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The Historical Review/La Revue Historique

During the nineteenth century in Continental Europe, merchant networks founded enterprises wherever comparative or absolute advantages related to naturalresources or workers’ capabilities, but also changing economic policies, made it profitable. Incessantly comparing the cost-effectiveness of investments, merchant networks enhanced the efficiency of the entire economic system, but also favoured innovation, introducing technological advancements when feasible and potentially remunerative. At the same time, though, economic crises, more and more dependent on manufacturing and less on agricultural cycles, became manifest and an object of theoretical debate. The paper analyzes how merchant networks envisioned economic crises, if at all, and how the economic decision processes of such organizational structures responded to them. It will be ascertained that, more than sectorial imbalances and insufficient demand, the crisis that merchants really feared was the end of credibility and thus of access to credit. Personal failure could dramatically reduce the level of trust, depriving the merchant system of its functioning principle. The chosen framework of analysis describes the actual economic decision process, on which the distribution of production depended, and itsrelation to economic cycles. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

This article focuses on the principal actors who undertook the financial intermediation of the Greek loans of 1824 and 1825 and the agents who carried it out, the financial market, the stock market exchange and the joint-stock corporate organization. The main argument is that there was an asymmetric relationship between these principalactors and agents. My research hypothesis works on the convergence of two different crises at the same time: the systemic banking crisis of 1825 in London; and the severe internal crisis for the insurgent Greeks. I argue that the causes for these “hapless loans” could be more complex, beyond the known moral critique. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

The overthrow of King Othon in 1862 and the decolonization of the Ionian Islands led to the unification of the Ionian State with the Kingdom of Greece. This article argues that the multifaceted crisis of the long 1850s (1847-1862) created a crisis of legitimacy for both the British Protectorate and the Othonian regime. The change of regime represents a case where an economic, social and political crisis set in motion a process of democratization and not the rise of an authoritarian regime (as in the 1930s). The argument balances socio-economic structuralist factors with the contingency of political action that determined the union of the two states; this regime change was the optimal and favoured solution and the way out of the legitimacy crisis for all actors involved. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

Cette étude traite de la particularité du cas grec au cours de la Grande Dépression (circa 1872-1896). La Grèce, pays agricole, fut protégée par deux facteurs conjoncturels: la destruction imprévue du vignoble français par le phylloxéra et la hausse de la demande en raisin. Dans le même temps, le prix des céréales importées baissait et le bilan commercial du pays s’améliorait. En revanche (et à l’encontre des autres économies européennes), la Grèce devait connaître une grave crise du raisin au début de la relance de l’économie mondiale. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

The global economic crisis in the 1890s affected the economy of Greece severely, and in 1893 the Greek State had to stop servicing its foreign debt. Part of theproblem was the lack of diversity of Greek agricultural production, which was focused on raisins and currants (especially flavourful raisins, grown exclusively in the area around Corinth) for export. The collapse of market prices for this good seriously affected the Greek treasury and society in the growing regions. The Greek government responded by trying to withhold part of the harvest in fertile years to stabilise world market prices. Plans to organise a monopoly company for the currant trade necessitated high sums of capital from abroad. This article investigates the question of how foreign bankers in London (Hambro & Son, Emile Erlanger) and Paris (Banque de l’Union Parisienne) could be convinced to participate in the project. Which factors allowed foreign bankers to trust in the Greek national economy despite its poor reputation? What factors influenced their risk management? The focus is on the role of Greek brokers in persuading the foreigners to invest in Greece, especially the role played by Ioannis Pesmazoglou, the director of the young and innovative Bank of Athens. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

The importance of ideas – and the individuals propagating them – is enhanced at times of crisis. When existing arrangements are challenged, new ideas help reconfigure group interests and alliances, forge new institutions and plan the future. This paper looks at one such set of ideas, born in response to the crisis facing Greece’s post-war economy: the views of Constantinos Doxiadis, an architect, senior civil servant and policy-maker active in Greece’s recovery programme. Drawing on policy documents, publications and memoranda, the paper sketches the values, intellectual influences and methods underpinning Doxiadis’ views on reconstruction. This casts light on the origins of his later proposals for a science of ekistics, whilst also undermining the conventional notion that left-wing theorists were alone in advancing progressive views of Greek development before 1947. In fact, Doxiadis’ vision seeks to transcend the Right–Left divide by presenting economic progress as an apolitical, scientific process, which would render ideology irrelevant. Such views owe much to the intellectual tradition of interwar technocracy and played a key role in shaping the concept of economic development after 1945. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

Phanariot verses – poems and songs – of the eighteenth century and the first decades of the nineteenth comprise perhaps the largest segment of Modern Greek literature of the Age of the Enlightenment. This article calls into question the widely held view that Phanariot verses make up a homogenized body of texts. Based on extratextual and intratextual criteria and comparing texts from different periods of time, it proposes a distinction between two groups, an earlier one that relates to the Phanariot milieu and a more recent one that provided an outlet for expression for the fledgling Greek bourgeoisie. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

After a reference to the debate concerning the concept of Romanticism (Lovejoy vs Wellek), the article briefly evokes certain key stances of English and French literaryRomanticism. It then points to the distinguishing features of German Romanticism, namely the enlargement of the doctrine into an integral metaphysics with the concept of the “organic state” at its core (A. Müller). The critique of political Romanticism by two revolutionary democrats (H. Heine and A. Ruge) is then presented. The article closes with a critique of C. Schmitt’s interpretation of political Romanticism. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

The construction of watchtowers on the islands of the Aegean Archipelago was common practice for Western peoples in the context of a systematic effort to provide military protection for agricultural areas and the populations of their rich commercial colonies. After the weakening of these colonies and the arrival of the Ottomans, the watchtowers, known as viglae, continued to operate, as they were closely associated with the socio-economic, everyday life of the region’s residents. Using the case study of the community of 21 mastic-gathering villages (Mastihohoria) of south Chios, this article aims to: a) investigate the main and secondary objectives of the Ottoman administration in maintaining the operation of the viglae; b) study the system of operation of the viglae during the period of Ottoman rule; and c) explore the maintenance of viglae during this era. This article is based on qualitative research, as it studies documents found primarily in archival material, such as notarial acts, communal decisions, and correspondence between members of the Ottoman administration and community representatives, as well as other historical, travel and geographical resources 2013/12/15 - 11:52

The article aims to survey the role of Greek ntrepreneurs in the development of trade and shipping in the Black and Azov Sea area. Based on hitherto under-analyzedUkrainian archival records of Greek communities (in Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaiev, Kherson, Feodosiia, Berdiansk, Mariupol, Taganrog, Rostov-upon-Don and Kerch), the article explores the professional activities of Greek merchants, captains, engineers, pilots and sailors during the nineteenth century and the early twentieth. 2013/12/15 - 11:52

Romanian academic circles became more interested in the study of Greek-Romanian relations towards the end of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth. Demosthene Russo, a young Greek immigrant to Romania, educated at Constantinople, Athens, Berlin and Leipzig, profited from this favourable trend; he managed to establish at the University of Bucharest, after 1915, a powerful centre for Byzantine and Neohellenic research and to impose his own critical school, based upon a rigorous method, in direct competition with the line directed by the most highly acknowledged Romanian historian, Nicolae Iorga, a researcher with many achievements and famous initiatives in South-East European studies. In the interwar period Russo took on the responsibility for the education of his nephew and niece, Nestor and Ariadna Camariano, to whom he transmitted his appetite for detailed research and critical methods in his field and whom he left to continue his work. The three have deeply marked the study of the history of Hellenism; they distinguished themselves, sometimes under unfavourable circumstances, by their valuable scientific production, opening new directions in the cultural history of South-East Europe. 2013/12/15 - 11:52