Skip to Content

Instrukcja korzystania z Biblioteki


Ukryty Internet | Wyszukiwarki specjalistyczne tekstów i źródeł naukowych | Translatory online | Encyklopedie i słowniki online


Astronomia Astrofizyka

Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

History of Geo- and Space Sciences

Notes on the history of geophysics in the Ottoman EmpireHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 163-174, 2014Author(s): F. Ozcep and T. OzcepIn Anatolia, the history of geophysical sciences may go back to antiquity
(600 BC), namely the period when Thales lived in Magnesia (Asia Minor). In
the modern sense, geophysics started with geomagnetic works in the 1600s.
The period between 1600 and 1800 includes the measurement of magnetic
declination, inclination and magnetic field strength. Before these years,
there is a little information, such as how to use a compass, in the Kitab-i
Bahriye (the Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis, who is one of the most
important mariners of the Ottoman Empire. However, this may not mean that
magnetic declination was generally understood. The first scientific book
relating to geophysics is the book Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye that was
translated by Ibrahim Müteferrika and printed in 1731. The subject of
this book is earth's magnetism. There is also information concerning
geophysics in the book Cihannuma (Universal Geography) that was written
by Katip Celebi and in the book Marifetname written by Ibrahim Hakki
Erzurumlu, but these books are only partly geophysical books. In Istanbul the
year 1868 is one of the most important for geophysical sciences because an
observatory called Rasathane-i Amire was installed in the Pera region of
this city. At this observatory the first systematic geophysical observations
such as meteorological, seismological and even gravimetrical were made.
There have been meteorological records in Anatolia since 1839. These are
records of atmospheric temperature, pressure and humidity. In the Ottoman
Empire, the science of geophysics is considered as one of the natural
sciences along with astronomy, mineralogy, geology, etc., and these sciences
are included as a part of physics and chemistry. 2014/09/06 - 16:14

The Ebstorf Map: tradition and contents of a medieval picture of the worldHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 155-161, 2014Author(s): G. PischkeThe Ebstorf Map (Wilke, 2001; Kugler, 2007; Wolf, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009a,
b), the largest medieval map of the world whose original has been lost, is
not only a geographical map. In the Middle Ages, a map contained mystic,
historical and religious motifs. Of central importance is Jesus Christ, who,
in the Ebstorf Map, is part of the earth. The Ebstorf Map contains the
knowledge of the time of its creation; it can be used for example as an
atlas, as a chronicle of the world, or as an illustrated Bible. 2014/07/12 - 14:35

Willy Stoffregen – An early pioneer of advanced ionospheric and auroral researchHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 149-154, 2014Author(s): K. Schlegel and H. LührWe sketch the eventful life of Willy Stoffregen and summarise his
engineering and scientific achievements. 2014/07/05 - 17:25

The Earth expansion theory and its transition from scientific hypothesis to pseudoscientific beliefHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 135-148, 2014Author(s): P. SudiroDuring the first half of 20th century, the dominant global tectonics
model based on Earth contraction had increasing problems accommodating new
geological evidence, with the result that alternative geodynamic theories were
investigated. Due to the level of scientific knowledge and the limited
amount of data available in many scientific disciplines at the time, not
only was contractionism considered a valid scientific theory but the debate
also included expansionism, mobilism on a fixed-dimension planet, or
various combinations of these geodynamic hypotheses. Geologists and
physicists generally accepted that planets could change their dimensions,
although the change of volume was generally believed to happen because of a
contraction, not an expansion. Constant generation of new matter in the
universe was a possibility accepted by science, as it was the variation in
the cosmological constants. Continental drift, instead, was a more heterodox
theory, requiring a larger effort from the geoscientists to be accepted.

The new geological data collected in the following decades, an improved
knowledge of the physical processes, the increased resolution and
penetration of geophysical tools, and the sensitivity of measurements in
physics decreased the uncertainty level in many fields of science.
Theorists now had less freedom for speculation because their theories had to
accommodate more data, and more limiting conditions to respect. This
explains the rapid replacement of contracting Earth, expanding Earth, and
continental drift theories by plate tectonics once the symmetrical oceanic
magnetic striping was discovered, because none of the previous models could
explain and incorporate the new oceanographic and geophysical data.

Expansionism could survive after the introduction of plate tectonics because
its proponents have increasingly detached their theory from reality by
systematically rejecting or overlooking any contrary evidence, and
selectively picking only the data that support expansion. Moreover, the
proponents continue to suggest imaginative physical mechanisms to explain expansion,
claiming that scientific knowledge is partial, and the many inconsistencies
of their theory are just minor problems in the face of the plain evidence of
expansion. According to the expansionists, scientists should just wait for
some revolutionary discovery in fundamental physics that will explain all
the unsolved mysteries of Earth expansion.

The history of the expanding-Earth theory is an example of how falsified
scientific hypotheses can survive their own failure, gradually shifting
towards and beyond the limits of scientific investigation until they become
merely pseudoscientific beliefs. 2014/06/20 - 13:20

Investigations of the auroral luminosity distribution and the dynamics of discrete auroral forms in a historical retrospectiveHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 81-134, 2014Author(s): Y. I. Feldstein, V. G. Vorobjev, V. L. Zverev, and M. FörsterResearch results about planetary-scale
auroral distributions are presented in a historical retrospective, beginning
with the first "maps of isochasms" – lines of equal visibility of auroras
in the firmament (Fig. 2) – up to "isoaurora maps" – lines of
equal occurrence frequency of auroras in the zenith (Fig. 4). The
exploration of auroras in Russia from Lomonosov in the 18th century
(Fig. 1) until the start of the International Geophysical Year (IGY)
in 1957 is shortly summed up. A generalised pattern of discrete auroral forms
along the auroral oval during geomagnetically very quiet intervals is
presented in Fig. 5. The changes of discrete auroral forms versus
local time exhibit a fixed pattern with respect to the sun. The auroral forms
comprise rays near noon, homogeneous arcs during the evening, and rayed arcs
and bands during the night and in the morning. This fixed auroral pattern is
unsettled during disturbances, which occur sometimes even during very quiet
intervals. The azimuths of extended auroral forms vary with local time. Such
variations in the orientation of extended forms above stations in the auroral
zone have been used by various investigators to determine the position of the
auroral oval (Fig. 9). Auroral luminosity of the daytime and
nighttime sectors differ owing to different luminosity forms, directions of
motion of the discrete forms, the height of the luminescent layers, and the
spectral composition (predominant red emissions during daytime and green
emissions during the night). Schemes that summarise principal peculiarities
of daytime luminosity, its structure in MLT (magnetic local
time) and MLat (magnetic latitude) coordinates, and the
spectral composition of the luminosity are presented in Figs. 15 and
19. We discuss in detail the daytime sector dynamics of individual
discrete forms for both quiet conditions and auroral substorms. The most
important auroral changes during substorms occur in the nighttime sector. We
present the evolution of conceptions about the succession of discrete auroral
forms and their dynamics during disturbance intervals. This ranges from
Birkeland's polar elementary storms, over the prospect of a fixed auroral
pattern up to the auroral substorm model. The classic schemes of the spatial
distribution and motion of discrete auroral forms during single substorms are
shown in Fig. 20 (expansive and recovery phases) and
Fig. 21 (creation, expansive and recovery phases). In this review we
discuss various models of bulge formation, in particular as a result of new
formation of arcs about 50–100 km poleward of previously existing auroral
structures (Fig. 24). Discrete steps in the development of an
expanding bulge are separated by 1–3 min from each other. The model of
successive activations confines only to a ~40° longitudinal
portion of the magnetotail (Fig. 28). We consider differences in the
development of single substorms and substorms during magnetic storms. The
structure and dynamics of auroras during steady magnetospheric convection
(SMC) periods are dealt with in Sect. 8. A generalised scheme
of the auroral distribution during SMC periods is shown in Fig. 34.
Separate sections describe discrete auroras in the polar cap
(Sect. 5), and the diffuse luminosity equatorward of the auroral
oval (Sect. 9). Visual observations of diffuse auroral forms
at midlatitudes suggest that the whole latitudinal interval between the
auroral oval and the stable auroral red (SAR) arc is filled up with diffuse
luminosity. SAR arcs with intensities of several tens of Rayleigh enclose
systematically the region of diffuse luminosity; they are positioned at the
border of the plasmasphere. 2014/05/21 - 18:40

On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological InstituteHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 75-80, 2014Author(s): H. NevanlinnaThis article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments
of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the
Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in
the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century.

The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob
Nervander (1805–1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific,
academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century.

Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917,
but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of
Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the
Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological
Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and
marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the
Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute
in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed
gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued
but in a lower level of importance.

The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was
the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882–1883 by
setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in
Sodankylä, Lapland. 2014/03/28 - 17:44

Book Review: Locales of Happiness: Colonial Irrigation in the Netherlands East Indies and its Remains, 1830–1980History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 73-74, 2014Author(s): M. Carey 2014/03/27 - 12:12

The STARE/SABRE storyHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 63-72, 2014Author(s): E. Nielsen and W. SchmidtIn January 1977 a new type of radar aurora experiment named STARE
(Scandinavian Twin Aurora Radar Experiment) commenced operation in northern
Scandinavia. The purpose of the experiment was two-fold: to make
observations of the nature of radar auroras, and to contribute to the study
of solar–terrestrial relationships (or space weather). The experiment was
designed for automatic continuous operation, and for nearly two and a half
decades it provided estimates of electron flows with good spatial coverage
and resolution and good time resolution. It was a successful experiment
that yielded a wealth of observations and results, pertaining to, and based
on, the observed time variations of the electron flows and to the spatial
flow pattern observed at any given time. This radar system inspired the
creation of a similar system, SABRE (Sweden And Britain Radar
Experiment), which increased the field of view towards the southwest of
STARE. This system commenced operation in 1982. 2014/03/07 - 21:16

Carl Friedrich Gauss – General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism – a revised translation of the German textHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 11-62, 2014Author(s): K.-H. Glassmeier and B. T. TsurutaniThis is a translation of the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus
published by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839 in the Resultate aus den
Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins im Jahre 1838. The current
translation is based on an earlier translation by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine
published in 1841. This earlier translation has been revised, corrected, and
extended. Numerous biographical comments on the scientists named in the
original text have been added as well as further information on the
observational material used by Carl Friedrich Gauss. An attempt is made to
provide a readable text to a wider scientific community, a text laying the
foundation of today's understanding of planetary magnetic fields. 2014/02/07 - 13:06

Carl Friedrich Gauss – General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism – a revised translation of the German textHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 11-62, 2014Author(s): K.-H. Glassmeier and B. T. TsurutaniThis is a translation of the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus
published by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839 in the Resultate aus den
Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins im Jahre 1838. The current
translation is based on an earlier translation by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine
published in 1841. This earlier translation has been revised, corrected, and
extended. Numerous biographical comments on the scientists named in the
original text have been added as well as further information on the
observational material used by Carl Friedrich Gauss. An attempt is made to
provide a readable text to a wider scientific community, a text laying the
foundation of today's understanding of planetary magnetic fields. 2014/02/07 - 13:05

From San Francisco to Tōhoku – 111 yr of continuous earthquake recording in GöttingenHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 5, 1-10, 2014Author(s): H. Steffen, W. Brunk, M. Leven, and U. WedekenIn 1902, the so-called Erdbebenhaus (earthquake house) was built
in the garden of the Institute of Geophysics of the University of Göttingen
to host and protect the very sensitive and fragile seismographs designed by Emil Wiechert.
These instruments were the standard at their time, and they are still in operation
today, documenting 111 yr of almost continuous seismological observations. Since 2005,
the observatory is owned by the Wiechert'sche Erdbebenwarte Göttingen e.V.
(Wiechert's earthquake observatory in Göttingen, registered society). This society aims
at extending the observational record and protecting the observatory as a cultural heritage.

In this paper we review the history of the observatory in the last 111 yr. Special attention
is given to the developments in the last decade, when the observatory and further historic
buildings and instruments changed ownership. Due to the efforts by the society, the observatory
is still running now and open to the public. In addition, it is a part of the German Regional
Seismic Network and, thus, observations can be used for scientific investigations. 2014/01/08 - 20:02

Book Review: Carl Størmer, Auroral PioneerHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 107-108, 2013Author(s): N. Nagarajan 2013/12/13 - 17:03

Book Review "The Fluid Envelope of our Planet: How the Study of Ocean Currents Became a Science''History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 105-106, 2013Author(s): V. Schwach 2013/10/11 - 08:03

How the Saint Santin incoherent scatter system paved the way for a French involvement in EISCATHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 97-103, 2013Author(s): P. Bauer, A. Giraud, W. Kofman, M. Petit, and P. WaldteufelThis paper relates the development of a French incoherent scatter system
which started its operations in 1965. This development took place several
years after the initial implementation of such systems in the United States,
in Peru and in the United Kingdom. The French system, owing to its bistatic
configuration and the use of continuous waves, differed from the previous
ones. These characteristics yielded signals of excellent spectral quality,
unravelling the possibility of inferring physical parameters (Doppler shift,
average ion mass) out of reach, at that time, of other systems. The
possibility of making ion drift vector measurements led to extend the system
into a quadristatic configuration. The multiple capabilities offered by the
incoherent scatter technique, notably as concerns the thermodynamical
properties of the ionosphere and of the thermosphere, led further the French
community to a project of embarking an incoherent scatter radar on board a
ship. Taking account of a project of a Scandinavian auroral zone radar and
of the considerable interest of the study of auroral zone electrodynamics,
the French community abandoned the idea of the ship and expressed an
interest in joining the Scandinavian project in conjunction with Germany and
the United Kingdom. 2013/09/14 - 12:47

Lord Kelvin's atmospheric electricity measurementsHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 83-95, 2013Author(s): K. L. Aplin and R. G. HarrisonLord Kelvin (William Thomson) made important contributions to the study of
atmospheric electricity during a brief but productive period from 1859–1861.
By 1859 Kelvin had recognised the need for "incessant recording" of
atmospheric electrical parameters, and responded by inventing both the water
dropper equaliser for measuring the atmospheric potential gradient (PG), and
photographic data logging. The water dropper equaliser was widely adopted
internationally and is still in use today. Following theoretical
considerations of electric field distortion by local topography, Kelvin
developed a portable electrometer, using it to investigate the PG on the
Scottish island of Arran. During these environmental measurements, Kelvin may
have unwittingly detected atmospheric PG changes during solar activity in
August/September 1859 associated with the "Carrington event", which is
interesting in the context of his later statements that solar magnetic
influence on the Earth was impossible. Kelvin's atmospheric electricity work
presents an early representative study in quantitative environmental physics,
through the application of mathematical principles to an environmental
problem, the design and construction of bespoke instrumentation for real
world measurements and recognising the limitations of the original
theoretical view revealed by experimental work. 2013/09/03 - 18:03

Contribution of the "Institut Scientifique Chérifien" to the development of geoscientific research in Northwest Africa since its creation in 1914History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 73-82, 2013Author(s): F. MedinaThe contribution of the "Institut Scientifique Chérifien", the oldest
scientific research centre in Morocco, is reviewed since its creation
almost a century ago. Planned in 1914 by the French protectorate of Morocco,
this institute has played, since its effective creation in 1920, an important
role in the development of several geosciences in North Africa, such as
meteorology and climatology, geophysics (gravimetry, magnetism and
especially seismology), geomorphology, geology and oceanography. After the
independence of Morocco in 1955, several activities, such as meteorology, were
transferred elsewhere, but others, such as seismology and magnetism,
remained important elements of the centre until recent years. In addition to the research
activities, its observatories and libraries that were built during the early
years are unique in Northwest Africa. 2013/08/16 - 19:12

Introduction ''History of geophysical institutes and observatories''History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 71-71, 2013Author(s): K. Arora, D. Cole, J. Urrutia Fucugauchi, and M. G. Johnson (guest editors) 2013/08/01 - 20:04

Svante Arrhenius, cosmical physicist and auroral theoristHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 61-69, 2013Author(s): H. KraghMany scientists in the fin de siècle era saw a need
to coordinate and unify the increasing amount of data relating the physical
conditions of the Earth and the Sun; or more generally to establish a
synthetic perspective that covered the earth sciences in relation to the new
astrophysical sciences. Promoted under the label "cosmical physics'', the
unifying solar–terrestrial perspective was in vogue for a decade or two.
Perhaps more than any other scientist in the period, the versatile Swedish
chemist and physicist Svante Arrhenius represented the aims of cosmical
physics. A central problem in the new and ambitious research programme was
to understand the origin and nature of the aurora, and to relate it to other
celestial phenomena such as the solar corona and the tails of comets. In
1900 Arrhenius proposed a unified explanation of these and other phenomena
based on the Sun's radiation pressure. The theory was widely discussed,
praised as well as criticized. Arrhenius was not only a key scientist in the
short-lived tradition of cosmical physics, but also influential as a popular
writer and powerful member of the Nobel Committee for Physics. His work
illustrates an approach to the earth and space sciences characteristic of
the fin de siècle period. 2013/07/05 - 13:09

27-day cycles in human mortality: Traute and Bernhard DüllHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 47-59, 2013Author(s): F. Halberg, N. Düll-Pfaff, L. Gumarova, T. A. Zenchenko, O. Schwartzkopff, E. M. Freytag, J. Freytag, and G. CornelissenThis tribute to her parents by one co-author (NDP) is the fruit of a more
than a decade-long search by the senior author (FH) for the details of the
lives of Bernhard and Gertraud (''Traute'') Düll. These pioneers studied
how space/terrestrial weather may differentially influence human mortality
from various causes, the 27-day mortality pattern being different whether
death was from cardiac or respiratory disease, or from suicide. FH is
the translator of personal information about her parents provided by NDP in German.
Figuratively, he also attempts to ''translate'' the Dülls' contribution in the context of the
literature that had appeared before their work and after their deaths.
Although the Dülls published in a then leading journal, among others
(and FH had re-analyzed some of their work in a medical journal), they were
unknown to academies or libraries (where FH had inquired about them). The
Dülls thoroughly assembled death certificates to offer the most powerful
evidence for an effect of solar activity reflected in human mortality, as
did others before them. They went several steps further than their
predecessors, however. They were the first to show possibly differential effects
of space and/or Earth weather with respect to suicide and other deaths
associated with the nervous and sensory systems vs. death from cardiac or
respiratory disease as well as overall death by differences in the phase of
a common 27-day cycle characterizing these mortality patterns. Furthermore,
Bernhard Düll developed tests of human visual and auditory reaction time
to study effects of weather and solar activity, publishing a book (his
professorial dissertation) on the topic. His unpublished finding of an increased
incidence of airplane crashes in association with higher solar activity was validated
after his death, among others, by Tatiana Zenchenko and A. M. Merzlyi. 2013/04/08 - 14:06

The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 35-46, 2013Author(s): O. M. Raspopov, S. N. Sokolov, I. M. Demina, R. Pellinen, and A. A. PetrovaIn July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight
of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a
realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for
the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly
studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight
was Berlin – Leningrad – Arkhangelsk – Franz Josef Land – Severnaya
Zemlya – the Taimyr Peninsula – Novaya Zemlya – Arkhangelsk – Berlin. One
of scientific goals of the expedition was to measure the H and D geomagnetic
field components. Actually, the first aeromagnetic survey was carried out in
the Arctic during the flight. After the expedition, only preliminary results
of the geomagnetic measurements, in which an anomalous behavior of magnetic
declination in the high-latitude part of the route was noted, were published.
Our paper is concerned with the first aeromagnetic measurements in the
Arctic and their analysis based on archival and modern data on the magnetic
field in the Barents and Kara sea regions. It is shown that the magnetic field
along the flight route had a complicated structure, which was not reflected
in the magnetic charts of those times. The flight was very important for
future development of aero- and ground-based magnetic surveys in the Arctic,
showing new methods in such surveys. 2013/03/14 - 11:42

A short history of geophysical radar at Arecibo ObservatoryHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 19-33, 2013Author(s): J. D. MathewsAs Arecibo Observatory (AO) approaches its 50th anniversary, it is
appropriate to review the many radars and ionospheric heaters that have been
deployed on or near the 305 m dish and to summarize some of the innovative
radar-based geophysical research that has resulted. The reasons William E.
(Bill) Gordon developed the 305 m Arecibo dish are well known but are
briefly reviewed. The early and then more recent radar/feed designs are
reviewed as geophysical uses of Arecibo have evolved and as the full
potential of the dish and nearby facilities was and is being realized from
HF through S-band frequencies. This history surely has some gaps and there
are a few mysteries. The community is encouraged to fill these gaps and to
help complete the history. 2013/03/14 - 11:42

History of the development of IS radars and founding of the Institute of Ionosphere in UkraineHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 7-17, 2013Author(s): L. Ya. Emelyanov and T. G. ZhivolupThis paper describes the stages of the development of IS
radars, the formation and development of the Institute of Ionosphere of the
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and Ministry of Education and
Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine (IION) from the first steps in the
implementation of ionospheric radar equipment near Kharkiv (Kharkov) up to
the current state. The paper discusses the main trends in the scientific and
technical activities of the Institute, its relations with scientific
communities, and demonstrates major scientific achievements. 2013/02/26 - 04:09

The Chatanika and Sondrestrom Radars – a brief historyHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 4, 1-6, 2013Author(s): M. A. McCready and C. J. HeinselmanThe Sondrestrom upper atmospheric research facility, located just north of
the Arctic Circle near the west coast of Greenland, will soon celebrate 30 yr
of operations. The centerpiece of the facility, an incoherent scatter
radar, has collected 46 000 h of data on the ionospheric state
parameters. This instrument was designed and built to measure the effects of
nuclear bombs on radio wave propagation in the South Pacific, but instead
was deployed to Alaska to study the effects of auroral structuring on the
ionosphere, and was later moved to Greenland to explore the auroral cusp and
the dynamics of the polar cap boundary. This is the story of the birth and
genesis of the instrument, its travels, and the evolution of its facility. 2013/02/21 - 16:32

100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation: the role of Günther and Tegetmeyer in the development of the necessary instrumentationHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 151-158, 2012Author(s): R. G. A. Fricke and K. SchlegelThe year 2012 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic
radiation by the Austrian physicist Victor Franz Hess (1883–1964), obtained
onboard manned balloons, one of them launched up to an altitude of 5.3 km.
His discovery earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. The discovery follows in
the context of the investigation of atmospheric electricity and of the newly
discovered radioactivity, in particular with respect to γ rays.
Starting from simple ionization chambers, the instruments were developed
during an interplay between functional requirements, scientific progress and
available manufacturing technologies.

The authors of this contribution take this anniversary as an opportunity to
describe the instrumentation used by Hess, as well as further developments
in the instrumentation which took place in the decades following Hess'
discovery. This manuscript also discusses details of the company who
manufactured Hess' instrument, ''Günther & Tegetmeyer''
based in Braunschweig, Germany. This company did not only build instruments
for Hess and the research on cosmic rays, but also for other scientific
disciplines and for well-known researchers and discoverers. 2012/11/21 - 11:04

Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscienceHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 143-150, 2012Author(s): J. K. Nielsen and S. HelamaChristian Theodor Vaupell (1821–1862) was a Danish scholar with
pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of
bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative
reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of
the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had
already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became
severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic
efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of
his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during
the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first
thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book) from
abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support
of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became
attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in
north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life
systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations
with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made
compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their
tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's
studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation
change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of
palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting
perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and
his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the
comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation
changes and the role of plant succession in that development. 2012/09/05 - 16:38

The ring current: a short biographyHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 131-142, 2012Author(s): A. Egeland and W. J. BurkeThe "ring current'' grows in the inner magnetosphere during magnetic storms
and contributes significantly to characteristic perturbations to the Earth's
field observed at low-latitudes. This paper outlines how understanding of
the ring current evolved during the half-century intervals before and after
humans gained direct access to space. Its existence was first postulated in
1910 by Carl Størmer to explain the locations and equatorward migrations
of aurorae under stormtime conditions. In 1917 Adolf Schmidt applied
Størmer's ring-current hypothesis to explain the observed negative
perturbations in the Earth's magnetic field. More than another decade would
pass before Sydney Chapman and Vicenzo Ferraro argued for its necessity to
explain magnetic signatures observed during the main phases of storms. Both
the Størmer and Chapman–Ferraro models had difficulties explaining how
solar particles entered and propagated in the magnetosphere to form the ring
current. During the early 1950s Hannes Alfvén correctly argued that the
ring current was a collective plasma effect, but failed to explain particle
entry. The discovery of a weak but persistent interplanetary magnetic field
embedded in a continuous solar wind provided James Dungey with sufficient
evidence to devise the magnetic merging-reconnection model now regarded as
the basis for understanding magnetospheric and auroral activity. In the
mid-1960s Louis Frank showed that ions in the newly discovered plasma sheet
had the energy spectral characteristics needed to explain the ring current's
origin. The introduction of ion mass spectrometers on space missions during
the 1970s revealed that O+ ions from the ionosphere contribute large
fractions of the ring current's energy content. Precisely how cold O+ ions
in the ionosphere are accelerated to ring-current energies still challenges
scientific understanding. 2012/08/06 - 17:25

Book Review ''Harald Moltke – Painter of the Aurora''History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 127-129, 2012Author(s): S. Silverman 2012/06/08 - 09:06

Iceland spar and its legacy in scienceHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 117-126, 2012Author(s): L. KristjánssonIn the late 17th century, Rasmus Bartholin and Christiaan
Huygens investigated a curious optical property of crystals found at
Helgustaðir in Eastern Iceland. This property which has been called
double refraction, revealed in the 19th century a new aspect of light which
turned out to be very useful as a probe of the internal structure of matter.
Clear specimens of these crystals, an unusually pure variety of calcite,
have since around 1780 been known as ''Iceland spar''. Few if any other
localities yielding calcite crystals of comparable size and quality were
discovered before 1900, and no alternatives for use in precision optical
instrumentation were developed until the 1930s. Hundreds of tons of calcite
were exported from Helgustaðir, mostly between 1850 and 1925. However,
little information has been found on trading routes for the material of
optical quality, so that some enigmas remain regarding its supply-demand
situation. A study of the scientific literature in the period up to 1930 has
revealed that results obtained with the aid of Iceland spar accelerated
progress within the earth sciences (in mineralogy and petrology), physics,
chemistry, and biology, even by decades. This has also influenced the
development of technology and of medicine in various direct and indirect
ways. 2012/05/19 - 08:51

Book Review From Hooke and Leibniz to Rouelle and Lavoisier, the eventful world of early geologists. A review of ''Studies on Eighteenth-Century Geology, a Selection of Papers by Rhoda Rappaport''History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 113-115, 2012Author(s): P. Richet 2012/05/13 - 10:26

Rectification of the ancient geographic coordinates in Ptolemy's Geographike HyphegesisHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 99-112, 2012Author(s): C. MarxA multitude of the ancient places given by Ptolemy in his
Geography (~150 AD) are so far unknown. One of the main
problems of their identification are the errors of the given ancient
coordinates. The different kinds of errors are illustrated by examples. A new
geodetic-statistical analysis method is described, by which groups of places
with homogeneous systematic errors and places with gross errors can be
determined. Based on a transformation function describing the systematic
errors, presumable modern coordinates of unknown places can be computed.
That, in conjunction with further information, can make possible their
identification. A test of the analysis method is carried out on a complex
simulated example and shows its practicability. The analysis method has been
applied within an interdisciplinary research project on Ptolemy's
Geography. Further developments of the method are imaginable to make
it accessible for related data diagnostics. 2012/03/28 - 20:07

Notes on historical aspects on the earliest known observations of noctilucent cloudsHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 87-97, 2012Author(s): P. Dalin, N. Pertsev, and V. RomejkoThe present paper considers historical aspects of the earliest known
observations of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). The 1884 and 1885 are discussed
by considering important historical citations by the pioneers of the
earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds. For the first time in NLC
studies, we consider seven major volcanic eruptions: Laki in 1783, Mount St. Helens
in 1800, Tambora in 1815, Galunggung in 1822, Cosigüina in 1835,
Shiveluch in 1854 and Askja in 1875. These all preceded the catastrophic
1883 eruption of Krakatoa, which despite having a lesser magnitude than
Tambora in 1815, had pronounced effects on the atmosphere. These eruptions
represent possible triggers for the appearance of NLCs. For the first time,
we publish an unknown, in English-speaking literature, historical fact on
the first determinations of the altitude of noctilucent clouds made by two
Russian astronomers V. K. Tseraskii and A. A. Belopolskii on 26 June 1885, who
managed to infer the altitude of the clouds in the range of 73–83 km, that
is, for the first time, demonstrating the possible existence of the clouds
at great altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Moreover, V. K. Tseraskii was
the first observer to photograph noctilucent clouds in 1885 or 1886, which
is 1–2 yr before the German astronomer O. Jesse, who owns the first
published images of noctilucent clouds. The photographs made by V. K. Tseraskii,
unfortunately, did not reach us. 2012/03/28 - 20:07

Edwin James' and John Hinton's revisions of Maclure's geologic map of the United StatesHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 75-86, 2012Author(s): K. R. AaltoWilliam Maclure's pioneering geologic map of the eastern United
States, published first in 1809 with Observations on the Geology of the United States, provided a foundation for many later
maps – a template from which geologists could extend their mapping westward
from the Appalachians. Edwin James, botanist, geologist and surgeon for the
1819/1820 United States Army western exploring expedition under Major
Stephen H. Long, published a full account of this expedition with map and
geologic sections in 1822–1823. In this he extended Maclure's geology
across the Mississippi Valley to the Colorado Rockies. John Howard Hinton
(1791–1873) published his widely read text: The History and Topography of the United States in 1832, which included a
compilations of Maclure's and James' work in a colored geologic map and
vertical sections. All three men were to some degree confounded in their
attempts to employ Wernerian rock classification in their mapping and
interpretations of geologic history, a common problem in the early 19th
Century prior to the demise of Neptunist theory and advent of
biostratigraphic techniques of correlation. However, they provided a
foundation for the later, more refined mapping and geologic interpretation
of the eastern United States. 2012/03/14 - 23:30

Robert Helliwell, pioneer of whistler-mode researchHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 73-74, 2012Author(s): D. L. Carpenter and U. S. InanNo abstract available. 2012/03/14 - 23:30

Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral researchHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 53-72, 2012Author(s): K. Moss and P. StauningThe Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt
(1851–1896) was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences.
Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th
century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated
auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia) moving away from
incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between
auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar
cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies.
Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the
variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so
by Khorosheva (1962) and Feldstein (1963) more than 80 yr later. He made
reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades
before this important issue was finally settled through Størmer's
brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific
works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a), he wrote numerous short science
notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations
(Tromholt, 1898). Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular
science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over
Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational
level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as
a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary
academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a
college of education – not a university – he was never offered a position
at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an
outstanding pioneer in auroral research. 2012/03/08 - 19:45

History of EISCAT – Part 3: The early history of EISCAT in NorwayHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 47-52, 2012Author(s): O. HoltThe paper describes the Norwegian participation in the EISCAT
project during the first years of planning the facility. This includes
obtaining the support of the relevant research groups as well as the
possible funding agencies. Attention is also given to strengthening the
competence and capacity of the potential user groups, along with taking part
in the cooperation with the participating groups in other countries. 2012/03/07 - 14:37

Father Secchi and the first Italian magnetic observatoryHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 33-45, 2012Author(s): N. Ptitsyna and A. AltamoreThe first permanent magnetic observatory in Italy was built in 1858 by
Pietro Angelo Secchi, a Jesuit priest who made significant contributions in
a wide variety of scientific fields, ranging from astronomy to astrophysics
and meteorology. In this paper we consider his studies in geomagnetism,
which have never been adequately addressed in the literature. We mainly
focus on the creation of the magnetic observatory on the roof of the church
of Sant'Ignazio, adjacent to the pontifical university, known as the
Collegio Romano. From 1859 onwards, systematic monitoring of the geomagnetic
field was conducted in the Collegio Romano Observatory, for long the only
one of its kind in Italy. We also look at the magnetic instruments installed
in the observatory, which were the most advanced for the time, as well as
scientific studies conducted there in its early years. 2012/02/28 - 19:30

Spiral structures and regularities in magnetic field variations and aurorasHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 3, 1-31, 2012Author(s): Y. I. Feldstein, L. I. Gromova, M. Förster, and A. E. LevitinThe conception of spiral shaped precipitation regions, where solar corpuscles
penetrate the upper atmosphere, was introduced into geophysics by C. Störmer
and K. Birkeland at the beginning of the last century.
Later, in the course of the XX-th century, spiral distributions were disclosed
and studied in various geophysical phenomena.
Most attention was devoted to spiral shapes in the analysis of regularities
pertaining to the geomagnetic activity and auroras.

We review the historical succession of perceptions about the number and positions
of spiral shapes, that characterize the spatial-temporal distribution of magnetic
We describe the processes in the upper atmosphere, which are responsible for the
appearance of spiral patterns.
We considered the zones of maximal aurora frequency and of maximal particle
precipitation intensity, as offered in the literature, in their connection
with the spirals.

We discuss the current system model, that is closely related to the spirals
and that appears to be the source for geomagnetic field variations during
magnetospheric substorms and storms.
The currents in ionosphere and magnetosphere constitute together with
field-aligned (along the geomagnetic field lines) currents (FACs) a
common 3-D current system.
At ionospheric heights, the westward and eastward electrojets represent
characteristic elements of the current system.
The westward electrojet covers the longitudinal range from the morning
to the evening hours, while the eastward electrojet ranges from afternoon
to near-midnight hours.
The polar electrojet is positioned in the dayside sector at cusp latitudes.
All these electrojets map along the magnetic field lines to certain plasma
structures in the near-Earth space.
The first spiral distribution of auroras was found based on observations
in Antarctica for the nighttime-evening sector (N-spiral),
and later in the nighttime-evening (N-spiral) and morning (M-spiral)
sectors both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
The N- and M-spirals drawn in polar coordinates form an oval, along which one
observes most often auroras in the zenith together with a westward electrojet.

The nature of spiral distributions in geomagnetic field variations was
unabmibuously interpreted after the discovery of the spiral's existence in the auroras had been
established and this caused a change from the paradigm of the auroral zone
to the paradigm of the auroral oval.
Zenith forms of auroras are found within the boundaries of the auroral oval.
The oval is therefore the region of most frequent precipitations of corpuscular
fluxes with auroral energy, where anomalous geophysical phenomena occur most
often and with maximum intensity.

S. Chapman and L. Harang identified the existence of a discontinuity at
auroral zone latitudes (Φ ∼ 67°) around midnight between the westward
and eastward electrojets, that is now known as the Harang discontinuity.
After the discovery of the auroral oval and the position of the westward
electrojet along the oval, it turned out, that there is no discontinuity at
a fixed latitude between the opposite electrojets, but rather a gap, the
latitude of which varies smoothly between Φ ∼ 67° at midnight
and Φ ∼ 73° at 20:00 MLT.
In this respect the term ''Harang discontinuity'' represents no intrinsic phenomenon,
because the westward electrojet does not experience any disruption in the
midnight sector but continues without breaks from dawn to dusk hours. 2012/02/22 - 16:05

History of EISCAT – Part 2: The early history of EISCAT in FinlandHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 2, 123-128, 2011Author(s): J. OksmanThe idea of a Nordic incoherent scatter facility,
proposed by Bengt Hultqvist, was for the first time discussed among
representatives of the three Nordic countries Norway, Sweden and Finland in
1969 in Oulu, Finland. In the years to follow, when other countries joined
in and the plans of the facility to be built gradually received concrete
forms, Finland participated in the planning work, in spite of the large
costs to be expected. When in negotiations with the Nordic partners in 1975
the share of Finland in EISCAT was reduced to five per cent and when the
existing facilities and personnel at Sodankylä could be taken into
account in the Finnish share, the Academy of Finland was finally ready to
join EISCAT. 2011/12/20 - 04:35

History of EISCAT – Part 1: On the early history of EISCAT with special reference to the Swedish part of itHistory of Geo- and Space Sciences, 2, 115-121, 2011Author(s): B. HultqvistThe paper describes the early history of EISCAT, from the very first ideas
and Nordic contacts in the late 1960s to the end of the main development
phase, when the facility had become a very advanced and reliable research
instrument and its users had developed full competence in the second half of
the 1980s. The preparation of the ''Green Book'', the Beynon meeting in
London in 1973 and the activities started there, the first EISCAT Council
meeting, the ''technical period'' 1976–1981, the inauguration in 1981 and
the decade of improvements in most of the 1980s are described as seen from
the Swedish point of view. 2011/12/20 - 04:35

Introduction "The history of ionospheric radars"History of Geo- and Space Sciences, 2, 113-114, 2011Author(s): R. Pellinen and A. Brekke 2011/12/14 - 13:16