for fishery and also for human health.

Page(s): 554-561 2013/12/27 - 21:12

Title: Carotenoid genes transcriptional regulation for astaxanthin accumulation in fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis by gibberellin A3 (GA3)

Authors: Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Gao, Hongzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Shitan; Liu, Banghui; Su, Yuanfeng; Ye, Naihao

Abstract: The fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus
pluvialis is a promising natural source of astaxanthin. The present study
investigated the transcriptional expression of carotenoid genes for astaxanthin
accumulation in H. pluvialis using real-time fluorescence quantitative
PCR (qRT-PCR). With treatments of 20 and 40 mg/L of gibberllin A3
(GA3), five genes ipi-1,
ipi-2, psy, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated with
different expression profiles. GA20 (20 mg/L of GA3) treatment had a
greater effect on transcriptional expression of bkt2 than on ipi-1
ipi-2, psy and pds (>4-fold up-regulation). However,
GA40 (40 mg/L of GA3) induced more transcriptional expression of ipi-2,
psy and bkt2 than both ipi-1 and pds. The
expression of lyc, crtR-B and crtO for astaxanthin
biosynthesis was not affected by GA3 in H. piuvialis. In
the presence of GA3, astaxanthin biosynthesis genes of ipi-1, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated
at transcriptional level, psy at post-transcriptional level, whereas ipi-2
was up-regulated at both levels. The study could potentially lead to a scale
application of exogenous GA3 in astaxanthin
production with H. pluvialis just like GAs perform in
increasing crops production and it would provide new insight about the
multifunctional roles of carotenogenesis in response to GA3.

Page(s): 548-553 2013/12/27 - 21:12

Title: Inhibitory effect of Piper betle Linn. leaf extract on protein glycation - Quantification and characterization of the antiglycation components

Authors: Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

Abstract: Piper betle Linn. is a Pan-Asiatic plant having
several beneficial properties. Protein glycation and advanced glycation end
products (AGEs) formation are associated with different pathophysiological
conditions, including diabetes mellitus. Our study aims to find the effect of methanolic extract of P.
betle leaves on in vitro
protein glycation in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose model. The
extract inhibits glucose-induced glycation, thiol group modification and
carbonyl formation in BSA in dose-dependent manner. It inhibits different
stages of protein glycation, as demonstrated by using glycation models:
hemoglobin-d-gluconolactone (for early stage, Amadori product
formation), BSA-methylglyoxal (for middle stage, formation of oxidative
cleavage products) and BSA-glucose (for last stage, formation of AGEs) systems.
Several phenolic compounds are isolated from the extract. Considering their
relative amounts present in the extract, rutin appears to be the most active
antiglycating agent. The extract of P. betle leaf may thus have
beneficial effect in preventing protein glycation and associated complications
in pathological conditions.

Page(s): 529-536 2013/12/27 - 21:12

Title: Inflammation and MMPs in Alcohol-induced Liver Diseases and Protective Action of Antioxidants

Authors: Banerjee, Pamela; Jana, Sayantan; Chakraborty, Somsuta; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

Abstract: The consumption of alcohol causes several
liver-associated diseases all over the world. Alcoholic liver diseases (ALD)
include hepatic inflammation, fatty liver, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and
fibrosis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the cellular, metabolic
and biochemical mechanisms for these diseases are quite explicable, the roles
of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are
still under investigation. The present review describes the roles and
regulation of MMPs and TIMPs in different ALDs along with the involvement of
other pathways. This review also summarizes the present knowledge on clinical
and experimental trials with different antioxidants that help against alcohol
associated liver diseases.

Page(s): 377-386 2013/11/05 - 13:43

Title: Protease Inhibitors in Potential Drug Development for Leishmaniasis

Authors: Das, Partha; Alam, Md Nur; Paik, Dibyendu; Karmakar, Kanchan; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a deadly protozoan
parasitic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The treatment
strategy of Leishmania infection
depends exclusively on chemotherapy till date. But the treatment of the disease
is greatly hampered due to high cost, toxicity of the available drugs and more
importantly emergence of drug resistance. Hence the
potential new drugs are highly needed to
combat this disease. The first and foremost step of the drug discovery process
is to search and select the putative target in a specific biological pathway in
the parasite that should be either unambiguously absent in the host or
considerably different from the host homolog. Importantly, Leishmania genome sequences enrich our knowledge about Leishmania and simultaneously reinforce us to identify the ideal drug
targets that distinctly exist in the parasite as well as to develop the
effective drugs for leishmaniasis. Though the leishmanial
research has significantly progressed during the past
two decades, the identification of suitable
drug targets or development of effective drugs to combat leishmaniasis is far
from satisfactory. Enzymatic systems of Leishmania
metabolic and biochemical pathways are essential for their survival and
infection. Concurrently, it is noteworthy that Leishmania proteases, especially the cysteine proteases,
metalloproteases and serine proteases have been extensively investigated and
found to be indispensable for the survival of the parasites and disease
pathogenesis. Herein, we have discussed the
importance of few enzymes, particularly the Leishmania
proteases and their inhibitors as promising candidates for potential
development of anti-leishmanial drugs.

Page(s): 363-376 2013/11/05 - 13:43

Title: Molecular Diagnosis of Urea Cycle Disorders: Current Global Scenario

Authors: Vaidyanathan, K

Abstract: Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn
error of metabolism, characterized by hyperammonemia, metabolic alkalosis and
clinical features of encephalopathy. These are among the commonest types of
inborn errors of metabolism with a frequency of 1 in 8,000 to 1 in 30,000 in
different population. This encompasses 5 major disorders, corresponding with
deficiency of each step in the urea cycle, namely ornithine transcarbamoylase
(OTC) deficiency, argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) deficiency, carbamoyl phosphate
synthetase (CPS) deficiency, citrullinemia and argininemia. The most important
clinical presentation is neurological abnormalities. The severity of UCD is
correlated to extent of hyperammonemia. Early diagnosis and treatment are
essential for successful patient outcome. Various modalities of treatment have
been recommended; namely, treatment aimed at reducing ammonia level, including
drugs like sodium benzoate and sodium phenyl butyrate, neuroprotective
strategies, low protein diet, liver transplantation and hepatocyte transplantation.
Molecular diagnosis is important to identify the pathogenesis of these
disorders as well as it helps in prognosis. This review intends to summarize
the important aspects of molecular diagnostic studies on urea cycle disorders.

Page(s): 357-362 2013/11/05 - 13:43

Title: Genetic and Biochemical Consequences of Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency in Humans

Authors: Bose, Rahul; Nandagopal, Krishnadas

Abstract: Adenosine deaminase deficiency accounts for
~15-20% of severe combined immunodeficiency in humans. The gene for adenosine
deaminase is located on chromosome 20q12-q13.11 and codes for an aminohydrolase
that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine and deoxyadenosine to inosine and
deoxyinosine, respectively. Absence of the enzyme causes a build-up of the
substrates in addition to excess deoxyadenosine triphosphate, thereby
compromising the regenerative capacity of the immune system. Due to underlying
allelic heterogeneity, the disorder manifests as a spectrum, ranging from
neonatal onset severe combined immunodeficiency to apparently normal partial
adenosine deaminase deficiency. Tandem mass spectrometry coupled with high
efficiency separation systems enables postnatal diagnosis of the disorder,
while prenatal diagnosis relies on assaying
enzyme activity in cultured amniotic fibroblasts or chorionic villi sampling.
Screening of adenosine deaminase deficiency for relatives-at-risk may reduce
costs of treatment and ensure timely medical intervention as applicable. This
article reviews the genetic, biochemical and clinical aspects of adenosine
deaminase deficiency.

Page(s): 345-356 2013/11/05 - 13:43

Title: Evaluation of leptin and insulin resistance in patients with cholelithiasis

Authors: Atamer, Aytaç; Övünç, Ayşe Oya Kurdaş; Yeşil, Atakan; Atamer, Yıldız

Abstract: The association between insulin
resistance, lipoproteins and leptin was evaluated in cholelithiasis. The study
group included 55 women (68.8%) and 25 men (31.3%) with a mean age and SD of 50.56 ± 14.28 yrs. The control group included 25 women (62.5%) and 15 men (37.5%) with a mean age of 50.93 ± 11.73 yrs. Serum
leptin levels were measured by the enzyme immunoassay method. HOMA-IR was
determined by using fasting glucose and insulin levels.
Insulin, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HOMA-IR (p<0.01) and leptin
(p<0.001) were significantly higher in the cholelithiasis group, compared to
the controls. In patients with a HOMA-IR >2.2, age, body mass index (BMI),
glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), TC and leptin levels were higher than in
patients with a HOMA-IR <2.2. In patients with glucose levels >100 mg/dl,
mean BMI, HOMA-IR, insulin, TG, TC and leptin levels were significantly higher
than in patients with glucose levels
<100 mg/dl. In patients with TG levels >150 mg/dl, mean age, BMI,
glucose, insulin, TC, leptin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher than in
patients with TG levels <150 mg/dl. In patients with BMI >25 kg/m2,
mean age, glucose, insulin, TG, TC, leptin, HOMA-IR were significantly higher
than in patients with BMI <25.
In cholelithiasis group, there was a positive
correlation between leptin and age, BMI, glucose, insulin, TG, TC, LDL-C or
HOMA-IR. In conclusion, we found a positive association between increased
leptin levels and abnormal lipoprotein metabolism in cholelithiasis.
Cholelithiasis subjects with insulin resistance showed higher cardiometabolic
risk factors than those without it.

Page(s): 266-272 2013/09/02 - 08:26

Title: In vivo Anti-fatigue activity of total flavonoids from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf in mice

Authors: Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Lianying

Abstract: The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the
total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea
batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato
leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and
200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a
weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea
nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic
and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant
anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively
inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL
may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent.

Page(s): 326-329 2013/09/02 - 08:26

Title: Evaluation of changes in lipid peroxidation, ROS production, surface structures, secondary metabolites and yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under individual and combined stress of ultraviolet-B and ozone using open top chambers

Authors: Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

Abstract: The individual
and interactive effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B) (ambient + 7.2 kJ m-2
d-1) and elevated O3
(ambient + 10 ppb) were evaluated under field conditions using open
top chambers on two cultivars, Padmini and T-397 of linseed (Linum
usitatissimum L.). Mean monthly surface level of O3 concentrations
varied from 27.7 ppb to 59.0 ppb during the experimental period. Both UV-B and
O3 induced the production of ROS (H2O2 and O2.-),
resulting in significant damage of membranes due to lipid peroxidation and
electrolyte leakage. Synthesis of secondary metabolites (flavonoids,
anthocyanin, lignin and wax) was also enhanced in all the treatments, whereas
biomass and yield were reduced. Alterations in frequency of stomata and wax
distribution were also observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cultivar
Padmini was found to be more sensitive because of higher damage of membrane vis-a-vis
reduction in biomass and seed yield. However, concentrations of flavonoids,
anthocyanin, lignin and wax were higher in T-397, suggesting its relative
resistance against applied stress. Combined exposure of sUV-B and O3
was less harmful, as compared to their individual treatment. Among the three
treatments, O3 was found to be more detrimental for overall growth
and sUV-B for economic yield.

Page(s): 318-325 2013/09/02 - 08:26

Title: Partial purification and characterization of extracellular protease from a halophilic and thermotolerant strain Streptomyces pseudogrisiolus NRC-15

Authors: Awad, Hassan M; Mostafa, El-Sayed E; Saad, Moataza M; Selim, Mohsen H; Hassan, Helmy M

Abstract: An alkaline protease was purified from a halophilic
and thermotolerant potent alkaline protease-producing strain Streptomyces pseudogrisiolus
NRC-15 using ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 column
chromatography. The enzyme was purified to 77.24-folds with a yield of 91.8%
and the specific activity was 112 U/mg of protein. The protease showed a single
band on SDS-PAGE with its molecular mass at 20 kDa and exhibited a maximum
relative activity of 100% using casein as a substrate and. The enzyme had an
optimum pH of 9.5 and displayed optimum activity at 50°C. The enzyme activity
was completely inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor PMSF, suggesting the
presence of serine residue in the active site. The enzyme activity was
increased by the metal ions Ca2+, Co2+, K+ and
Mg2+. The enzyme significantly enhanced the removal of stains when
used with wheel detergent, indicating the potential of the enzyme for using as
a laundry detergent additive to improve the performance of heavy-duty laundry

Page(s): 305-311 2013/09/02 - 08:26

Title: A Modified Spectrophotometric Assay of Superoxide Dismutase

Authors: Kakkar, Poonam; Das, Ballabh; Viswanathan, P N

Abstract: A
simple and rapid method for the assay of superoxide dismutase in biological
samples is described. Present method takes advantage of the inhibition of
NADH-dependent-nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the dismutase. Inhibition of

formation by superoxide dismutase was linear with increase in enzyme
concentrations. The chromogen extract in butanol was stable even up to 48 hr.
Superoxide dismutase activity, as assayed by the modified method, was in good
agreement with that obtained using other methods.

Page(s): 130-132 2013/07/29 - 07:14

Title: A new form of Scatchard plot to study binding of fluoride ion on urease by isothermal titration calorimetry

Authors: Saboury, A A

Abstract: A new equation with a useful simple graphical
method, very similar to the Scatchard plot was introduced to obtain the equilibrium
constant and the enthalpy of binding using isothermal titration calorimetric
data. On applying this simple graphical method to study the binding of fluoride
ion on jack bean urease, the dissociation equilibrium constant obtained was remarkably
consistent with the inhibition constant obtained from assay of enzyme activity in
the presence of fluoride ion.

Page(s): 347-350 2013/07/18 - 09:37

Title: Adsorption of glycine and alanine on montmorillonite with or without coordinated divalent cations

Authors: Kalra, Sippy; Pant, C K; Pathak, H D; Mehta, M S

Abstract: Adsorption of glycine and alanine on montmorillonite
and on Ca2+- and Mg2+- exchanged montmorillonite clay
over a range of pH (4.0-9.0) and temperature (20-35oC) under possible
abiotic conditions have been investigated UV-spectrophotometrically. Adsorption
of both the amino acids was considerable on all the three adsorbents used.
Maximum adsorption was observed at 25o C and neutral pH. Ca2+-montmorillonite
exhibited relatively better adsorption as compared to Mg2+-exchanged
form or montmorillonite. The values of KL and Xm were
determined using Langmuir isotherm characteristics.

Page(s): 341-346 2013/07/18 - 09:37

Title: X -band EPR spectra of copper(II)-dipeptide-imlidazole (1:1:0/1) system

Authors: Patel, R N; Pandeya, K B

Abstract: The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
spectra of copper(II)-GA/GV and copper(II)-GA/GV-imH/eimH/ m-imH have been recorded
as a function of pH. Imidazole enters coordination at pH ~
7.0, whereas the substituted imidazoles do so at pH> 7.0. The σ-bonding
appears to have a moderate degree of covalency. In-plane and out-of-plane π-bonding
has been found to be more strongly covalent.

Page(s): 334-340 2013/07/18 - 09:37

Title: Synthesis, conformation and vibrational dynamics of apolipoprotein B fragment, -Asn-Cys-Lys-Val-Glu-Leu-

Authors: Srivastava, Seema; Melkani, Girish Chandra; Singh, Shyam; Gupta, Vishwambhar Dayal

Abstract: It is assumed that all biological processes
are dynamical in nature and the low frequency collective modes, particularly the
skeletal modes arising from the main chain and the side chain play an important
role in such processes. To identify these a complete normal mode analysis of the
hexapeptide -Asn-Cys-Lys-Yal-Glu-Leu-, a
fragment of apolipoprotein B has been carried out. The assignment of modes is greatly
assisted by similar studies on the tetra -Cys-Lys-Val-Glu- and tripeptides (-Asn-Cys-Lys-, -Yal-Glu-Leu-) fragments of the hexapeptide. All the
four peptides have been synthesized by the solid phase peptide method using 9-flurrenyl
methyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) on 4-methyl benzhyldrylamine (MBHA) and Wang's resins.
Their conformation is determined from the Ramachandran Maps which are based on the
global energy minimization method. It is supported by the propensity parameters
for the amino acids.

Page(s): 318-333 2013/07/18 - 09:37

Title: Kinetics of enzymatic modification of quercetin with cysteine by horseradish peroxidase

Authors: Savic, Sasa R; Petronijevic, Zivomir B

Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of enzymatic modification of flavonol quercetin
with L-cysteine by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied. Reaction of
modification of quercetin was followed by recording spectral changes over time
at 380 nm. All reactions were performed in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH, 6.0 at
20ºC. Kinetic parameters were
determined from graphics of linear
Michaelis-Menten equation. The values obtained at specified intervals were:
Vmax = 0.17 ÷ 0.91 ΔA380/min,
Km = 0.023 ÷ 0.5 mM, kcat = 0.21 ÷ 1.14 ΔA380/min∙nM-1
and Vmax/Km = 0.83 ÷ 26.55 ΔA380/min∙mM-1.
It was found that all
investigated reactions of the
modification of quercetin with L-cysteine by HRP followed an ordered mechanism. We propose that HRP initially
reacts with H2O2 than with
quercetin and finally with L-cysteine, leading to the introduction of L-cysteine in the structure of quercetin.

Page(s): 221-226 2013/07/10 - 11:49

Title: Overexpression of circulating miRNA-21 and miRNA-146a in plasma samples of breast cancer patients

Authors: Kumar, Subramanian; Keerthana, Ranganathan; Pazhanimuthu, Annamalai; Perumal, Pachiappan

Abstract: Breast cancer is the second most common
malignant disease affecting Indian women and is the leading cause of
cancer-related mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are remarkably stable in blood,
which makes them novel and promising biomarkers for cancer detection and
diagnosis. In this study, we investigated
whether expression levels of circulating specific miRNAs, such as microRNA-21 (miR-21)
and microRNA-146a (miR-146a) could be used as potential biomarkers in plasma of
breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. We compared the expression
levels of breast cancer associated specific miRNAs — miR-21 and miR-146a in
plasma samples of histopathologically reported 14 patients (aged 35-61 yrs)
with breast cancer and an additional 8 healthy volunteers (aged 35-54 yrs). The
miRNA expression level was determined by TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay.
The miRNA expression level of each sample was normalized to that of miR-16 as
reference and expressed as relative expression (2-Ct). Our results showed that the circulating level of miR-21 and miR-146a were significantly higher
in plasma samples of breast cancer patients, when compared to those of healthy
controls (p<0.0004 and p<0.005, respectively). Thus, analyzing expression
of miR-21 and miR-146a from plasma samples of breast cancer patients might be
useful in the diagnosis of breast cancer. However, further studies with larger
number of patients and control individuals are needed to confirm the results.

Page(s): 210-214 2013/07/10 - 11:49

Title: Important role of the C-terminal region of pig aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 in the NADPH-dependent reduction of steroid hormones

Authors: Kwon, Seul Gi; Bang, Woo Young; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Hwak Rae; Park, Da Hye; Hwang, Jung Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Ko, Moon-Suck; Cho, In-Cheol; Joo, Young Kuk; Jeong, Mi-Ae; Kim, Sam Woong; Kim, Chul Wook

Abstract: The NADPH-dependent reduction activities of two
paralogous pig AKR1C1s with and without 19 additional amino acid residues in
C-terminus were evaluated against steroid hormones including
5a-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, progesterone, androstenedione and 5a-androstane-3,17-dione, which act as substrates of the AKR1C1s. Among the
hormones, the AKR1C1s exhibited the highest activity against 5a-dihydrotestosterone and the lowest activity against testosterone and
progesterone. Furthermore, the AKR1C1s showed the largest differential
activities against
5a-dihydrotestosterone, but no such change of activities was found against
progestrone and testosterone. These results suggest that the C-terminal region
of AKR1C1 plays an important effect in the reduction activities of pig AKR1C1.
Thus, the differential activities of two AKR1C1 paralogs observed in the
present study provide important insights in understanding the molecular

Page(s): 237-241 2013/07/10 - 11:49

Title: Relationship between cyclin D1 (A870G) gene polymorphism and lung cancer

Authors: Cakina, Suat; Gulyasar, Tevfik; Ozen, Alaattin; Sipahi, Tammam; Kocak, Zafer; Sener, Seralp

Abstract: The
roles of many genes in the pathophysiology of lung cancer have been
investigated in different studies. Cyclin
D1 (CCND1) gene plays a significant role in the transition from G1 to S phase
of the cell cycle and in the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor
In this study, we aimed to identify the relationship
between CCND1 A870G gene polymorphism with lung cancer. CCND1 A870G genotypes
were determined in 75 patients with lung cancer and in 65 control subjects. DNA
was isolated from blood samples and then CCND1 A870G gene polymorphism was
identified using PCR and RFLP assay. The distribution of CCND1 A870G
polymorphism did not show any significant differences in all lung cancer
patients and controls. There was no correlation between CCND1 A870G
polymorphism and histopathological findings. However, the
AA + AG genotype was significantly higher in metastatic patients, when compared
with non-metastatic patients. Thus, the results show that CCND1 gene polymorphism may be a
predictor for detecting patients with poor survival who having
metastatic disease.

Page(s): 233-236 2013/07/10 - 11:49

Title: Differential antioxidative response of tolerant and sensitive maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes to drought stress at reproductive stage

Authors: Chugh, Vishal; Kaur, Narinder; Grewal, M S; Gupta, Anil K

Abstract: The role of
oxidative stress management was evaluated in two maize (Zea mays L.)
genotypes — Parkash
(drought-resistant) and Paras (drought-sensitive), subjected to drought stress
during reproductive stage. Alterations in their
antioxidant pools — glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) combined with
activities of enzymes glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),
peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) involved in defense against oxidative
stress and stress parameters, namely chlorophyll (Chl), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were
investigated in flag leaves from silk emergence till maturity. The drought
caused transient increase in GR, APX, POX and CAT activities in
drought-tolerant genotype (Parkash) which decreased at later stages with the
extended period of drought stress. However, in Paras, drought stress caused decrease
in activities of GR and CAT from initial period of stress till the end of
experiment, except for POX which showed slight increase in activity. A
significant increase in GSH content was observed in Parkash till 35 days after
silking (DAS), whereas in Paras, GSH content remained lower than irrigated till
maturity. Parkash which had higher AsA and Chl contents, also showed lower H2O2
and MDA levels than Paras under drought stress conditions. However, at the later stages, decline in antioxidant enzyme activities
in Parkash due to severe drought stress led to enhanced membrane damage, as
revealed by the accumulation of MDA. Our data indicated
that significant activation of antioxidant system in Parkash might be
responsible for its drought-tolerant behavior under drought stress and helped
it to cope with the stress up to a definite period. Thus, the results indicate
that antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in flag leaves can be used as
indices of drought tolerance in maize plants and also as potential biochemical targets for the crop improvement programmes to
develop drought-tolerant cultivars.

Page(s): 150-158 2013/05/02 - 19:04

Title: Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on cutaneous and hepatic biochemical status during promotion phase of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice

Authors: Arora, N; Bansal, M P; Koul, A

Abstract: The modulation in biochemical
status of skin and hepatic tissue at the time point of commencement of
promotion stage of skin carcinogenesis in mice and its intervention with
aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) were investigated.
7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 500 nmol/100 ul of acetone) was applied
topically for 2 weeks (twice weekly), followed by
phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA, 1.7 nmol/100 ul) twice weekly for 6 weeks
on the depilated skin of mice and AAILE was administered orally at a dose level
of 300 mg/kg body wt thrice a week for 10 weeks. DMBA/TPA treatment upregulated
the phase I enzymes in skin and hepatic tissue, as revealed by the increased
cytochrome P450 (CYP) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) levels and aryl hydrocarbon
hydroxylase (AHH) activity when compared to the control group and
differentially modulated the activities of phase II enzymes like
glutathione-s-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and uridine diphosphate
glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT). AAILE treatment decreased the
DMBA/TPA-induced increase in cutaneous CYP level and enhanced the DTD and
UDP-GT activities when compared with DMBA/TPA group. In the hepatic tissue of
AAILE + DMBA/TPA group, an increase in UDP-GT activity was observed when
compared to DMBA/TPA group. DMBA/TPA treatment did not alter the skin lipid
peroxidation (LPO) level when compared to control group, however, in the
animals that received AAILE treatment along with DMBA/TPA, a significant
increase in LPO was observed when compared to control group. This was
associated with a decrease in cutaneous reduced glutathione
(GSH) level of AAILE + DMBA/TPA group. Enhanced LPO level was observed in the
hepatic tissue of DMBA/TPA and AAILE + DMBA/TPA groups when compared to control
group. However, no alteration was observed in their hepatic
GSH levels. The micronuclei score in hepatic tissue did not exhibit significant
inter-group differences. The results of the present study suggest that apart
from skin, liver may be affected during DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis.
AAILE treatment has the ability to modulate these changes potentially
influencing the process of tumor formation. These findings seem to be important
to carcinogenesis and its intervention with anti-cancer agents.

Page(s): 105-113 2013/05/02 - 19:04

Title: Effect of low level microwave radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in rats

Authors: Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Megha, Kanu; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

Abstract: Use of wireless communicating devices is
increasing at an exponential rate in present time and is raising serious
concerns about possible adverse effects of microwave (MW) radiation emitted
from these devices on human health. The present study aimed to evaluate the
effects of 900 MHz MW radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress
in blood of Fischer rats. Animals were divided into two groups (6
animals/group): Group I (MW-exposed) and Group
(Sham-exposed). Animals were subjected to MW exposure (Frequency 900
MHz; specific absorption rate
8.4738 × 10-5 W/kg) in Gigahertz transverse
electromagnetic cell (GTEM) for 30 days (2 h/day, 5 days/week).
Subsequently, cognitive function and oxidative stress parameters were examined
for each group. Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and
increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein
carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation)
and unaltered GSH content in blood. Thus, the study demonstrated that low level
MW radiation had significant effect on cognitive function and was also capable
of leading to oxidative stress.

Page(s): 114-119 2013/05/02 - 19:04