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Forest@ - Rivista di Selvicoltura ed Ecologia Forestale

Giunti M, Foggi BGERMINAZIONE DEI SEMI E SOPRAVVIVENZA DEI SEMENZALI DI LECCIO (QUERCUS ILEX L.) IN INTERVENTI FINALIZZATI ALLA RINATURALIZZAZIONE DELLE PINETE DI PINO D’ALEPPO (PINUS HALEPENSIS MILL.) DELL’ISOLA DI PIANOSA (ARCIPELAGO TOSCANO, LAbstract: Interventions aimed at promoting Quercus ilex spread in the Island of Pianosa (Tuscan Archipelago National Park) have been carried out within LIFE Nature Project “Tuscan Islands: new actions for sea birds and habitats”. In Pinus halepensis stands from afforestation, 810 acorns have been sown in 9 areas under the pine canopy with different presence of Mediterranean scrub. Germination and seedlings survival, five years after sowing, have been very satisfactory only in areas with a dense shrub layer.Keywords: Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Renaturalization, Germination, Tuscan ArchipelagoForest@ 0 (0): 172-182 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1053-011 2014/09/19 - 17:50

Menozzi PUN RICORDO DEL PROFESSOR ANTONIO MORONIAbstract: Antonio Moroni, 89, Emeritus Professor in the University of Parma, died on August 18th. He had a major role in shaping the last 60 years of Italian research in Environmental Science and was very active in establishing the conceptual basis for Environmental Management in Italy. A Catholic priest, he had a natural gift for communicating a positive approach to life.Keywords: Ecology, Environmental Sciences, ObituaryForest@ 0 (0): 170-171 () - doi: 10.3832/efor0090-011 2014/09/12 - 16:07

Menozzi PUN RICORDO DEL PROFESSOR ANTONIO MORONIAbstract: Antonio Moroni, 89, Emeritus Professor in the University of Parma, died on August 18th. He had a major role in shaping the last 60 years of Italian research in Environmental Science and was very active in establishing the conceptual basis for Environmental Management in Italy. A Catholic priest, he had a natural gift for communicating a positive approach to life.Keywords: Ecology, Environmental Sciences, ObituaryForest@ 0 (0): 170-171 () - doi: 10.3832/efor0090-011 2014/09/12 - 16:07

Lovreglio RUN LIBRO “DALLA PARTE DEL FUOCO”Abstract: Le Edizioni Il Maestrale ha pubblicato il libro di Giuseppe Delogu “Dalla parte del fuoco. Ovvero il paradosso di Bambi” che tratta di diversi aspetti del problema partendo dall’ancora e attuale equivoco della differenza tra fuoco e incendio.Keywords: Forest Fire, Piroclimax, FireproneForest@ 0 (0): 168-169 () - doi: 10.3832/efor0091-011 2014/09/01 - 05:24

Lovreglio R, Danna E, Mou GMITIGAZIONE DEL PERICOLO INCENDI NELLE AREE DI INTERFACCIA URBANO/FORESTA: UN ESEMPIO DI SELVICOLTURA PREVENTIVA IN SARDEGNAAbstract: Wildfires at the wildland/urban interface (WUI) areas have recently taken on alarming dimensions, and most of the catastrophic wildfires in recent years are of this type (Greece 2003 and 2007, Italy, 2007; Australia, 2009; Spain 2003, 2007, 2012). Contrastingly to forest stands, where fuel has to be managed also taking into consideration stand conservation and improvement purposes, in WUI fuel management has the imperative goal of the protection of property and people. The present paper deals with the implementation of a methodology for assessing fire hazard in a WUI area in Sardinia, and assess the most appropriate prevention silvicultural practices to be applied to mitigate the hazard (i.e., the probability of fire occurrence and the difficulty to extinguish it, based on the current vegetation characteristics). We applied a method aimed at defining a “danger value” for each fuel model found in the study area, and derived the silvicultural practices to be applied for the reduction of fuel and the associated risk. The effects of silvicultural prevention were assessed for each fuel model in the study area in terms of flame length and fire intensity for the pre-, during and post phases.Keywords: Preventive Sylviculture, Conversion, Hazard, Intensity, Flame LengthForest@ 0 (0): 156-167 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1187-011 2014/07/11 - 21:52

Magnani F, Raddi SVERSO UNA STIMA DELLA MORTALITÀ INDIVIDUALE E DEGLI INCREMENTI NETTI DEI BOSCHI ITALIANI. QUALE MARGINE DI SOSTENIBILITÀ PER LA GESTIONE FORESTALE IN ITALIA?Abstract: Towards an assessment of tree mortality and net annual increments in Italian forests. Which sustainability for the Italian forestry? Sustainable forest management requires that fellings do not exceed increments in the medium term, once natural mortality is taken into account. Here we propose an assessment of the relevance of tree mortality in stands not regularly thinned, as prevailing in Italian forests. The amount of small-scale mortality losses is often neglected and cannot be directly estimated from available inventory data. From literature sources and using two alternative approaches, mortality losses could amount to 31.1-36.2% of gross annual increments. Fellings would therefore remove 57.7-62.6% of net annual increments of Italian forests, well above what often reported and not far away from the EU15 average. This new estimate confirms the overall sustainability of Italian forestry on a national level, but highlights the need for careful planning in the future use of forest biomass, a strategic renewable resource.Keywords: Forest, Natural Mortality, Fellings, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest InventoryForest@ 0 (0): 138-148 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1235-011 2014/06/17 - 20:52

De Mas G, Hellrigl BOSSERVAZIONI SU ALCUNE INCERTEZZE E INCONGRUENZE NELLA TERMINOLOGIA DENDROMETRICAAbstract: In the italian forestry literature, the adjective “cormometric” combined with the noun volume or its equivalent, is used with three different meanings which are respectively linked to the stem, to the trunk or large timber. To find the origins and also the reasons for these different meanings of the term, we need to go back in history. The first definition is by Alfonso Di Berenger first director of the Vallombrosa Forest, the first seat of higher Forestry education in Italy between 1869 and 1951. He defined cormometric the volume of the “legname sociale” (industrial timber), or the trunk. Follows the definition of Vittorio Perona that, in the wake of the German concept of Derbholz, considers cormometric volume as including also portions of branches above seven centimeters. Giuseppe Di Tella, Professor of forest mensurations and forest management in Florence between 1916 and 1937 is the author of a large general volume table for fir where the cormometric volume is defined as the “stem including the top”, but also, following the doctrine, as a measure expressing the volume of the part of the stem that can provide wood for building or industry. Subsequently, with the definitions of the Professors Generoso Patrone and Guglielmo Giordano confirming the doctrinal meaning of Di Tella, the sense of the term remains unchanged. In 1986 Hellrigl called cormometric mass, the aboveground woody tree mass limited to trunk and limbs to be determined; however, this definition did not find any application. Alternative definitions by Roberto Del Favero and Orazio La Marca consider cormometric volume including top and cormometric volume excluding top. In the forest literature, instead, there were more changes in 2007, when the Forestry Research Portal published a notation regarding cubing of forest stands, stating “in the cubing of forest stands, woody volume estimated for conifers is, in general, cormometric (i.e., volume of the stem including bark)” which gave rise to the present note. Alongside, and again in connection with the meaning of the term cormometric, certain combinations of terminology reported in two multilingual glossaries of IUFRO are highlighted.Keywords: Stem Volume, Derbholz, Cormometric VolumeForest@ 0 (0): 149-155 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1208-011 2014/06/17 - 20:52

Paletto A, De Meo I, Di Salvatore U, Ferretti FANALISI PERCETTIVA DELLA GESTIONE FORESTALE SOSTENIBILE (GFS) ATTRAVERSO L’IMPIEGO DELLE MAPPE COGNITIVEAbstract: Perceptive analysis of the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) through the cognitive maps. SFM is the current paradigm in forest management. This paradigm has mixed the principles of multifunctionality with the concept of sustainable development. Despite the association between SFM and public participation, the sustainable management of forest resource can be achieved from the technical point of view both with a top-down approach, where a low number of social actors are involved in the decision making process, and a bottom-up approach, where the number of social actors and interests is broad. Following this second approach, a preliminary stage is the construction of the scenario perceived (mapping of stakeholders and analysis of the hierarchy of preferences and interests). This analysis, achieved through the construction of individual and collective cognitive maps, improves the cognitive framework and supports the facilitator in the decision making process. The cognitive maps of the stakeholders are the starting point of the participatory forest management. The paper focuses on the implementation of a method, based on the cognitive maps, aimed to identify and analyse the perception and the hierarchy of interests of the stakeholders with respect to the SFM. The method was tested in a case study characterized by rural vocation where the primary sector has a key role from both social and economic point of views (Alto Matese, Molise Region).Keywords: Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), Social Perception, Stakeholders, Cognitive Maps, MateseForest@ 0 (0): 125-137 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1245-011 2014/06/12 - 23:04

Bianchi L, Bartoli L, Paci M, Pozzi DIMPATTO DEGLI UNGULATI SELVATICI SUI BOSCHI CEDUI DELLA VAL DI BISENZIO (PRATO)Abstract: Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato), leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano). Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.Keywords: Coppice, Wild Ungulate Damage, Forest Dynamics, Silviculture, Sustainable ManagementForest@ 0 (0): 116-124 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1259-011 2014/06/12 - 23:04

Sasso R, Mughini G, Laudonia SPRIMI DATI SU FENOLOGIA E DISTRIBUZIONE IN ITALIA DI THAUMASTOCORIS PEREGRINUS CARPINTERO AND DELLAPÉ (HETEROPTERA: THAUMASTOCORIDAE), LA CIMICETTA DELLA BRONZATURA DELL’EUCALIPTOAbstract: Phenology and distribution of Italian populations of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero and Dellapé (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae). Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapè (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) was detected for the first time in Italy in September 2011, on several Eucalyptus species and hybrids. This pest, native of Australia, was the first species of the family Thaumastocoridae found in Europe. In this paper we report data on its current distribution in Italy, where the species is present in Lazio, Campania and Tuscany. Phenological studies allowed to detect the presence of eggs, preimaginal stages and peaks of the flight of the adults. No diapausing stage were detected.Keywords: Bronze Bug, Eucalyptus spp., Invasive Species, Biology, Natural EnemiesForest@ 0 (0): 105-115 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1184-011 2014/06/07 - 07:04

Carbone FCOMPARAZIONE DELLE DEFINIZIONI DI BOSCO EFFICACI SUL TERRITORIO NAZIONALE ATTRAVERSO L’ANALISI DI DOMINANZAAbstract: Comparison of forest definitions at the national level using dominance analysis. Despite Italian forests are subject of protection since long time, the first forest definition legally binding has been enacted only in 2001. However, thanks to the action of international, national and regional institutions, 25 forest definitions are effective today on the Italian territory. All definitions of forest are fully described and their qualification analyzed using four definition types: legislation, policies, technical and allocative. Only those that are included in the first three types were subjected to dominance analysis. Macro-criteria, criteria and sub-criteria have been defined to build an absolute valuation matrix. Concordance, discordance and dominance analysis have been cattied out after normaliztion. Forest definitions have been subdivided into two groups: dominant and dominated. The first group includes all regional definitions due to the details of their content, while the second group includes definition adopted by international and national institutions. Three aspects have been emphasized in the conclusion: (a) all definitions, except that adopted by the Lombardy Region, are based on the “forest land” and not on the “forest”; (b) most definitions do not include the multifunctional nature of the forest thus neglecting one of the most relevant forest profiles; (c) the first part of all definition is devoted to technical details as if the main motivation for their elaboration were the quantification of the forest area.Keywords: Forest Definitions, Typologies of Forest Definitions, Evaluation Matrix, Ranking of Forest DefinitionsForest@ 11 (2): 86-101 (2014) - doi: 10.3832/efor1055-011 2014/04/30 - 21:28

Marchetto A, Arisci S, Tartari GA, Balestrini R, Tait DSTATO ED EVOLUZIONE TEMPORALE DELLA COMPOSIZIONE CHIMICA DELLE DEPOSIZIONI ATMOSFERICHE NELLE AREE FORESTALI DELLA RETE CONECOFORAbstract: Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR), under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only) were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest) and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease in some plots. The total deposition of nitrogen exceeded critical loads in seven permanent plots.Keywords: Forests, Atmospheric Deposition, Nitrogen, Trend, SulphateForest@ 0 (0): 72-85 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1003-011 2014/04/23 - 18:04

Fanti PUN BEL LIBRO DI ZOOLOGIA FORESTALEAbstract: (n/a)Keywords: (n/a)Forest@ 0 (0): 102-103 () - doi: 10.3832/efor0092-011 2014/04/22 - 16:02

Colle G, Floris A, Scrinzi G, Clementel FFUTMON-MOBILE: UNA PIATTAFORMA INFORMATICA DI MOBILE GIS E WEB-DATABASE PER I RILIEVI FITO-SANITARI NEL PROGETTO FUTMONAbstract: Futmon-mobile: a mobile-GIS and web-database platform to assist phyto-patological survey of the Futmon project. The ICP-Forest ConEcoFor project has involved for more than a decade several Italian Forest Service teams in the phyto-patological monitoring of forests. The high number of survey plots, the multitude of data to be acquired and the yearly repetition of the ConEcoFor survey brought to the decision to manage the complete monitoring data-flow thorough a computer-based information system. The aim of this sub-task of the FutMon LIFE+07 project has been to optimize the survey management, the data-flow execution and the data control and analysis through the development of specific software applications. This work describes the Futmon-Mobile GIS software developed to assist the field survey of phyto-patological forest data and the Futmon-WebDB web-database developed to acquire the data from the field crews, to aggregate all the plots data and to perform the pre-processing for data submission to the european ICP-Forest database. This paper refers also on the experiences and evaluations about the introduction of the developed software in the survey protocol and some perspectives related to its possible evolution.Keywords: Forest Monitoring, Phyto-patological Monitoring, Mobile-GIS, Web-database, GPS, Futmon, ICP-ForestForest@ 0 (0): 45-51 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1023-011 2014/04/18 - 21:12

Bagnato S, La Piana V, Mercurio R, Merlino A, Scarfò F, Sciascia N, Solano F, Spampinato GDINAMICHE EVOLUTIVE IN BOSCHI CEDUI DI BETULLA (BETULA AETNENSIS RAFIN) NEL MONTE ETNA (SICILIA)Abstract: Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin) coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin) following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily). We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks) or mixed ones (with birch); pure birch stands (typical) that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations) could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.Keywords: Betula Aetnensis, Mount Etna, Vegetation Dynamics, Coppice Selection System, Forest RestorationForest@ 0 (0): 52-65 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1191-011 2014/04/18 - 21:12

Chirici G, Fattori C, Cutolo N, Tufano M, Corona P, Barbati A, Blasi C, Copiz R, Rossi L, Biscontini D, Ribera A, Morgante L, Marchetti MLA REALIZZAZIONE DELLA CARTA DELLE FORMAZIONI NATURALI E SEMI-NATURALI E DELLA CARTA FORESTALE SU BASI TIPOLOGICHE DELLA REGIONE LAZIOAbstract: Map of the natural and semi-natural environments and forest types map for the Latium region (Italy). The paper presents the main methodological aspects and the most important results achieved in the implementation of the “Map of natural and semi-natural environments” and of the “Forest types map” in Lazio region at a scale of 1:10.000. The project was carried out for the Agenzia dei Parchi and for the Area Foreste of Regione Lazio through a collaboration between e-GEOS , the University of Rome "La Sapienza", the University of Tuscia and Forestlab Centre , a spin- off of the University of Molise . The project is based on the integrated use of high-resolution satellite imagery and ADS40 false-color infrared digital orthophotos and led to the creation of two maps geometrically and thematically consistent with each other. The “Map of natural and semi-natural environments” is integrated with the pre-existing land use map of the Lazio region deepening the thematic detail up to the 6th Corine level. The “Forest types map” is based on a typological system organized in 17 categories and 36 forest types .Keywords: Forest Map, Land Use Map, Lazio Region, ADS40, SegmentationForest@ 0 (0): 65-71 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1204-011 2014/04/18 - 21:12

Magnani F, Raddi SERRORI NELLA STIMA DEGLI INCREMENTI DI VOLUME IN ALBERI FORESTALIAbstract: Periodic tree and stand increments are often estimated retrospectively from measurements of diameter and height growth of standing trees, through the application of various simplifications of the general formula for volume increment rates. In particular, the Hellrigl method and its various formulations have been often suggested in Italy. Like other retrospective approaches, the Hellrigl method is affected by a systematic error, resulting from the assumption as a reference term of conditions at one of the extremes of the period considered. The magnitude of the error introduced by different formulations has been assessed in the present study through their application to mensurational and increment measurements from the detailed growth analysis of 107 Picea abies trees. Results are compared with those obtained with a new equation, which makes reference to the interval mid-point. The newly proposed method makes it possible to drastically reduce the error in the estimate of periodic tree increments, and especially its systematic component. This appears of particular relevance for stand- and national level applications.Keywords: Growth, Growth Analysis, Model, Percentage Increment, Picea abiesForest@ 0 (0): 38-44 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1182-011 2014/02/27 - 00:32

Pilli R, Grassi G, Cescatti AANALISI STORICA E MODELLIZZAZIONE DELLA DINAMICA DEL CARBONIO IN FORESTA ATTRAVERSO IL CARBON BUDGET MODEL: UN ESEMPIO PER LA PROVINCIA AUTONOMA DI TRENTOAbstract: Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy). The Carbon Budget Model (CBM-CFS3) developed by the Canadian Forest Service was applied to data collected by the last Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC) for the Trento Province (NE, Italy). CBM was modified and adapted to the different management types (i.e., even-aged high forests, uneven-aged high forests and coppices) and silvicultural systems (including clear cuts, single tree selection systems and thinning) applied in this province. The aim of this study was to provide an example of down-scaling of this model from a national to a regional scale, providing (i) an historical analysis, from 1995 to 2011, and (ii) a projection, from 2012 to 2020, of the forest biomass and the carbon stock evolution. The analysis was based on the harvest rate reported by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (from 1995 to 2011), corrected according to the last INFC data and distinguished between timber and fuel woods and between conifers and broadleaves. Since 2012, we applied a constant harvest rate, equal to about 1300 Mm3 yr-1, estimated from the average harvest rate for the period 2006-2011. Model results were consistent with similar data reported in the literature. The average biomass C stock was 90 Mg C ha-1 and the biomass C stock change was 0.97 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, for the period 1995 -2011 and 2012-2020, respectively. The C stock cumulated by the timber products since 1995 was 96 Gg C yr-1, i.e., about 28% of the average annual C stock change of the forests, equal to 345 Gg C yr-1. CBM also provided estimates on the evolution of the age class distribution of the even-aged forests and on the C stock of the DOM forest pools (litter, dead wood and soil). This study demonstrates the utility of CBM to provide estimates at a regional or local scale, using not only the data provided by the forest inventories, but also by forest management plans.Keywords: Gestione Forestale, Utilizzazioni, Carbon Budget Model, INFC, Provincia di TrentoForest@ 0 (0): 13-28 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1138-011 2014/02/27 - 00:32

Gasparini P, Di Cosmo L, Paletto A, Rizzo M, Saba Presutti EMONITORAGGIO ESTENSIVO DELLE FORESTE ITALIANE: INTEGRAZIONE TRA INVENTARIO FORESTALE NAZIONALE E RETE EUROPEA DI LIVELLO IAbstract: Extensive monitoring of Italian forests: integration of the National Forest Inventory with the European Network of Level I. Forest monitoring is important for enhancing our knowledge on such ecosystems and their changes in order to enable actions helpful for their protection. At the European level, several monitoring programmes are carried out at present to pursue a better knowledge of specific characteristics of forests. Among those, national forest inventories are carried out to give a picture of their status (forest area, forest types, timber volume, growth and others), whereas health status of forests has been monitored over twenty years thanks to a specific programme, the ICP Forests. Under LIFE+ programme 2007, the FutMon project funded country-level studies aiming at evaluating the possibility to merge national forest inventory and Level I sample plots in a unique set of plots for forest monitoring and survey protocol. The underlying idea is that a common set of plots would enhance efficiency either in terms of costs or in terms of scientific results. However, an important issue is to preserve the validity of the twenty-years-long existing data series. For this reason in Italy, in 2009 and 2010, an experiment was carried out by measuring a common set of variables both in the Level I plots and in a subset of the inventory plots, in order to evaluate differences and similarities of surveying variables in the two different plot samples. More specifically, the integration between the two programmes would imply a change in the crown-condition sample-trees selection criteria and the shift of the Level I network to the inventory one. On the basis of the results, from 2012 the National Forest Inventory protocol for sample-trees selection has already been adopted on the Level I plots, whereas the feasibility of shifting the Level I plots from the ICP network to the National Forest Inventory one is still under evaluation.Keywords: Forest Monitoring, Forest Inventory, Forest Crown Condition, ICP Forests Level I, Italian ForestsForest@ 0 (0): 29-37 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1017-011 2014/02/27 - 00:32

Leone VLA TECNICA DEL FUOCO PRESCRITTOAbstract: Nella collana “Scienza e innovazione per i sistemi forestali ed ambientali” della Editrice Aracne è stato recentemente pubblicato il volume “La tecnica del fuoco prescritto” a cura di G. Bovio e D. Ascoli dell’Università di Torino.Keywords: Wildfire, Prescribed Burning, Fire Smart Landscape Management, PiedmontForest@ 0 (0): 1-2 () - doi: 10.3832/efor094-011 2014/02/08 - 05:08

Pompei EIL MONITORAGGIO DEI BOSCHI ITALIANIAbstract: Long-term monitoring of the Italian forests. The long-term monitoring is an essential tool for the study of the state of health of European forest ecosystems over time, especially in relation to the adaptation strategies adopted in response to changes in climate. In 2008, at the European level, there was a need to review the various existing monitoring networks in the various States in order to plan an integration and a more rational use of the information from each detected. The Project for the integration of monitoring networks was carried out using the instrument of the European LIFE+ funding. The fundamental objective of the project was the renovation and expansion of the main European Networks Monitoring of Forests, improving its representativeness, effectiveness and harmonization between them. In addition, in the period 2009/2010 was carried out the extensive and intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe. The project, approved and co-financed by the European Commission, has been coordinated at the international level by Johann Heinrich von Thunen-Institute, Germany, and saw the participation of 24 EU member states and 38 partners.Keywords: Forest Monitoring, Forest Health, LIFE+ Project, Forest EcosystemsForest@ 0 (0): 3-7 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1013-011 2014/02/08 - 05:08

Bussotti F, Cenni E, Bettini D, Sarti C, Stergulc F, Feducci M, Capretti PLE CONDIZIONI DEI BOSCHI IN ITALIA. RISULTATI DALLE INDAGINI ESTENSIVE DI LIVELLO I (1997-2010)Abstract: The conditions of forests in Italy. Results from the extensive surveys of Level I (1997-2010). Monitoring of tree crown defoliation is carried out in Italy since the ’80, and in 1996 a comprehensive program of quality assurance has been implemented. Currently the monitoring network includes about 260 permanent plots and 7000 sample trees. The most representative tree species are: Fagus sylvatica (European beech), Quercus pubescens (downy oak), Quercus cerris (Turkey oak), Quercus ilex (holm oah), Castanea sativa (chestnut), Ostrya carpinifolia (hop hornbeam), Picea abies (spruce), Larix decidua (larch), Pinus nigra (black pine) e Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine). These species represent the 80% of the whole sample, but only European beech is evenly distributed in Italy. The most important trends at national level concern the critical sanitary conditions of Castanea sativa and Quercus pubescens, as well as the high defoliation levels of Pinus sylvestris. The importance of this program in the context of climate change studies is discussed.Keywords: CON.ECO.FOR., Crown Conditions, Defoliation, Level IForest@ 0 (0): 8-12 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1005-011 2014/02/08 - 05:08

De Cinti B, Bascietto M, Magnani E, Matteucci GNUTRIENTI FOGLIARI NELLE FORESTE ITALIANE: RISULTATI DAL MONITORAGGIO 1995-2009 NEI SITI DELLA RETE CONECOFORAbstract: Foliar nutrients in Italian forests: results from the 1995-2009 monitoring network sites CONECOFOR. In 1995, the Italian Forest Service (CFS) established the National Network for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR) with the aim to study the ecological interactions among structural and functional components of forest stands. In the 31 permanent plots of the CONECOFOR Network, surveys are carried out including vegetation, trees crown condition, chemistry of leaves and soils, tree growth, atmospheric deposition, climate, microclimate, ozone and biodiversity. These surveys are carried out by CFS in collaboration with several scientific institutions. In such context, IBAF/CNR is specifically involved in the investigation of foliage chemical content. The foliar nutritional status was analyzed in 25 sites, taking as a reference the values published by the ICP-Forests and those published in the literature. The study involved 7 forest species (Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus and Picea abies) investigating the concentrations of the major macronutrients as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S) and calcium (Ca) and the N/P ratio. In beech, N, S and K were found in quite high concentrations, though without showing imbalances due to concentration excesses. Ca and Mg are present in very high concentrations, highlighting the possibility of imbalances, especially in relation to the other nutrients. For these two nutrients, spruce shows substantially balanced conditions as also for N/P ratio. For deciduous Oaks nutrients arewithin the parameters of normality, with the exception of Ca. This has been observed in 4 out of the 6 studied sites, with potential indication of nutritional imbalances related to Calcium. Nutrient concentrations in Holm oak are within the average of published data, except for Ca and Mg of site TOS-1, the former being slightly low, the latter being unusually high, in relation to the peculiar soil Mg content of the above site. Considering the coefficient of variation (CV), the variability of the different elements, taking in account all species, presents the following ranking: K ≈ P > Ca> Mg ≈ N / P > S> N. On those sites presenting the longer time-series (12 out of the 25 studied sites), a more detailed analysis has been performed in order to verify the existence of trends along the monitoring period for each nutrient. Calcium, Mg and N/P show a steady decrease during the considered time span. Such trend is less marked for Ca than for Mg and N/P. Phosphorus and K show an increasing trend while no common trends have been highlighted for N and S. Overall, the study provides relevant data on status and dynamics of nutrients in Italian forest ecosystems.Keywords: Foliar Nutrients, Macronutrient, Nutritional Status, Nutrient Classes, Nutrient Trends, Foliar ChemistryForest@ 0 (0): 113-121 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1019-010 2013/11/19 - 16:23

Carbone F, Schiavoni L, Scocchera CVALORE DI MACCHIATICO: ANALISI COMPARATIVA DEI PRINCIPALI SCHEMI DI CALCOLO PRESENTI NELLA LETTERATURA ECONOMICO-ESTIMATIVA NAZIONALEAbstract: One of the most relevant professional task for a forestry consultant is to determine the stumpage value of a forest standing. It is an important information for the forest owner interested to know the market value of the actual timber production. Nevertheless, assessment approaches commonly used by scientists and forestry consultants go back to the beginning of XIX century, thus not considering the evolution of institutions, law and the socio-economic contests occurred in the meanwhile. Based on a case study located in Latium (central Italy), a comparative analysis of the main estimation approaches from the Italian forest literature have been carried out. A wide range of stumpage values has been obtained, with a coefficient of variation of 682%. Three underlying causes have been identified for such variation: revision of some components of the elementary costs, different calculation of cost procedures, new additional costs. Reiterate use of the above approaches affects transparency, traceability and documentation of the evaluation process, weakening the theoretical basis of the appraisal doctrine. Four issues to overtake this situation are proposed and discussed.Keywords: Stumpage value, Stumpage price, Production costs, General costs, Transaction costsForest@ 0 (0): 122-133 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1024-010 2013/11/19 - 16:23

Bovio GATTUALITÀ DEL FUOCO PRESCRITTOAbstract: Prescribed burning is a promising technique for the prevention of forest fires in Italy. The research deepened several ecological and operative aspects. However, legal issues need to be thoroughly investigated.Keywords: Prescribed Burning, Prevention, Forest FiresForest@ 0 (0): 88-89 () - doi: 10.3832/efor0095-010 2013/11/06 - 00:01

Ciancio OLE NUOVE FRONTIERE DELLE SCIENZE FORESTALIAbstract: The present paper proposes the closing lecture of the IX SISEF Congress, held at the Free University of Bolzano (Italy) on 16-19 September 2013.Keywords: (n/a)Forest@ 0 (0): 90-93 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1029-010 2013/11/06 - 00:01

Kappers EF, Fanfani A, Salvati LUN BIO-INDICATORE PER LA VALUTAZIONE DELLA QUALITÀ FORESTALE E DELLA FRAMMENTAZIONE DEL PAESAGGIOAbstract: A bio-indicator for the evaluation of quality forestry and landscape fragmentation. Intensive agricultural practices, as well as tourism development, summer fires, urbanization and air pollution represent a serious threat for many woodlands in Mediterranean Europe. Tawny owls, Strix aluco, is a valuable indicator of habitat quality and shows high sensitivity to wood fragmentation. Assessing the association between Tawny owls and their habitat may provide useful tools for conservation and management of forested habitats. Populations of woodland birds are influenced by forest characteristics, wood proportion being a key factor explaining breeding density and regularity in nest spacing. Populations of the Tawny Owl reach their highest densities in old deciduous forests. The distribution of territories remains almost constant for many years, and the period during which any particular wood maintains suitable conditions for nesting depends on factors like tree species and management, especially on the timing and extent of thinning. To assure the maintenance of good habitat quality in most woodlands, regulation of water diversion, prevention of summer fires, and a general reduction of human activities inside forests seem to be useful conservation tools.Keywords: Biodiversity, Landscape, Mediterranean, Bio-indicatorForest@ 0 (0): 94-102 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1040-010 2013/11/06 - 00:01

Marchi M, Chiavetta U, Castaldi C, Contu F, Di Silvestro D, Ducci FDEFINIZIONE DI REGIONI DI PROVENIENZA E SEED ZONES PER I MATERIALI FORESTALI DI BASE E DI MOLTIPLICAZIONE D’ABRUZZOAbstract: The study presents an application of the Directive 1999/105/CE in Abruzzo. Using climatic data for GIS and statistics analysis have been defined nine seed zones grouped in three region of provenances. The obtained map, will be used for the management of forest reproductive materials in Abruzzo.Keywords: Regions of Provenance, Seed Zones, Forest Basic Materials, Forest Reproductive Materials, AbruzzoForest@ 0 (0): 103-112 () - doi: 10.3832/efor1085-010 2013/11/06 - 00:01

Mancino G, Ferrara A, Langerano P, Racana A, Salvati LMODELLO DI PREVISIONE DEL VOLUME DENDROMETRICO DEI POPOLAMENTI AD ALTOFUSTO DI CERRO DELLA BASILICATAAbstract: Stemwood volume predicting model of Turkey oak high stands in Basilicata (Italy). Auxometric studies on the Basilicata forests are few and limited to local contexts. The aim of this study was set up the existing relationships between the volume and tree dimensions for high stands of Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) in Basilicata. The proposed estimate concerns the stemwood volume including branches with diameter > 3 cm. The contribution focuses on the analysis of the most effective forecast models, describing in detail the selected models for assessing the tree volume variation in relation to diameter breast height and total height. The regression coefficients were estimated using a weighted least square regression analysis because variance heterogeneity was constantly observed for the dependent variables. The analysis of residuals among observed and expected values and their distributions show a good fitting of the model to experimental observations. The model proposed may be employed in the forest management as well as in the assessment of stockings of forests ecosystems. The importance of this tool for forest management is confirmed by the remarkable extension of oak forests with Quercus cerris in Basilicata, whose stands are mostly made up by transitional or irregular high stand forests.Keywords: Tree Volume, Quercus cerris, Volume Equation, Weighted Least Square Regression, BasilicataForest@ 10 (5): 59-67 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor1028-010 2013/09/03 - 11:04

Bertini G, Amoriello T, Piovosi M, Fabbio GALCUNE EVIDENZE DAL MONITORAGGIO INTENSIVO DELLE FORESTE ITALIANE. L’ACCRESCIMENTO RADIALE DEGLI ALBERI COME INDICE DI RISPOSTA AI DISTURBI E LE SUE RELAZIONI CON LA STRUTTURA DEL SOPRASSUOLOAbstract: The paper deals with the work undertaken since 1995 within the national level II network framed into the ICP-Forests ICP-IM programme. A synthesis of results from tree growth monitoring and relationships with stand structure and related parameters are reported. Current changes in the growth medium, i.e., physics and chemistry of atmosphere and soil (increase of average air temperature, rainfall shortage and drought, CO2 enrichment, ozone level, nitrogen fertilization, sulphate deposition) drive today the soil-tree-atmosphere relationships. The overall result of these concurrent and counteracting factors is recorded over each growing seasons by radial stem growth, providing a sensitive response index to disturbances. A few occurrences of disturbances to growth at regional and at case-study level, likely due to climate deviations, are discussed. Seasonal fluctuations and anomalous or extreme events are the major occurrences over the last decade. The heat wave 2003 is the main case occurred over a large part of Europe. Growth rate 2000-2004 showed reductions up to 50% in comparison to 1997-2000 on plots located within the southern continental border of the heat wave, in particular at low elevations and for pre-determined early growth species (beech and oaks). Over the following time-window 2005-2009, a significant growth decrease was vice versa detected within the coniferous spruce forests located at medium-high elevation in the Alps, where repeated seasonal anomalies both in air temperature and rainfall were recorded over the same time-span. The heavy effect of climate disturbance at a local scale was examined where two oak species with different auto-ecological features grow in sympatry. The rationale and awaited goals from protocols’ updating and the intensive surveys applied to core-areas in 2009-2010 under LIFE+FutMon are reported. Perspectives at short to medium term of monitoring programme at national and European level are also debated.Keywords: Forest Ecosystem, Intensive Monitoring, Tree Growth, Stand Structure, DisturbanceForest@ 10 (5): 68-78 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor1010-010 2013/09/03 - 11:04

Moretti V, Moretti R, Sorgi T, Salvati LINDAGINE METEO-CLIMATICA PER IL CONTROLLO DEGLI ECOSISTEMI FORESTALI: ANALISI DI ALCUNE TENDENZE RECENTIAbstract: The contribution of meteorological surveys to the analysis of forest ecosystems: the FutMon project. Much of the wide variation in plant morphology, physiology and development biology is reflected by the capacity to adapt to climate changes. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the climate description of selected Italian forest sites (the CONECOFOR network) where a permanent environmental monitoring was carried out since 1997 within the ICP-Forests, ICP-IM framework Forest Focus Reg. and the EU-funded FutMon research project.Keywords: Forests, Weather, Meteorology, Water Budget, EcosystemForest@ 10 (5): 79-87 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor1025-010 2013/09/03 - 11:04

Bianchi L, Brovelli M, Maltoni A, Calamini GCONFRONTO TRA METODOLOGIE DI STIMA DELLA NECROMASSA LEGNOSA IN UN CEDUO INVECCHIATO DI LECCIOAbstract: Comparison among methods for the assessment of deadwood volume in a former holm oak coppice. The paper aims to compare three methods for the assessment of deadwood volume, i.e., LIS (Line Intersect System), FAS (Fixed Area Sampling), and WM (Weighings Method). The control data are represented by the outputs of Xylometric measurement. The study was carried out in a former holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) coppice located in the nature park of Montioni in southern Tuscany. LIS and FAS overestimated significantly the quantity of deadwood (+12% and +50%, respectively). The error become higher as the minimum threshold sampling increases. The WM, besides the operational complexity of its application, led to more promising and precise results.Keywords: Deadwood, Sampling Methods, Line Intersect System, Fixed Area Sampling, Mediterranean CoppiceForest@ 10 (2): 34-42 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor0795-010 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Pastorella F, Paletto AANALISI DELLA COPERTURA FORESTALE IN AMBIENTE ALPINO: METODI DI STIMA A CONFRONTOAbstract: Forest canopy analysis in the Alpine environment: comparison among assessment methods. Forest canopy is an important ecological feature of forest stands and can be expressed as Leaf Area Index (LAI) or canopy cover percentage. LAI is the ratio between leaf area and ground area (m2 m-2) and it can be measured using an angle of 180°. Instead, the canopy cover is the percentage of forest area occupied by the vertical projection of tree crowns; consequently, LAI expresses the canopy closure rather than the canopy cover. This paper focuses on the estimation of LAI and canopy cover percentage in 54 sampling points randomly distributed over the main forest types of Trentino (beech forests, Scots pine forests, Norway spruce forests and European larch forests). The main purpose was the analysis of relationship between LAI and canopy cover percentage, the latter measured with two different techniques: visual estimation and estimation using the spherical densiometer. In the last part of the paper, LAI data collected in the four main forest types of Trentino are compared with values reported in the literature for the same forest types.Keywords: Leaf Area Index (LAI), Canopy Cover, Hemispherical Images, Visual Estimation, Spherical Densiometer, TrentinoForest@ 10 (2): 43-54 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor0974-010 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Cetera PRICORDANDO IL DI BERENGER: “ATTI IN REGOLA E BOSCHI ALLA MALORA”Abstract: Remebering Bérenger’s aphorims: “Documents in good standing and forest to ruin”. Remembering the Adolfo di Bérenger’s aphorism: “documents in good standing and forest to ruin” from the book Studii di Archeologia Forestale. The Author is considered the founder of the Italian forest science. This document tells the history of the head of rangers and the changes of skills and tasks through time. The most likely causes are the variation of the norms and laws implemented and the transfer of some duties from the State to Region.Keywords: Historical Silviculture, Forest Management, RangersForest@ 10 (2): 55-58 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor0948-010 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Bianchi L, Caronni F, Giovannini G, Paci MLA CONSERVAZIONE DEI BOSCHI A DOMINANZA DI FARNIA DEL PARCO LOMBARDO VALLE DEL TICINO: RISULTATI A TRE ANNI DALL’AVVIO DELLA SPERIMENTAZIONE E PRIME INDICAZIONI GESTIONALIAbstract: The conservation of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) stands in the territory of Parco Lombardo Valle del Ticino (province of Milano and Pavia): main results and management proposals after three years of testing.. In the territory of “Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino” an experiment, aimed to assess the silviculture pattern suitable for the conservation of stands dominated by peduncolate oak, was set up in 2008. Four experimental areas were located, both in “meso-hygrophilous” and “mesophilous” sites, respectively corresponding to: (a): less intense seed felling; (b): more intense seed felling (both of them aimed to promote the natural regeneration); (c): opening of gap (800 m2) followed by artificial regeneration (both protected and non-protected by shelters); (d): control. Three years after the set up of the experiment, the main results may be summarized as follows: (i): both the seed fellings (the more and the less intense felling) produced a process of natural regeneration, at present insufficient to ensure the continuity of the forest canopy cover; (ii): the branchwood released after utilization produced a positive effect on settlement and growth of peduncolate oak seedlings, attributable to the protection both from the roe deer browsing and wild boar acorn consumption; (iii): ventilated shelters (Tubex Ventex®) produced a positive effect on planting stock, both in terms of survival and growth; (iv): monitoring over time, especially as regards the analysis of the effects of different types of treatment on the processes of regeneration, can provide indications management extensible in similar populations in the territory of the Parco Lombardo Valle del Ticino.Keywords: Quercus Robur, Regeneration, Secondary Successions, Silviculture, Sustainable ManagementForest@ 10 (1): 1-13 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor0825-010 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Marziliano P, Iovino F, Menguzzato G, Scalise C, Nicolaci AASPETTI DENDROAUXOMETRICI, ASSORTIMENTALI E CARATTERISTICHE DELLA NECROMASSA IN CEDUI DI CASTAGNOAbstract: Chestnut (Castanea sativa MILL.) is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and it is considered a symbol of the natural vegetation in southern Europe. In Calabria (southern Italy) chestnut forest covers an area of approximately 87000 hectares, most of which (about 80%) managed as coppice. In this study a growth and yield table has been elaborated. Thurthermore, assortment type and quantity of deadwood have been evaluated according to age of coppice and forest fire prevention, respectively. The study site is located in the “Presila of Catanzaro” and the research was carried out in 15 plots; the age of the examined stands ranged from 2 to 50 years old. More than 30000 shoots per hectare were recorded in the first two years after coppicing. As opposed, about 2300 and 1000 shoots per hectare were observed 15 and 50 years after coppicing, respectively. The culmination of the mean annual increment of the forest standing volume (16 m3 ha-1 year-1) was highlighted 25 years after coppicing, while the current annual increment culmination (21 m3 ha-1 year-1) was observed at 15 years. Fifteen years after coppicing, most of the wood production was constituted by small dimension assortments. Twenty five years after coppicing small and large poles were the prevailing assortments while telegraph poles and timber beams increased after 50 years. The amount of deadwood in forest ranged between 11.9 and 68.7 m3 ha-1. The largest component was represented by standing dead shoots. The results show that coppice management can be adopted even if the main purpose of the chestnut stand is the production of large size assortments. In chestnut coppice, highly vulnerable to fire, the reduction of stand density with silvicultural practices (thinning and displacement) is the main way to promote the efficiency of forest and a higher strength and resiliency against forest fire.Keywords: Chestnut, Growth and Yield Table, Deadwood, Assortment Type, CalabriaForest@ 10 (1): 14-25 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor0839-0010 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Brugnoli ACAMBIAMENTO CLIMATICO E GALLIFORMI DI MONTAGNA: ALCUNE RECENTI VALUTAZIONI IN AMBITO ALPINOAbstract: Current climate change, referring as well to the observed rain and temperature patterns as to the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions, has a deep influence on biotic communities and, in particular, on mountain Grouse. These species show great adaptation to coldness, are highly sedentary and have quite “strict” ecological requirements, when it deals with habitat selection. Moreover, their alpine ranges are dangerously marginal to the main distribution areas, which increases the risk of dramatic changes in occurrence, demography and ecology. However, not all the species will predictably be exposed in the same way to the menace of climate change over the next 50-100 years. This article gives a brief review of the main data acquired in the alpine environment in this matter. It also underlines the utmost need to proceed with research and monitoring activities, in order to effectively adapt and manage conservation strategies on mid-long terms.Keywords: Climate Change, Grouse, Alps, Conservation, ImpactForest@ 10 (1): 26-32 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor0938-010 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Minotta GUN NUOVO TESTO DI ARBORICOLTURA PER GLI STUDENTI ED I PROFESSIONISTI DEL SETTOREAbstract: An up-to-date and comprehensive textbook of general arboriculture recently published in Italy by Sansavini S, Costa G, Gucci R, Inglese P, Ramina A, Xiloyannis C (eds) is presented. It includes contributions from 44 Authors covering all the main subjects related to the modern arboriculture. The book represents a new reference text for students, professionals and technicians interested in tree sciences.Keywords: Arboriculture, Tree Sciences, Book review, ItalyForest@ 10 (1): 33 (2013) - doi: 10.3832/efor0907-010 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Borghetti M, La Mantia T, Menozzi P, Piotti APROBABILI IMPATTI DEL CAMBIAMENTO CLIMATICO SULLA BIODIVERSITÀ DELLE FORESTE ITALIANEAbstract: Based on literature results and our expert evaluation, we report some likely impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of forest communities in Italy by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region and on the Apennines: at low altitudes, vulnerability of Pinus sp. and Quercus ilex forests, with loss of intraspecific genetic variability; transition from Mediterranean closed-canopy macchia to scattered shrublands; risk of local extinction for coastal populations of mesic/relic hardwood species (e.g., Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Zelkova sicula, Fraxinus sp.); ’eastern’ relic species like Quercus troiana, Quercus frainetto, Quercus aegilops, and Q. gussonei in Sicily, and the peripheral low-altitude Fagus sylvatica populations, will be highly vulnerable; in the mid-altitude forest, vulnerability of most demanding species like Quercus cerris and Castanea sativa, possible immigration of Mediterranean species like Quercus ilex; in the montane forest, Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba will be less competitive with respect to more continental and drought-resistant tree species, and could loose genetic variability; relic species like Taxus baccata and Betula aetnensis may be at risk. In the alpine region: upward movement of timberline and changes in timberline communities, for instance Picea abies may be more competitive over Larix decidua, and fragmented species like Pinus cembra might become vulnerable. In general, we recognize the difficulty in separating the effects of climatic variables from those of other processes, like fires and land-use change.Keywords: Climate Change, Forest, Biodiversity, Impact, Adaptation, ItalyForest@ 9 (6): 245-250 (2012) - doi: 10.3832/efor0708-009 2013/04/30 - 11:11

Bussotti F, Coppi A, Pollastrini M, Feducci M, Baeten L, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Verheyen K, Selvi FLE AREE FORESTALI ITALIANE DI FUNDIVEUROPE: UN NUOVO PROGETTO FP7 SUL SIGNIFICATO FUNZIONALE DELLA BIODIVERSITÀ FORESTALE IN EUROPAAbstract: The Italian forest sites of FunDivEUROPE: a new FP7 project on the functional significance of forest biodiversity in Europe. FunDivEUROPE is a new project aiming at a deeper understanding of the role of forest diversity on ecosystem functions and service provisioning for society. This project combines three scientific platforms: experimental, exploratory and inventory. The exploratory platform is based on the observation of a broad range of properties, traits and ecological processes on a network of ca. 240 natural forest sites representing a gradient of tree species diversity in six focal regions of Europe (Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland, Finland and Romania). The Italian sites are located on the hills of central and Southern Tuscany and represent the category “thermophilous deciduous forest”. Almost one year of fieldwork was needed to select and characterize 36 plots measuring 30 x 30 m. Selection was based on criteria concerning tree mixtures and richness, structural parameters and main environmental variables. The main features of these sites are synthetically presented in this paper together with a short description of the project structure and scope. The aim is also to enhance dissemination of the potential implications for a sustainable forest management in Italy.Keywords: FunDivEUROPE, Forest biodiversity, Ecosystem functions, Ecosystem servicesForest@ 9 (6): 251-259 (2012) - doi: 10.3832/efor0704-009 2013/04/30 - 11:11