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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Field ACTions Science Reports

Following the earthquake that struck Haiti in 2010, observations have demonstrated the relevance of certain traditional building techniques that succeeded in limiting the occupants’ exposure to the risk of severe injury. Identifying and understanding the specificities of existing building structures and know-how provides a starting-point for improving building methods and reinforcing skills in order to reduce the long-term vulnerability of local communities. This paper presents two research works that address, from complementary angles, the issues of building in a risk-prone environment. The first, from the field of architecture, outlines a participatory methodology for analyzing local building practices with a view to developing them and making technical improvements. The second, from an engineering perspective, focuses on an experimental computer-aided scientific study of a building system used for post-earthquake reconstruction.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2827 2014/03/01 - 15:16

Haitian cocoa consists mainly of the Criollo and Trinitario varieties, which are in strong demand around the world and are used in high-quality chocolate production. But the potential of Haiti’s cocoa has never been optimized: it has long been sold on the international market in the form of ordinary unfermented cocoa.
Only recently have producers become aware of the benefits of producing fermented cocoa. In 2009, thanks to technical assistance from the Peruvian cooperative CEPICAFE for the Haitian cooperative network FECCANO, and thanks to support from the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF), their fermented cocoa output was immediately taken up and marketed by European firms, including the French fair-trade company Ethiquable.
Since then, the global quality cocoa market has opened up to Haitian cocoa. At the local level, the economic, social and environmental impacts of this innovation are significant. There are two main lessons to be drawn from this experienc...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2825 2014/03/01 - 15:16

Haiti’s agriculture faces two main challenges: improving its contribution to food security—notably by generating income to combat poverty—and furthering the country’s sustainable development. It is also subject to frequent cataclysmic events (earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.). This paper investigates the capacity of agro-forestry systems to intensify food production and supply urban markets. It tests two complementary hypotheses, using surveys of experts and a cross-section of producers in the Port-au-Prince supply basins of Salagnac, Jacmel and Kensckoff. The first hypothesis posits that the emergence of commercial food farming depends on complementarities between different cropping systems, including agroforestry gardens. This type of agriculture, however, is characterized by a fragmented and diversified food supply structure, which presents limitations for the supply of urban markets. The second hypothesis relates to the producers’ capacity for collective action to lift these constr...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2817 2014/03/01 - 15:16

In a context of strong demographic pressure, under-investment, issues surrounding the choice of teaching language, and a lack of qualified staff, Haiti’s education system struggles to meet the demand for schooling. To address this situation, the NGO Haïti Futur launched a digital education program in August 2010, centering on the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs), the creation of interactive digital lessons for the first 3 years of primary school, and pedagogical training for staff to ensure that they were equal to the task. The program, based on the Sankoré initiative,(1) was conducted with Haïti Futur, Haiti’s National Education Ministry, and support from the Fondation de France.
After three years of experimentation, it is now possible to stand back and take stock. The main benefit of the IWB appears to lie in the way it radically changes teaching methods from traditional rote-learning to a mode of learning based on children observing, understanding and doing.
A program of this ...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2826 2014/03/01 - 15:16

Three billion people rely on open fire or polluting and non-efficient biomass stoves for cooking and heating. These households, mostly women and young children, are exposed to harmful indoor air pollution. This is the fourth mortality cause in the world, and second cause of death in developing countries, below aids but above well-known ailments such as malaria or tuberculosis. The use of these stoves impacts also the environment with unsustainable forestry and biomass exploitation and the livelihoods. In Haiti, 97% of the island is deforested and over 70% of the population depends on biomass (charcoal and firewood) for cooking.
Prakti Design, a clean stove developer, aims at addressing this social issue with an integrated strategy from design to manufacturing and distribution of highly efficient and affordable biomass cookstoves, with a reduction from 40 to 80% of fuel consumption and 60 to 100% decrease of emissions (carbon monoxide and particulate matters). Using state-of-art stove...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2763 2014/01/19 - 00:09

Cet encadré met en évidence comment le processus d’une innovation en Haïti, le Minisett, technique de production de semences d’ignames (Cf. photo), s’appuie sur un système acteur qui permet d’adapter l’innovation aux conditions d’une production agro-écologique. En effet, elle tient compte des savoirs paysans, optimise l’utilisation des ressources naturelles (eau, fertilité, biomasse, ressources paysannes…) par une amélioration des interactions entre les plantes, l’écosystème, les connaissances, les savoirs-faire et reste sans danger pour l’environnement et sans externalités négatives.
L’igname représente l’une des principales cultures de rente en Haïti. Elle est classée comme la quatrième production agricole en valeur de ce pays (FAOSTAT, 2012). La culture d’ignames en Haïti avait connu dans les années 80 de sérieuses difficultés dues, d’une part, aux attaques de parasites, principalement le marocas (larves de curcurioneadea), des nématodes, qui détruisent progressivement les plantat...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2779 2014/01/19 - 00:09

Notre expérience en Haïti de la programmation de projets, impliquant l’ONG Concern World Wide, le Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population (MSPP) et la communauté locale bénéficiaire du projet, a suivi successivement un « cadre logique » puis des approches participatives pour définir une action de santé communautaire. Ce projet était implanté à Saut d’Eau, l’une des 12 communes du Département du centre, qui couvre le Plateau Central, une région essentiellement rurale. La Commune de Saut d’Eau compte à peu près 40 000 habitants, elle est divisée en 4 sections rurales ou communales : Coupe Mardi Gras, Rivière Canot, La Selle et Montagne Terrible. 40% de la commune est composée de terres montagneuses et arides. L’autre partie de la commune est plus fertile.
En novembre 1999, une première formulation de ce projet de santé, selon la méthode du cadre logique, porté par un médecin affecté au Centre de santé du MSPP de la Commune de Saut d’Eau, et la coordonnatrice du domaine Santé...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2831 2014/01/17 - 20:15

In Haiti, due to the country’s rough terrain, a form of subsistence agriculture is practiced that generates widespread soil erosion. Constant demand for charcoal, meanwhile, drives the fragile rural population to cut down too many trees. The advanced state of erosion of the country’s watersheds causes considerable damage.
This paper proposes participatory mapping as a possible response to the current failures of anti-erosion projects. A three-dimensional model of the zone of action is built in the community, representing the local population’s basic services as well as current land use. Discussion meetings are organized around the model, from which a consensus emerges on the implementation of anti-erosion structures. General proposals are also put forward for the area’s development and land use.
The results have been promising for the management of gullies and the rehabilitation of wooded areas, although setting up anti-erosion structures on cultivated land remains difficult. New inco...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2794 2014/01/17 - 20:15

Le tremblement de terre de janvier 2010 a amené sur nos rives une multitude d’acteurs soucieux d’apporter leur contribution, dans le grand élan de générosité qui a soulevé le monde à l’annonce de l’ampleur du deuil de la famille haïtienne. La Fondation de France aussi a voulu aider. Aider dans les moments où l’humanitaire devait donner des réponses immédiates aux questions d’urgence : soins médicaux, eau, nourriture, abris. Mais aussi aider à dépasser le quotidien des débris à ramasser, des maisons à reconstruire, des béquilles et des prothèses, du vécu âpre et douloureux des jours d’après séisme, quand personne ne pouvait encore savoir de quoi demain serait fait. Ce numéro spécial de FACTS Reports essaie de traduire cette approche long terme dans laquelle, dès le départ, la Fondation s’est inscrite.
Le vécu du 12 janvier 2010, les images du 12 janvier 2010 en Haïti sont des images urbaines. On voit une ville renversée, une mégapole écrasée par les lacunes d’une urbanisation qui n’a...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2750 2014/01/16 - 21:24

Observations made during training at the Madian-Salagnac center led to the construction of private cisterns and community impluviums (rainwater collectors) in Haiti. The introduction of cisterns in Salagnac (Nippes) enabled peasant families to increase their farming income, to focus on extra-agricultural activities (building work), to have access to good-quality water, to improve their health, and to give the women and children more time for other activities.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2754 2014/01/16 - 21:24

A hybrid drinking water service has been in place since 1995 to supply the poor districts of Port-au-Prince. It involves connecting a district mini-network—managed by a committee of local people—to the public network. The committee, to which the service is delegated, is bound by contract: it pays bills to CAMEP, the public water utility, and retails the water to the inhabitants of the district. From 1995 to 2009, this institutional innovation enabled over 50 districts of Haiti’s capital—representing some 800,000 inhabitants—to be equipped and supplied. More than 50 water committees were set up, often acting as the sole point of contact with the state in the so-called “illegal” or “lawless” districts. What were the implications of the progressive institutionalization of this service? What are its limitations? How have people responded and adapted, following the destruction wrought by the 2010 earthquake? In this highly uncertain context, what does the future hold for the water commit...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2755 2014/01/16 - 21:24

In recent decades, the impoverishment of Haiti’s farmers has resulted—for the hardest hit among them, who can no longer make a living off the land—in dependence on non-agricultural sources of income. This paper draws on research work conducted in the Epin region, in Haiti’s Central Plateau. The agro-economic analysis carried out in this region sheds light on the context in which pluriactivity (making charcoal from trees bought standing, temporary jobs in Port-au-Prince and the region) has become the only way for the poorest families to survive. With access only to small parcels of land in the least fertile ecosystems, they cannot meet their food needs with their own farm produce. These extra-agricultural activities enable them to leverage the family work force, and perhaps a small amount of capital, and aims—above all—to supplement their diet.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2771 2014/01/16 - 21:24

In the 1970s, the Madian-Salagnac project began forming multi-skilled facilitators to run outreach courses in agricultural techniques in rural southern Haiti. When the limitations of this approach became apparent, the project’s agronomists instead directly addressed groups of farmers (referred to by their social standing, as personnages or citoyens), building up a new pedagogical relationship based on observing the farmers’ practices and discussing their strategies with them. This opening-up to dialogue was reinforced by work in video-communication led by Gerald Belkin, which gave farmers an opportunity to talk about their lives without any intermediary. At the same time, the Salagnac Center trained many generations of students from the Agronomy Faculty in fieldwork studies. Meanwhile, with the support of university training and research institutions, numerous research-training actions were carried out, which shed light in particular on the constraints facing farmers, and on their l...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2783 2014/01/16 - 21:24

Le Plateau des Rochelois, des écosystèmes favorables aux cultures maraîchères et vivrières
Quelques éléments de géomorphologie et de pédologie d’après CABIDOCHE YM, 1994.
Le plateau calcaire culminant à 1000 m, présentant dolines, poljés et bassins fluviokarstiques ayant piégé de la bauxite, ne comporte pas de réseaux hydrographiques externes. Sur le pourtour, des retombées en escalier de faille abritent une succession d’étages écologiques diversifiés favorables à l’équilibre des exploitations agricoles.
En fonction du relief karstique, s’observent :

  • des sols ferralitiques profonds supérieurs à 50 cm, non calcaires, dans une terre fine (ancienne mine de bauxite jusqu’en 1984),
  • des sols ferralitiques peu profonds (moins de 30 cm) souvent très caillouteux, mais pas calcaires dans la terre fine,
  • des rendzines d’érosion, rouges à blanches, très calcaires dans la terre fine et toujours très caillouteuses.

La fertilité chimique de ces sols est très faible, donc très dépendante de la gestion de l...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2793 2014/01/16 - 21:24

In environments with limited rainfall and fertility, the cultivation of sweet sorghum is better suited than that of sugar cane. Sweet sorghum is a hardier crop. It also grows quickly, is highly adaptable, has strong potential for biomass production, combines grain production with the accumulation of sugars in the stalk, and lends itself easily to making alcohol or syrup. It can lead to a significant increase in household income and thus help keep rural populations in the countryside by generating new production and marketing outlets for bagasse and green leaves (fodder), syrup, and alcohol gels or spirits. The work presented in this paper shows that in Haiti, the cultivation of sweet sorghum enables growers to multiply their income by up to two and a half times, for the same grain output, by exploiting the sweet sorghum stalks. Moreover, the sweet sorghum cycle is complementary to that of sugar cane and enables cane-processing plants to extend their operating season. It is a crop th...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2801 2014/01/16 - 21:24

In the difficult context of Haiti’s mountains (the “mornes”), the sustainable agricultural development project at Gros Morne explored an original strategy for meeting the challenges posed by the decapitalization of agriculture and the deterioration of the environment. This project builds on the legacy of the Madian-Salagnac Center. Its flagship measure is a type of construction that is new to the country: the micro-dam. The project has generated a surge of interest from local decision-makers.
Its success is due both to the micro-dam technique itself—a spillway construction with a very small reservoir—and an original “art of doing things” in Haiti. Multiple interventions were ingeniously incorporated, and the project management was remarkable. This paper begins by looking at the technical aspects of the project. It goes on to describe the applied “art of doing things”, the way the project was organized to give expression to that “art”, and the difficulties faced by the dissemination o...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2816 2014/01/16 - 21:24

With the launch of the United Nations “Sustainable energy for all” initiative, “improved stoves” are enjoying a revival of interest from the international community. This paper seeks to contribute to the discussion, and to new energy access projects, by looking back over three highly instructive decades promoting improved stoves in Haiti. It analyzes the case of the Recho Mirak (Miracle Stove), a charcoal cooking stove developed in the early 1980s, distinguishing between the different components of the initiative: the technical innovation, the marketing strategy, and the production system. By comparing the results of three recent efficiency tests conducted on the stove with data from quantitative and qualitative user surveys carried out in 2012, and with archive material of Recho Mirak promotion projects (from the journal Synergies) and of available assessment reports, the author highlights what has been learnt from the experience, and the challenges that remain to be addressed in c...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2824 2014/01/16 - 21:24

At the end of 1993, Médecins du Monde (MdM) launched a project at the regional hospital of Mopti, in Mali, to treat obstetric fistulas. From the outset, the goal of MdM was to treat the maximum number of affected women under the best possible conditions and to train an autonomous surgical team on site. From a project that was essentially surgical in nature at the outset, the program evolved to include the wider, medical and psychosocial care of women suffering from obstetric fistulas, with the introduction in 2008 of psychological counselling for the women arriving at the hospital for treatment. MdM has also developed a community-based prevention and awareness campaign on the subject of obstetric fistulas in the Mopti region.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2707 2013/09/18 - 07:07

This article describes the planning, performance and assessment of guided visits at the National Museum for pupils in state schools in Rio de Janeiro. The theoretical basis was the personal, physical and socio-cultural approaches for facilitating learning in museums contained in the John Falk model. The main objective was to create access to heritage, culture and education in an informal environment for a section of the population that lives in marginal areas without cultural amenities. The aim was also to establish the National Museum as an informal space for teaching chemistry. Questionnaires completed before, during and after visits provided data that was used to assess the procedure and to identify differences between visiting pupils, based on their level of education. The results lead us to conclude that the procedure and dynamic applied in this program generated affective and cognitive benefits for the visitors, and that the physical environment of the National Museum is suita...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2554 2013/06/12 - 12:29

This article describes the planning, performance and assessment of guided visits at the National Museum for pupils in state schools in Rio de Janeiro. The theoretical basis was the personal, physical and socio-cultural approaches for facilitating learning in museums contained in the John Falk model. The main objective was to create access to heritage, culture and education in an informal environment for a section of the population that lives in marginal areas without cultural amenities. The aim was also to establish the National Museum as an informal space for teaching chemistry. Questionnaires completed before, during and after visits provided data that was used to assess the procedure and to identify differences between visiting pupils, based on their level of education. The results lead us to conclude that the procedure and dynamic applied in this program generated affective and cognitive benefits for the visitors, and that the physical environment of the National Museum is suita...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2534 2013/06/12 - 12:29

The previsions say that the semiarid regions in the world are between the most impacted by the global climate change. In Brazil, among the environmental (lost of biodiversity, extreme droughts), social (migrations, diseases exposition) and economics (reduction on income generation, in employment rates, and in the Gross Domestic Product) of global warming, it is affirmed strong pressures specially over the agriculture and livestock, the mainly subsistence resource in Brazilian semiarid region, because of the increase of the rain irregularity and increase of evaporation. However, it is possible to believe that the many projects that are being developed by the social movement of convivial with the semiarid could play an important act in the climate change mitigation and adaptation, and also in the region development. In this paper, one of this initiatives is presented, the Policultura no Semiárido (multiple cultivation in semiarid), developed by Instituto de Permacultura da Bahia that ...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2557 2013/06/12 - 12:29

The previsions say that the semiarid regions in the world are between the most impacted by the global climate change. In Brazil, among the environmental (lost of biodiversity, extreme droughts), social (migrations, diseases exposition) and economics (reduction on income generation, in employment rates, and in the Gross Domestic Product) of global warming, it is affirmed strong pressures specially over the agriculture and livestock, the mainly subsistence resource in Brazilian semiarid region, because of the increase of the rain irregularity and increase of evaporation. However, it is possible to believe that the many projects that are being developed by the social movement of convivial with the semiarid could play an important act in the climate change mitigation and adaptation, and also in the region development. In this paper, one of this initiatives is presented, the Policultura no Semiárido (multiple cultivation in semiarid), developed by Instituto de Permacultura da Bahia that ...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2558 2013/06/12 - 12:29

Bernard Giraud, Co-Founder and President of Livelihoods Venture

One of the most appalling paradoxes of our times is that more than three-quarters of the one billion human beings suffering from malnutrition are small farmers: those who are supposed to be feeding their fellow men haven’t enough to feed their own families. These small farmers, herders or fishermen are for the most part terribly dependent on natural resources, from which they draw the majority of their own resources. In many cases, they have only their own bodily strength to rely on, occasionally supported by working animals. When the mangrove forests from which they catch the fish are destroyed, when the soil loses its fertility as a result of erosion, when deforestation leads to groundwater sources drying up, and when hurricanes ravage the dikes erected to protect their crops, the rural poor are impacted immediately and directly. For them, the deterioration of their ecosystem is a lot more than a conference discussion ...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2673 2013/05/18 - 08:29

Sunderbans has undergone a huge loss of forest cover in the past century. Population pressure ever increasing, the administration is more intent on developing economic activities in the area. However no economic activities will sustain if the environmental vulnerability of the region is not properly addressed. Mangroves form the basis of the ecosystem and large scale restoration of this mangrove cover on a scientific basis can create the necessary impact on the biodiversity and mitigate climate change. The carbon finance approach adopted by “Livelihoods” is a tool to create biodiversity-core social business models. This writing reviews into the theory and practices of such a model implemented in Sunderbans and identifies the prospects and challenges.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2674 2013/05/18 - 08:29

The number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the People’s Democratic Republic of Laos (also known as Laos PDR) is estimated at 13,600 and the number of people in need of antiretroviral therapy at 8,000. Today, around 3,200 HIV infected individuals receive treatment in seven centres throughout the country. Until recently, antiretroviral treated patients were followed-up only on the basis of clinical and immunological criteria.
In 2009 the Centre d'Infectiologie Christophe Mérieux in Laos PDR (CICML) signed a collaboration agreement with the national Centre of HIV/AIDS/STI (CHAS) for the implementation of HIV viral load testing (VLT) in the country, leading to the technological transfer of the ANRS generic assay (HIV Generic charge virale, Biocentric, Bandol, France). The introduction of HIV VLT has been accompanied through national HIV workshops every 6 months. From June 2009 to December 2011, HIV viral load has been measured in 1,782 antiretoviral-treated patients. Of these, 97% were...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2628 2013/05/15 - 06:14

The coastlines and deltas of West Africa have suffered—and continue to suffer—significant environmental damage. Although they fulfill crucial functions, their mangroves have been subjected to widespread destruction. The Senegalese NGO Oceanium has been combatting this phenomenon since 2006 by sensitizing and involving the surrounding populations. The “Plante ton arbre” (Plant Your Tree) project is a rare example of the large-scale participatory restoration of a severely threatened coastal ecosystem. Its results deserve to be analyzed in greater detail, but it has already demonstrated that a proactive initiative designed to be friendly to people, as well as to the environment, really can make the difference.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2564 2013/04/23 - 22:49

The Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project, implemented by the NGO Vi Agroforestry, is breaking new ground in designing and implementing climate finance projects in the agricultural sector. For the first time, while increasing agricultural productivity and enhancing resilience to climate change, smallholder farmers in Africa will receive benefits for greenhouse gas mitigation based on sustainable agricultural land management. The project has developed an activity monitoring system for sustainable agricultural land management (SALM) practices that enables smallholder famers and extension service provider to track and improve farm production. Based on the development of a carbon accounting methodology this system, in combination with a carbon model, is monitoring soil and biomass carbon sequestration consistent with the Verified Carbon Standard. As a result farmers in Africa for the first time can benefit from international voluntary carbon markets.
The paper describes the Vi Agroforestry e...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2600 2013/04/23 - 22:49

This paper tries to establish linkages between gender and the environment. The approach which has been chosen is that of occupational safety and health (OSH) and environmental protection. An attempt is made to shed light on the conditions of female employees as compared to their male colleagues in terms of environmental tasks assigned, injuries suffered and accidents linked to machines which may be hard to use particularly for female workers. A survey of 100 employees from 10 firms from the manufacturing of machine-parts sector in China and Indonesia was conducted to investigate the issues. In Indonesian surveyed enterprises, women experience more injuries than men. Both in China and in Indonesia, accidents due to machines which are hard to use for a worker concern men more than women. Findings from China reveal that even if women are better than men in the implementation of environmental protection measures, they are simply denied a chance to show it, because they are under-represe...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2388 2013/04/05 - 18:01

India, as in most parts of the world, suffers from forest depletion.  The marginalised communities dependent on these forests for their sustenance and well-being are the most affected.  The Forestry Department's post-colonial regulations further exacerbate the plight of these people – they have long since lost their sense of shared custodianship of forest and as consequently their nutrition and livelihoods are severely challenged.  Under these stressful circumstances there is no incentive to preserve or restore the remaining forest cover.
This trend needs to be reversed.  This programme outlined is designed to facilitate bringing forests and forest ecosystems to these communities within their own lands.  It is this template that is designed to be implemented as the livelihoods and nutritional security panacea.  The Adivasi community in Araku already has a robust food cropping rhythm that is subsistence by nature.   However the realities of modern life mandate that there is sufficien...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2424 2013/04/05 - 18:01

The Adivasi Academy has been implementing a comprehensive cultural approach promoting the Adivisi community's empowerment in different fields such as culture, education, healthcare, agriculture and economy. The Adivasi community had been facing lack of access and marginalization partly due to the British colonialism; during which many cultural misunderstandings related to communities’ and tribes’ costumes occurred. Through notably active campaigns, trainings for local people and highlighting cultural conservation, the Adivasi Academy has achieved many positive outcomes namely major policy debates and community's self-reliance. All these show that cultural parameters can play a key role in development. Such comprehensive cultural approach could be replicated in other community contexts in order to foster development and to fight against social exclusions.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2404 2013/04/05 - 18:01

Burundi recently introduced two fundamental reforms to its health system: a district health system (DHS) and performance-based financing (PBF) of the healthcare facilities.
The authors of this article set out the salient points of a trial simultaneous implementation of DHS and PBF.
The assessment refers to the six building blocks of health systems proposed by the WHO, and demonstrates that PBF can either have a leverage effect or hinder the following functional elements of the DHS: the group dynamics of the District Health Management Team (DHMT), the way the district hospital functions in relation to the primary health care level , the curative and preventive health services provided by health centers to provide health cover for a target population, the provision of essential medication by a fully-functional district pharmacy, the action-focused on the health management information system (HMIS) and funding that ensures fair provision and guaranteed resupply, supported by a transparen...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2351 2013/03/03 - 06:55

Born of an original association between tree southern partners in 2007, Aliniha is a methodology to link up women, the pillars of african society, for the sustainable development of their region, through their work and for their benefit. The Aliniha methodology combines the various areas of expertise of the three social entrepreneurs who created it, namely microfinance, improving women's skills, and management and protection of natural resources. The underlying principle is that every woman signing the “Aliniha Charter” benefits from a microcredit allowing her to undertaken an economic activity; in return, she undertakes to plant and look after three trees given to her with the money, and to follow the training courses offered by the Aliniha partner structures. The aim is to teach women sustainable management of their resources, be they human (knowledge), financial (money) or natural (trees).
In order to make the project sustainable and ensure that the methodology spreads, the three ...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2365 2013/03/03 - 06:55

The Abrolhos Region, located between the south of Bahia state and the north of Espírito Santo state, harbours the largest known marine biodiversity in the entire South Atlantic. The two main economic activities in the region are fishing and tourism, both clearly dependent on the environment.  In this context, social, economic, and environmental aspects are non dissociable and together should be the basis for sustainable development policies in the region. This article presents the most important experiences linking conservation and sustainable development in Abrolhos since the 1990’s. Among those, we highlight the creation of protected areas, notably the Parque Nacional Marinho dos Abrolhos (Abrolhos Marine National Park), created in 1983, and the Corumbau and Canavieiras Marine Extractive Reserves, created in 2000 and 2006 respectively; the successful experience of sustainable use of fishing resources - through implementation of no take zones, among other management actions - in th...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2310 2013/02/06 - 19:27

The Abrolhos Region, located between the south of Bahia state and the north of Espírito Santo state, harbours the largest known marine biodiversity in the entire South Atlantic. The two main economic activities in the region are fishing and tourism, both clearly dependent on the environment.  In this context, social, economic, and environmental aspects are non dissociable and together should be the basis for sustainable development policies in the region. This article presents the most important experiences linking conservation and sustainable development in Abrolhos since the 1990’s. Among those, we highlight the creation of protected areas, notably the Parque Nacional Marinho dos Abrolhos (Abrolhos Marine National Park), created in 1983, and the Corumbau and Canavieiras Marine Extractive Reserves, created in 2000 and 2006 respectively; the successful experience of sustainable use of fishing resources - through implementation of no take zones, among other management actions - in th...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2347 2013/02/06 - 19:27

Guidelines for authors
The FACTS Initiative and CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation are pleased to announce a call for proposals on local democratic innovations for publication in a special issue of the FACTS Reports, on the 2013 website of the journal, and on the CIVICUS website.
This special issue of the FACTS Report, in partnership with CIVICUS, is to promote, publish and publicize new projects and ideas on participatory and accountable governance of public institutions at local and national levels. This call for proposals is not limited to field actors working on governance, but also includes observers – individuals or institutions, public or private – who wish to make contributions in the form of publications on democratisation processes. In addition, it also aims to promote innovative actions conducted by civil society actors.  
The proposals should focus on presenting, reflecting and/or doing a monograph of key projects or initiatives on local democratic innovation...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2344 2013/01/17 - 12:57

Instrucciones para los autores
La iniciativa FACTS y CIVICUS: Alianza Mundial para la Participación Ciudadana se alegran de anunciar una convocatoria de propuestas sobre innovaciones democráticas locales para su publicación en una edición especial de los FACTS Reports, y también en los sitios Web de la revista y de CIVICUS.
Esta edición especial de los FACTS Reports, en asociación con CIVICUS, busca a promover, publicar y dar a conocer nuevos proyectos e ideas sobre la gobernanza participativa, responsable y transparente de las instituciones públicas a nivel local y nacional. La presente convocatoria de propuestas no se limita a los profesionales de la gobernanza, pero también incluye a observadores - individuos o instituciones, públicas o privadas - que deseen hacer contribuciones en forma de publicaciones sobre los procesos de democratización. Además, también tiene como objetivo promover acciones innovadoras llevadas a cabo por agentes de la sociedad civil.
Las propuestas deberían i...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2345 2013/01/17 - 12:57

Consignes aux auteurs
L'Initiative FACTS et CIVICUS : Alliance Mondiale pour la Participation Citoyenne ont le plaisir d'annoncer un appel à propositions conjoint sur les innovations démocratiques locales, pour la publication à paraître d’un numéro spécial de la revue FACTS Reports, sur le site internet de la revue 2013 et sur le site internet de CIVICUS.
Ce numéro spécial des FACTS Reports, en partenariat avec CIVICUS, a pour buts de promouvoir, publier et faire connaître de nouveaux projets et idées sur la gouvernance participative et imputable des institutions publiques à l’échelle locale et nationale. Cet appel à propositions n'est pas limité aux acteurs de terrain travaillant sur les questions de gouvernance, mais il est ouvert également aux observateurs - individus ou institutions, publics ou privés - qui souhaitent apporter une contribution, sous la forme de publication, sur les processus de démocratisation. En outre, cet appel vise également à promouvoir des actions innovantes...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2346 2013/01/17 - 12:57

Introduction: In recent years, a number of African countries, including Niger, have adopted policies abolishing user fees at point of service, targeting categories of people or services. These policies do not take account of geographical and financial accessibility for cases that require medical evacuation from primary to secondary level. This paper documents an experiment illustrating the importance of considering the place of medical evacuation in fee exemption schemes for vulnerable population groups.
Methods: Quantitative analysis of routine statistical data was performed pre- and post-experiment.
The data was taken from monthly activity and financial reports supplied by the 16 IHCs , the district hospital and the regional hospital for the period from 2008 to 2010, and was analyzed using MS Excel.
Results: A medical evacuation reserve fund was set up, with 77% of it made up of “extra centime” payments from the free-healthcare target groups.
A large increase (more than twofold) was...

http://factsreports.revues.org/2294 2012/12/21 - 23:14

Passerelles numériques (Digital Gateway) has an ambitious goal – to find students from impoverished backgrounds a long-lasting career in the information technology (IT) industry. Currently located in Southeast Asia – namely Cambodia, the Philippines and Vietnam – Passerelles numériques has developed and implemented a program that prepares students with the knowledge and the skills necessary to work in the industry. The program, lasting 2-3 years depending on location, consists of IT education, English courses, business life training, and values formation. The students graduate from the program fully prepared and motivated to take their IT careers to the next step.
The results of Passerelles numériques have been inspiring. Students who have graduated have been doing well in their jobs and their companies are happy with their work. However, some challenges and obstacles still remain.

http://factsreports.revues.org/2293 2012/12/15 - 08:53