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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management (EJKM)

The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management (EJKM)

  • http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p83 2014/10/02 - 17:35
  • Abstract: As more companies implement knowledge management (KM), they require a practical and coherent strategy and practice anchored in a valid and comprehensive KM life cycle model or framework. Using a knowledge-based view, this paper aims to improve
    how firms conceptualize, strategize, and manage organizational knowledge. The paper opens with an analysis of organizational knowledge and knowledge assets. Appropriate conceptualization and partitioning of knowledge is required since the cost, benefit,
    and imitability of knowledge assets largely depend on their form. Subsequently, the paper provides a historical and chronological overview of some of the most influential KM life cycle models, based on their scholarly adoption and frequency of use by prac
    titioners. Each represents an advance in the thinking concerning the KM life cycle and introduces valuable new elements to be considered in understanding how organizational knowledge is processed throughout its useful lifespan. Life cycle models examined
    include Wiig (1993), Meyer and Zack (1999), Bukowitz and Williams (1999), and McElroy (2003). Dalkirs (2005) integrated life cycle model and Heisigs (2009) examination of 160 KM frameworks are also reviewed for their contribution. Building o
    n these models and prior work by Evans and Ali (2013), the Knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) model is proposed. Finally, sample KM initiatives, activities, and technologies are mapped to the seven non-sequential KMC model phases (i.e., identify, store
    , share, use, learn, improve, and create) to illustrate its practical use. The main contribution of the KMC model is that it provides a holistic view of the knowledge life cycle, by building on previous life cycles models and Heisigs (2009) analysis o
    f KM frameworks. It further extends previous models by including different knowledge forms, integrating the notion of second order or double loop learning, and associating some facilitating initiatives and technologies for each of its phases.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p85 2014/10/02 - 17:35
  • Abstract: This paper introduces the Innate Lesson Cycle (ADIIEA) as a uniting and integrated framework for business process operations and organizational learning. Thus far, the Knowledge Management (KM) and Organizational Learning (OL) movements ha
    ve tried to teach OLŽ to organizations as an add-onŽ while assuming that current business models are sound. Instead, we find that current business models are based on industrial age factory process work, and fail to keep up with the learning and innovat
    ion demands of the knowledge economy. This paper suggests that these current business models be replaced, not complimented, with a learning-based model. In the epistemological formulation of this learning model, ADIIEA is compared with the SECI model, and
    its underlying assumptions about tacit and explicit knowledge as appropriate foundational underpinnings are challenged. Instead of a nounŽ approach to knowledge foundations (tacit and explicit knowledge), a verbŽ approach (questioning, reflective, a
    nd reactive modes) to knowledge foundations is illustrated to be appropriately compared to required business process operations. Additionally, this approach is shown to be epistemologically aligned with the fundamental symbols of language, where we unive
    rsally find the question mark, period, and exclamation point, respectfully. From this verb-based foundation, several applications of ADIIEA are then illustrated to address current issues found in education, business processes, policy-making, and knowledge
    systems.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p98 2014/10/02 - 17:35
  • Abstract: The fields of knowledge management and intellectual capital have always distinguished between data, information, and knowledge. One of the basic concepts of the field is that knowledge goes beyond a mere collection of data or information, incl
    uding know-how based on some degree of reflection. Another core idea is that intellectual capital, as a field, deals with valuable organizational assets which, while not formal enough to rate a designation as intellectual property, still deserve the atte
    ntion of managers. Intellectual capital is valuable enough to be identified, managed, and protected, perhaps granting competitive advantage in the marketplace. So what do we make of current trends related to big data, business intelligence, business anal
    ytics, cloud computing, and related topics? Organizations are finding value in basic data and information as well. How does this trend square with the way we conceptualize intellectual capital and value it? This paper will work through the accepted lite
    rature concerning knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) to develop a view of big data that fits with existing theory. As noted, knowledge management and intellectual capital have both recognized data and information though generally
    as non-value precursors of valuable knowledge assets. In establishing the conceptual foundation of big data as an additional valuable knowledge asset (or at least a valuable asset closely related to knowledge), we can begin to make a case for applying
    intellectual capital metrics and knowledge management tools to data assets. We can, so to speak, bring big data and business analytics into the KM/IC fold. In developing this theoretical foundation, familiar concepts such as tacit and explicit knowledge
    , learning, and others can be deployed to increase our understanding. As a result, we believe we can help the field better understand the idea of big data and how it relates to knowledge assets as well as provide a justification for bringing proven knowl
    edge management strategies and tools to bear on bi

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p108 2014/10/02 - 17:35
  • Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge sharing (KS) are key elements for fostering firm value, especially in knowledge-intensive firms. Management Control Systems (MCSs) have been recognized as key knowledge integrators. Recently, this as
    sumption has been called into question as there may exist negative and destructive effects in both IC and KS fostered by a misuse of MCSs. Through a case study of 'Engineering Ltd.", this paper examines the 'dark side' issues associated by improperly impl
    ementing knowledge sharing and by imposing rules and constraints on behavior. The subject of our study, Engineering Ltd.Ž , is a consultancy company with 10,000 employees. The case study is used to scrutinize the major risks of knowledge sharing and to i
    ntroduce possible solutions.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p117 2014/10/02 - 17:35
  • Abstract: The utilization of intellectual capital (IC) has often not been taken up as much as the proponents of IC may have wished. As Dumay (2012) outlines, there are barriers to implementing IC in organizations, and as academics and practitioners we
    need to overcome these barriers. We propose one way to do this is by providing reflective narratives of the journey the authors have taken as a successful IC practitioner and a successful IC academic. Based on constructivist learning theory (Chiucchi, 2
    013a) we offer a staged model of IC development (Guthrie et al., 2012) outlining how we went through similar stages in personally understanding and deploying IC. To do this, Mary Adams and John Dumay trace their IC learning journey in three stages of i
    ntuition, control and value creation. This paper contributes to the IC literature by providing an understanding of the growth a person may need to take in order to become an IC Missionary, rather than merely an IC preacher (Dumay, 2013, p. 8). If this c
    an be achieved, we can provide a forum for open conversations about the concept of IC and the tools available so we can empower people and organizations to experience and collaborate to develop their own IC.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p128 2014/10/02 - 17:35
  • Abstract: This study examined the extent to which learners in vocational technical institutions, capture, distribute, network and effectively use information made available to them during and after lectures that are entrepreneurially and skill oriented i
    n order to furnish the labour market with relevant school products. Development of an entrepreneurial skill is capable of equipping the Nigerian students to fit into different aspects of the economy after graduation. The study adopted a descriptive design
    . A twenty-item unstructured questionnaire was used to assess 150 randomly selected final year students⠒ capacity to transform ideas gained in class into creative problem-solving strategies in three vocational technical colleges in Lagos in south wes
    t Nigeria. Three research questions and one hypothesis were used as guides to the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings revealed that there is a significant relationship betw
    een knowledge management and the development of entrepreneurial skills among vocational technical students in the area of knowledge gathering, sharing, networking and students⠒ capacity to translate some curriculum elements into the world of work among
    others. Given the importance of knowledge sharing, creativity, innovations and connectivity through networking in today⠒s competitive world of work, it was recommended that students be linked up with several entrepreneurs who serve as mentors to student
    s during and after training. Students should be made to participate in seminars and workshops that are entrepreneurially oriented. There should also be regular visits of students to small cottage industries in the form of field trips. Vocational and Tech
    nical Institutions should establish an appropriate culture that encourages students to create and share knowledge within and outside the school. There should be a collaborative effort between vocational institutions and some government agencies, for examp
    le⠒ Small and Medium Entrepreneurial Devel

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p144 2014/10/02 - 17:35
  • Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge sharing (KS) are key elements for fostering firm value, especially in knowledge-intensive firms. Management Control Systems (MCSs) have been recognized as key knowledge integrators. Recently, this as
    sumption has been called into question as there may exist negative and destructive effects in both IC and KS fostered by a misuse of MCSs. Through a case study of 'Engineering Ltd.", this paper examines the 'dark side' issues associated by improperly impl
    ementing knowledge sharing and by imposing rules and constraints on behavior. The subject of our study, Engineering Ltd.Ž , is a consultancy company with 10,000 employees. The case study is used to scrutinize the major risks of knowledge sharing and to i
    ntroduce possible solutions.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p100 2014/09/21 - 15:06
  • Abstract: The utilization of intellectual capital (IC) has often not been taken up as much as the proponents of IC may have wished. As Dumay (2012) outlines, there are barriers to implementing IC in organizations, and as academics and practitioners we
    need to overcome these barriers. We propose one way to do this is by providing reflective narratives of the journey the authors have taken as a successful IC practitioner and a successful IC academic. Based on constructivist learning theory (Chiucchi, 2
    013a) we offer a staged model of IC development (Guthrie et al., 2012) outlining how we went through similar stages in personally understanding and deploying IC. To do this, Mary Adams and John Dumay trace their IC learning journey in three stages of i
    ntuition, control and value creation. This paper contributes to the IC literature by providing an understanding of the growth a person may need to take in order to become an IC Missionary, rather than merely an IC preacher (Dumay, 2013, p. 8). If this c
    an be achieved, we can provide a forum for open conversations about the concept of IC and the tools available so we can empower people and organizations to experience and collaborate to develop their own IC.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p111 2014/09/21 - 15:06
  • Abstract: This paper discusses and examines the role of working meetings as a tool for building and destroying trust in knowledge sharing and creation. Working meetings are one of the basic tools in organizations for collaboration and group cohesion, and
    a significant vehicle for communication. They play an important role in information and knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, coordination, decision making, problem solving and strengthening of group relationships inside and outside the organization, and
    contribute to build or destroy trust. Trust is manifested in commitment, open communication, ethical behaviour, predictability and doing the best in any activity. It creates openness and freedom at the individual and group level, so it plays an important
    role in knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. But as necessary and important working meetings are, they are also very costly and frequently unproductive.Unless properly managed, they can be a waste of valuable financial and emotional resources, with
    negative impact on organizational performance, culture, innovativeness and overall competitiveness. Good meeting planning, preparation, realization, assessment and follow-up are needed to achieve meeting effectiveness. Meeting facilitators, as leadersŽ,
    play a critical role to create a positive-trustworthy atmosphere and conduct and manage the meetings with effectiveness. The main point of discussion is crystallized in the suggestion that meetings have an impact in integrative group behaviour, cooperatio
    n and knowledge sharing and creation. Building and maintaining trust are of utmost importance in it, to develop human capital for sustaining vitality and competitiveness in organizations. Originality of the paper is based on exploring the role of working
    meetings in relation to trust building for knowledge creation and sharing. Implications are made of how to

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p120 2014/09/21 - 15:06
  • Abstract: This study examined the extent to which learners in vocational technical institutions, capture, distribute, network and effectively use information made available to them during and after lectures that are entrepreneurially and skill oriented i
    n order to furnish the labour market with relevant school products. Development of an entrepreneurial skill is capable of equipping the Nigerian students to fit into different aspects of the economy after graduation. The study adopted a descriptive design
    . A twenty-item unstructured questionnaire was used to assess 150 randomly selected final year students⠒ capacity to transform ideas gained in class into creative problem-solving strategies in three vocational technical colleges in Lagos in south wes
    t Nigeria. Three research questions and one hypothesis were used as guides to the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings revealed that there is a significant relationship betw
    een knowledge management and the development of entrepreneurial skills among vocational technical students in the area of knowledge gathering, sharing, networking and students⠒ capacity to translate some curriculum elements into the world of work among
    others. Given the importance of knowledge sharing, creativity, innovations and connectivity through networking in today⠒s competitive world of work, it was recommended that students be linked up with several entrepreneurs who serve as mentors to student
    s during and after training. Students should be made to participate in seminars and workshops that are entrepreneurially oriented. There should also be regular visits of students to small cottage industries in the form of field trips. Vocational and Tech
    nical Institutions should establish an appropriate culture that encourages students to create and share knowledge within and outside the school. There should be a collaborative effort between vocational institutions and some government agencies, for examp
    le⠒ Small and Medium Entrepreneurial Devel

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p127 2014/09/21 - 15:06
  • Abstract: As more companies implement knowledge management (KM), they require a practical and coherent strategy and practice anchored in a valid and comprehensive KM life cycle model or framework. Using a knowledge-based view, this paper aims to improve how firms conceptualize, strategize, and manage organizational knowledge. The paper opens with an analysis of organizational knowledge and knowledge assets. Appropriate conceptualization and partitioning of knowledge is required since the cost, benefit, and imitability of knowledge assets largely depend on their form. Subsequently, the paper provides a historical and chronological overview of some of the most influential KM life cycle models, based on their scholarly adoption and frequency of use by practitioners. Each represents an advance in the thinking concerning the KM life cycle and introduces valuable new elements to be considered in understanding how organizational knowledge is processed throughout its useful lifespan. Life cycle models examined include Wiig (1993), Meyer and Zack (1999), Bukowitz and Williams (1999), and McElroy (2003). Dalkir’s (2005) integrated life cycle model and Heisig’s (2009) examination of 160 KM frameworks are also reviewed for their contribution. Building on these models and prior work by Evans and Ali (2013), the Knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) model is proposed. Finally, sample KM initiatives, activities, and technologies are mapped to the seven non-sequential KMC model phases (i.e., identify, store, share, use, learn, improve, and create) to illustrate its practical use. The main contribution of the KMC model is that it provides a holistic view of the knowledge life cycle, by building on previous life cycles models and Heisig’s (2009) analysis of KM frameworks. It further extends previous models by including different knowledge forms, integrating the notion of second order or double loop learning, and associating some facilitating initiatives and technologies for each of its phases.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p138 2014/09/21 - 15:06
  • Abstract: This paper introduces the Innate Lesson Cycle (ADIIEA) as a uniting and integrated framework for business process operations and organizational learning. Thus far, the Knowledge Management (KM) and Organizational Learning (OL) movements have tried to “teach OL” to organizations as an “add-on” while assuming that current business models are sound. Instead, we find that current business models are based on industrial age factory process work, and fail to keep up with the learning and innovation demands of the knowledge economy. This paper suggests that these current business models be replaced, not complimented, with a learning-based model. In the epistemological formulation of this learning model, ADIIEA is compared with the SECI model, and its underlying assumptions about tacit and explicit knowledge as appropriate foundational underpinnings are challenged. Instead of a “noun” approach to knowledge foundations (tacit and explicit knowledge), a “verb” approach (questioning, reflective, and reactive modes) to knowledge foundations is illustrated to be appropriately compared to required business process operations. Additionally, this approach is shown to be epistemologically aligned with the fundamental symbols of language, where we universally find the question mark, period, and exclamation point, respectfully. From this verb-based foundation, several applications of ADIIEA are then illustrated to address current issues found in education, business processes, policy-making, and knowledge systems.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p152 2014/09/21 - 15:06
  • Abstract: The fields of knowledge management and intellectual capital have always distinguished between data, information, and knowledge. One of the basic concepts of the field is that knowledge goes beyond a mere collection of data or information, incl
    uding know-how based on some degree of reflection. Another core idea is that intellectual capital, as a field, deals with valuable organizational assets which, while not formal enough to rate a designation as intellectual property, still deserve the atte
    ntion of managers. Intellectual capital is valuable enough to be identified, managed, and protected, perhaps granting competitive advantage in the marketplace. So what do we make of current trends related to big data, business intelligence, business anal
    ytics, cloud computing, and related topics? Organizations are finding value in basic data and information as well. How does this trend square with the way we conceptualize intellectual capital and value it? This paper will work through the accepted lite
    rature concerning knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) to develop a view of big data that fits with existing theory. As noted, knowledge management and intellectual capital have both recognized data and information though generally
    as non-value precursors of valuable knowledge assets. In establishing the conceptual foundation of big data as an additional valuable knowledge asset (or at least a valuable asset closely related to knowledge), we can begin to make a case for applying
    intellectual capital metrics and knowledge management tools to data assets. We can, so to speak, bring big data and business analytics into the KM/IC fold. In developing this theoretical foundation, familiar concepts such as tacit and explicit knowledge
    , learning, and others can be deployed to increase our understanding. As a result, we believe we can help the field better understand the idea of big data and how it relates to knowledge assets as well as provide a justification for bringing proven knowl
    edge management strategies and tools to bear on bi

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p119 2014/09/02 - 15:44
  • Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge sharing (KS) are key elements for fostering firm value, especially in knowledge-intensive firms. Management Control Systems (MCSs) have been recognized as key knowledge integrators. Recently, this as
    sumption has been called into question as there may exist negative and destructive effects in both IC and KS fostered by a misuse of MCSs. Through a case study of 'Engineering Ltd.", this paper examines the 'dark side' issues associated by improperly impl
    ementing knowledge sharing and by imposing rules and constraints on behavior. The subject of our study, Engineering Ltd.Ž , is a consultancy company with 10,000 employees. The case study is used to scrutinize the major risks of knowledge sharing and to i
    ntroduce possible solutions.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p128 2014/09/02 - 15:44
  • Abstract: The utilization of intellectual capital (IC) has often not been taken up as much as the proponents of IC may have wished. As Dumay (2012) outlines, there are barriers to implementing IC in organizations, and as academics and practitioners we
    need to overcome these barriers. We propose one way to do this is by providing reflective narratives of the journey the authors have taken as a successful IC practitioner and a successful IC academic. Based on constructivist learning theory (Chiucchi, 2
    013a) we offer a staged model of IC development (Guthrie et al., 2012) outlining how we went through similar stages in personally understanding and deploying IC. To do this, Mary Adams and John Dumay trace their IC learning journey in three stages of i
    ntuition, control and value creation. This paper contributes to the IC literature by providing an understanding of the growth a person may need to take in order to become an IC Missionary, rather than merely an IC preacher (Dumay, 2013, p. 8). If this c
    an be achieved, we can provide a forum for open conversations about the concept of IC and the tools available so we can empower people and organizations to experience and collaborate to develop their own IC.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p139 2014/09/02 - 15:44
  • Abstract: This study examined the extent to which learners in vocational technical institutions, capture, distribute, network and effectively use information made available to them during and after lectures that are entrepreneurially and skill oriented i
    n order to furnish the labour market with relevant school products. Development of an entrepreneurial skill is capable of equipping the Nigerian students to fit into different aspects of the economy after graduation. The study adopted a descriptive design
    . A twenty-item unstructured questionnaire was used to assess 150 randomly selected final year students⠒ capacity to transform ideas gained in class into creative problem-solving strategies in three vocational technical colleges in Lagos in south wes
    t Nigeria. Three research questions and one hypothesis were used as guides to the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings revealed that there is a significant relationship betw
    een knowledge management and the development of entrepreneurial skills among vocational technical students in the area of knowledge gathering, sharing, networking and students⠒ capacity to translate some curriculum elements into the world of work among
    others. Given the importance of knowledge sharing, creativity, innovations and connectivity through networking in today⠒s competitive world of work, it was recommended that students be linked up with several entrepreneurs who serve as mentors to student
    s during and after training. Students should be made to participate in seminars and workshops that are entrepreneurially oriented. There should also be regular visits of students to small cottage industries in the form of field trips. Vocational and Tech
    nical Institutions should establish an appropriate culture that encourages students to create and share knowledge within and outside the school. There should be a collaborative effort between vocational institutions and some government agencies, for examp
    le⠒ Small and Medium Entrepreneurial Devel

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p155 2014/09/02 - 15:44
  • Abstract: This paper introduces the Innate Lesson Cycle (ADIIEA) as a uniting and integrated framework for business process operations and organizational learning. Thus far, the Knowledge Management (KM) and Organizational Learning (OL) movements ha
    ve tried to teach OLŽ to organizations as an add-onŽ while assuming that current business models are sound. Instead, we find that current business models are based on industrial age factory process work, and fail to keep up with the learning and innovat
    ion demands of the knowledge economy. This paper suggests that these current business models be replaced, not complimented, with a learning-based model. In the epistemological formulation of this learning model, ADIIEA is compared with the SECI model, and
    its underlying assumptions about tacit and explicit knowledge as appropriate foundational underpinnings are challenged. Instead of a nounŽ approach to knowledge foundations (tacit and explicit knowledge), a verbŽ approach (questioning, reflective, a
    nd reactive modes) to knowledge foundations is illustrated to be appropriately compared to required business process operations. Additionally, this approach is shown to be epistemologically aligned with the fundamental symbols of language, where we unive
    rsally find the question mark, period, and exclamation point, respectfully. From this verb-based foundation, several applications of ADIIEA are then illustrated to address current issues found in education, business processes, policy-making, and knowledge
    systems.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p104 2014/07/29 - 23:09
  • Abstract: The fields of knowledge management and intellectual capital have always distinguished between data, information, and knowledge. One of the basic concepts of the field is that knowledge goes beyond a mere collection of data or information, incl
    uding know-how based on some degree of reflection. Another core idea is that intellectual capital, as a field, deals with valuable organizational assets which, while not formal enough to rate a designation as intellectual property, still deserve the atte
    ntion of managers. Intellectual capital is valuable enough to be identified, managed, and protected, perhaps granting competitive advantage in the marketplace. So what do we make of current trends related to big data, business intelligence, business anal
    ytics, cloud computing, and related topics? Organizations are finding value in basic data and information as well. How does this trend square with the way we conceptualize intellectual capital and value it? This paper will work through the accepted lite
    rature concerning knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) to develop a view of big data that fits with existing theory. As noted, knowledge management and intellectual capital have both recognized data and information though generally
    as non-value precursors of valuable knowledge assets. In establishing the conceptual foundation of big data as an additional valuable knowledge asset (or at least a valuable asset closely related to knowledge), we can begin to make a case for applying
    intellectual capital metrics and knowledge management tools to data assets. We can, so to speak, bring big data and business analytics into the KM/IC fold. In developing this theoretical foundation, familiar concepts such as tacit and explicit knowledge
    , learning, and others can be deployed to increase our understanding. As a result, we believe we can help the field better understand the idea of big data and how it relates to knowledge assets as well as provide a justification for bringing proven knowl
    edge management strategies and tools to bear on bi

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p114 2014/07/29 - 23:09
  • Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge sharing (KS) are key elements for fostering firm value, especially in knowledge-intensive firms. Management Control Systems (MCSs) have been recognized as key knowledge integrators. Recently, this as
    sumption has been called into question as there may exist negative and destructive effects in both IC and KS fostered by a misuse of MCSs. Through a case study of 'Engineering Ltd.", this paper examines the 'dark side' issues associated by improperly impl
    ementing knowledge sharing and by imposing rules and constraints on behavior. The subject of our study, Engineering Ltd.Ž , is a consultancy company with 10,000 employees. The case study is used to scrutinize the major risks of knowledge sharing and to i
    ntroduce possible solutions.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p123 2014/07/29 - 23:09
  • Abstract: The utilization of intellectual capital (IC) has often not been taken up as much as the proponents of IC may have wished. As Dumay (2012) outlines, there are barriers to implementing IC in organizations, and as academics and practitioners we
    need to overcome these barriers. We propose one way to do this is by providing reflective narratives of the journey the authors have taken as a successful IC practitioner and a successful IC academic. Based on constructivist learning theory (Chiucchi, 2
    013a) we offer a staged model of IC development (Guthrie et al., 2012) outlining how we went through similar stages in personally understanding and deploying IC. To do this, Mary Adams and John Dumay trace their IC learning journey in three stages of i
    ntuition, control and value creation. This paper contributes to the IC literature by providing an understanding of the growth a person may need to take in order to become an IC Missionary, rather than merely an IC preacher (Dumay, 2013, p. 8). If this c
    an be achieved, we can provide a forum for open conversations about the concept of IC and the tools available so we can empower people and organizations to experience and collaborate to develop their own IC.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p134 2014/07/29 - 23:09
  • Abstract: This paper discusses and examines the role of working meetings as a tool for building and destroying trust in knowledge sharing and creation. Working meetings are one of the basic tools in organizations for collaboration and group cohesion, and
    a significant vehicle for communication. They play an important role in information and knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, coordination, decision making, problem solving and strengthening of group relationships inside and outside the organization, and
    contribute to build or destroy trust. Trust is manifested in commitment, open communication, ethical behaviour, predictability and doing the best in any activity. It creates openness and freedom at the individual and group level, so it plays an important
    role in knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. But as necessary and important working meetings are, they are also very costly and frequently unproductive.Unless properly managed, they can be a waste of valuable financial and emotional resources, with
    negative impact on organizational performance, culture, innovativeness and overall competitiveness. Good meeting planning, preparation, realization, assessment and follow-up are needed to achieve meeting effectiveness. Meeting facilitators, as leadersŽ,
    play a critical role to create a positive-trustworthy atmosphere and conduct and manage the meetings with effectiveness. The main point of discussion is crystallized in the suggestion that meetings have an impact in integrative group behaviour, cooperatio
    n and knowledge sharing and creation. Building and maintaining trust are of utmost importance in it, to develop human capital for sustaining vitality and competitiveness in organizations. Originality of the paper is based on exploring the role of working
    meetings in relation to trust building for knowledge creation and sharing. Implications are made of how to

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p143 2014/07/29 - 23:09
  • Abstract: This study examined the extent to which learners in vocational technical institutions, capture, distribute, network and effectively use information made available to them during and after lectures that are entrepreneurially and skill oriented i
    n order to furnish the labour market with relevant school products. Development of an entrepreneurial skill is capable of equipping the Nigerian students to fit into different aspects of the economy after graduation. The study adopted a descriptive design
    . A twenty-item unstructured questionnaire was used to assess 150 randomly selected final year students⠒ capacity to transform ideas gained in class into creative problem-solving strategies in three vocational technical colleges in Lagos in south wes
    t Nigeria. Three research questions and one hypothesis were used as guides to the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings revealed that there is a significant relationship betw
    een knowledge management and the development of entrepreneurial skills among vocational technical students in the area of knowledge gathering, sharing, networking and students⠒ capacity to translate some curriculum elements into the world of work among
    others. Given the importance of knowledge sharing, creativity, innovations and connectivity through networking in today⠒s competitive world of work, it was recommended that students be linked up with several entrepreneurs who serve as mentors to student
    s during and after training. Students should be made to participate in seminars and workshops that are entrepreneurially oriented. There should also be regular visits of students to small cottage industries in the form of field trips. Vocational and Tech
    nical Institutions should establish an appropriate culture that encourages students to create and share knowledge within and outside the school. There should be a collaborative effort between vocational institutions and some government agencies, for examp
    le⠒ Small and Medium Entrepreneurial Devel

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p150 2014/07/29 - 23:09
  • Abstract: The fields of knowledge management and intellectual capital have always distinguished between data, information, and knowledge. One of the basic concepts of the field is that knowledge goes beyond a mere collection of data or information, incl
    uding know-how based on some degree of reflection. Another core idea is that intellectual capital, as a field, deals with valuable organizational assets which, while not formal enough to rate a designation as intellectual property, still deserve the atte
    ntion of managers. Intellectual capital is valuable enough to be identified, managed, and protected, perhaps granting competitive advantage in the marketplace. So what do we make of current trends related to big data, business intelligence, business anal
    ytics, cloud computing, and related topics? Organizations are finding value in basic data and information as well. How does this trend square with the way we conceptualize intellectual capital and value it? This paper will work through the accepted lite
    rature concerning knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) to develop a view of big data that fits with existing theory. As noted, knowledge management and intellectual capital have both recognized data and information though generally
    as non-value precursors of valuable knowledge assets. In establishing the conceptual foundation of big data as an additional valuable knowledge asset (or at least a valuable asset closely related to knowledge), we can begin to make a case for applying
    intellectual capital metrics and knowledge management tools to data assets. We can, so to speak, bring big data and business analytics into the KM/IC fold. In developing this theoretical foundation, familiar concepts such as tacit and explicit knowledge
    , learning, and others can be deployed to increase our understanding. As a result, we believe we can help the field better understand the idea of big data and how it relates to knowledge assets as well as provide a justification for bringing proven knowl
    edge management strategies and tools to bear on bi

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p101 2014/07/15 - 14:39
  • Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge sharing (KS) are key elements for fostering firm value, especially in knowledge-intensive firms. Management Control Systems (MCSs) have been recognized as key knowledge integrators. Recently, this as
    sumption has been called into question as there may exist negative and destructive effects in both IC and KS fostered by a misuse of MCSs. Through a case study of 'Engineering Ltd.", this paper examines the 'dark side' issues associated by improperly impl
    ementing knowledge sharing and by imposing rules and constraints on behavior. The subject of our study, Engineering Ltd.Ž , is a consultancy company with 10,000 employees. The case study is used to scrutinize the major risks of knowledge sharing and to i
    ntroduce possible solutions.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p110 2014/07/15 - 14:39
  • Abstract: The utilization of intellectual capital (IC) has often not been taken up as much as the proponents of IC may have wished. As Dumay (2012) outlines, there are barriers to implementing IC in organizations, and as academics and practitioners we
    need to overcome these barriers. We propose one way to do this is by providing reflective narratives of the journey the authors have taken as a successful IC practitioner and a successful IC academic. Based on constructivist learning theory (Chiucchi, 2
    013a) we offer a staged model of IC development (Guthrie et al., 2012) outlining how we went through similar stages in personally understanding and deploying IC. To do this, Mary Adams and John Dumay trace their IC learning journey in three stages of i
    ntuition, control and value creation. This paper contributes to the IC literature by providing an understanding of the growth a person may need to take in order to become an IC Missionary, rather than merely an IC preacher (Dumay, 2013, p. 8). If this c
    an be achieved, we can provide a forum for open conversations about the concept of IC and the tools available so we can empower people and organizations to experience and collaborate to develop their own IC.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p121 2014/07/15 - 14:39
  • Abstract: This paper discusses and examines the role of working meetings as a tool for building and destroying trust in knowledge sharing and creation. Working meetings are one of the basic tools in organizations for collaboration and group cohesion, and
    a significant vehicle for communication. They play an important role in information and knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, coordination, decision making, problem solving and strengthening of group relationships inside and outside the organization, and
    contribute to build or destroy trust. Trust is manifested in commitment, open communication, ethical behaviour, predictability and doing the best in any activity. It creates openness and freedom at the individual and group level, so it plays an important
    role in knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. But as necessary and important working meetings are, they are also very costly and frequently unproductive.Unless properly managed, they can be a waste of valuable financial and emotional resources, with
    negative impact on organizational performance, culture, innovativeness and overall competitiveness. Good meeting planning, preparation, realization, assessment and follow-up are needed to achieve meeting effectiveness. Meeting facilitators, as leadersŽ,
    play a critical role to create a positive-trustworthy atmosphere and conduct and manage the meetings with effectiveness. The main point of discussion is crystallized in the suggestion that meetings have an impact in integrative group behaviour, cooperatio
    n and knowledge sharing and creation. Building and maintaining trust are of utmost importance in it, to develop human capital for sustaining vitality and competitiveness in organizations. Originality of the paper is based on exploring the role of working
    meetings in relation to trust building for knowledge creation and sharing. Implications are made of how to

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p130 2014/07/15 - 14:39
  • Abstract: This study examined the extent to which learners in vocational technical institutions, capture, distribute, network and effectively use information made available to them during and after lectures that are entrepreneurially and skill oriented i
    n order to furnish the labour market with relevant school products. Development of an entrepreneurial skill is capable of equipping the Nigerian students to fit into different aspects of the economy after graduation. The study adopted a descriptive design
    . A twenty-item unstructured questionnaire was used to assess 150 randomly selected final year students⠒ capacity to transform ideas gained in class into creative problem-solving strategies in three vocational technical colleges in Lagos in south wes
    t Nigeria. Three research questions and one hypothesis were used as guides to the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings revealed that there is a significant relationship betw
    een knowledge management and the development of entrepreneurial skills among vocational technical students in the area of knowledge gathering, sharing, networking and students⠒ capacity to translate some curriculum elements into the world of work among
    others. Given the importance of knowledge sharing, creativity, innovations and connectivity through networking in today⠒s competitive world of work, it was recommended that students be linked up with several entrepreneurs who serve as mentors to student
    s during and after training. Students should be made to participate in seminars and workshops that are entrepreneurially oriented. There should also be regular visits of students to small cottage industries in the form of field trips. Vocational and Tech
    nical Institutions should establish an appropriate culture that encourages students to create and share knowledge within and outside the school. There should be a collaborative effort between vocational institutions and some government agencies, for examp
    le⠒ Small and Medium Entrepreneurial Devel

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p137 2014/07/15 - 14:39
  • Abstract: As more companies implement knowledge management (KM), they require a practical and coherent strategy and practice anchored in a valid and comprehensive KM life cycle model or framework. Using a knowledge-based view, this paper aims to improve
    how firms conceptualize, strategize, and manage organizational knowledge. The paper opens with an analysis of organizational knowledge and knowledge assets. Appropriate conceptualization and partitioning of knowledge is required since the cost, benefit,
    and imitability of knowledge assets largely depend on their form. Subsequently, the paper provides a historical and chronological overview of some of the most influential KM life cycle models, based on their scholarly adoption and frequency of use by prac
    titioners. Each represents an advance in the thinking concerning the KM life cycle and introduces valuable new elements to be considered in understanding how organizational knowledge is processed throughout its useful lifespan. Life cycle models examined
    include Wiig (1993), Meyer and Zack (1999), Bukowitz and Williams (1999), and McElroy (2003). Dalkirs (2005) integrated life cycle model and Heisigs (2009) examination of 160 KM frameworks are also reviewed for their contribution. Building o
    n these models and prior work by Evans and Ali (2013), the Knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) model is proposed. Finally, sample KM initiatives, activities, and technologies are mapped to the seven non-sequential KMC model phases (i.e., identify, store
    , share, use, learn, improve, and create) to illustrate its practical use. The main contribution of the KMC model is that it provides a holistic view of the knowledge life cycle, by building on previous life cycles models and Heisigs (2009) analysis o
    f KM frameworks. It further extends previous models by including different knowledge forms, integrating the notion of second order or double loop learning, and associating some facilitating initiatives and technologies for each of its phases.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p148 2014/07/15 - 14:39
  • http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p89 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • Abstract: This paper introduces the Innate Lesson Cycle (ADIIEA) as a uniting and integrated framework for business process operations and organizational learning. Thus far, the Knowledge Management (KM) and Organizational Learning (OL) movements ha
    ve tried to teach OLŽ to organizations as an add-onŽ while assuming that current business models are sound. Instead, we find that current business models are based on industrial age factory process work, and fail to keep up with the learning and innovat
    ion demands of the knowledge economy. This paper suggests that these current business models be replaced, not complimented, with a learning-based model. In the epistemological formulation of this learning model, ADIIEA is compared with the SECI model, and
    its underlying assumptions about tacit and explicit knowledge as appropriate foundational underpinnings are challenged. Instead of a nounŽ approach to knowledge foundations (tacit and explicit knowledge), a verbŽ approach (questioning, reflective, a
    nd reactive modes) to knowledge foundations is illustrated to be appropriately compared to required business process operations. Additionally, this approach is shown to be epistemologically aligned with the fundamental symbols of language, where we unive
    rsally find the question mark, period, and exclamation point, respectfully. From this verb-based foundation, several applications of ADIIEA are then illustrated to address current issues found in education, business processes, policy-making, and knowledge
    systems.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p91 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • Abstract: The fields of knowledge management and intellectual capital have always distinguished between data, information, and knowledge. One of the basic concepts of the field is that knowledge goes beyond a mere collection of data or information, incl
    uding know-how based on some degree of reflection. Another core idea is that intellectual capital, as a field, deals with valuable organizational assets which, while not formal enough to rate a designation as intellectual property, still deserve the atte
    ntion of managers. Intellectual capital is valuable enough to be identified, managed, and protected, perhaps granting competitive advantage in the marketplace. So what do we make of current trends related to big data, business intelligence, business anal
    ytics, cloud computing, and related topics? Organizations are finding value in basic data and information as well. How does this trend square with the way we conceptualize intellectual capital and value it? This paper will work through the accepted lite
    rature concerning knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) to develop a view of big data that fits with existing theory. As noted, knowledge management and intellectual capital have both recognized data and information though generally
    as non-value precursors of valuable knowledge assets. In establishing the conceptual foundation of big data as an additional valuable knowledge asset (or at least a valuable asset closely related to knowledge), we can begin to make a case for applying
    intellectual capital metrics and knowledge management tools to data assets. We can, so to speak, bring big data and business analytics into the KM/IC fold. In developing this theoretical foundation, familiar concepts such as tacit and explicit knowledge
    , learning, and others can be deployed to increase our understanding. As a result, we believe we can help the field better understand the idea of big data and how it relates to knowledge assets as well as provide a justification for bringing proven knowl
    edge management strategies and tools to bear on bi

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p101 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge sharing (KS) are key elements for fostering firm value, especially in knowledge-intensive firms. Management Control Systems (MCSs) have been recognized as key knowledge integrators. Recently, this as
    sumption has been called into question as there may exist negative and destructive effects in both IC and KS fostered by a misuse of MCSs. Through a case study of 'Engineering Ltd.", this paper examines the 'dark side' issues associated by improperly impl
    ementing knowledge sharing and by imposing rules and constraints on behavior. The subject of our study, Engineering Ltd.Ž , is a consultancy company with 10,000 employees. The case study is used to scrutinize the major risks of knowledge sharing and to i
    ntroduce possible solutions.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p110 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • Abstract: The utilization of intellectual capital (IC) has often not been taken up as much as the proponents of IC may have wished. As Dumay (2012) outlines, there are barriers to implementing IC in organizations, and as academics and practitioners we
    need to overcome these barriers. We propose one way to do this is by providing reflective narratives of the journey the authors have taken as a successful IC practitioner and a successful IC academic. Based on constructivist learning theory (Chiucchi, 2
    013a) we offer a staged model of IC development (Guthrie et al., 2012) outlining how we went through similar stages in personally understanding and deploying IC. To do this, Mary Adams and John Dumay trace their IC learning journey in three stages of i
    ntuition, control and value creation. This paper contributes to the IC literature by providing an understanding of the growth a person may need to take in order to become an IC Missionary, rather than merely an IC preacher (Dumay, 2013, p. 8). If this c
    an be achieved, we can provide a forum for open conversations about the concept of IC and the tools available so we can empower people and organizations to experience and collaborate to develop their own IC.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p121 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • Abstract: This paper discusses and examines the role of working meetings as a tool for building and destroying trust in knowledge sharing and creation. Working meetings are one of the basic tools in organizations for collaboration and group cohesion, and
    a significant vehicle for communication. They play an important role in information and knowledge sharing, knowledge creation, coordination, decision making, problem solving and strengthening of group relationships inside and outside the organization, and
    contribute to build or destroy trust. Trust is manifested in commitment, open communication, ethical behaviour, predictability and doing the best in any activity. It creates openness and freedom at the individual and group level, so it plays an important
    role in knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. But as necessary and important working meetings are, they are also very costly and frequently unproductive.Unless properly managed, they can be a waste of valuable financial and emotional resources, with
    negative impact on organizational performance, culture, innovativeness and overall competitiveness. Good meeting planning, preparation, realization, assessment and follow-up are needed to achieve meeting effectiveness. Meeting facilitators, as leadersŽ,
    play a critical role to create a positive-trustworthy atmosphere and conduct and manage the meetings with effectiveness. The main point of discussion is crystallized in the suggestion that meetings have an impact in integrative group behaviour, cooperatio
    n and knowledge sharing and creation. Building and maintaining trust are of utmost importance in it, to develop human capital for sustaining vitality and competitiveness in organizations. Originality of the paper is based on exploring the role of working
    meetings in relation to trust building for knowledge creation and sharing. Implications are made of how to

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p130 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • Abstract: This study examined the extent to which learners in vocational technical institutions, capture, distribute, network and effectively use information made available to them during and after lectures that are entrepreneurially and skill oriented i
    n order to furnish the labour market with relevant school products. Development of an entrepreneurial skill is capable of equipping the Nigerian students to fit into different aspects of the economy after graduation. The study adopted a descriptive design
    . A twenty-item unstructured questionnaire was used to assess 150 randomly selected final year students⠒ capacity to transform ideas gained in class into creative problem-solving strategies in three vocational technical colleges in Lagos in south wes
    t Nigeria. Three research questions and one hypothesis were used as guides to the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The major findings revealed that there is a significant relationship betw
    een knowledge management and the development of entrepreneurial skills among vocational technical students in the area of knowledge gathering, sharing, networking and students⠒ capacity to translate some curriculum elements into the world of work among
    others. Given the importance of knowledge sharing, creativity, innovations and connectivity through networking in today⠒s competitive world of work, it was recommended that students be linked up with several entrepreneurs who serve as mentors to student
    s during and after training. Students should be made to participate in seminars and workshops that are entrepreneurially oriented. There should also be regular visits of students to small cottage industries in the form of field trips. Vocational and Tech
    nical Institutions should establish an appropriate culture that encourages students to create and share knowledge within and outside the school. There should be a collaborative effort between vocational institutions and some government agencies, for examp
    le⠒ Small and Medium Entrepreneurial Devel

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p137 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • Abstract: As more companies implement knowledge management (KM), they require a practical and coherent strategy and practice anchored in a valid and comprehensive KM life cycle model or framework. Using a knowledge-based view, this paper aims to improve
    how firms conceptualize, strategize, and manage organizational knowledge. The paper opens with an analysis of organizational knowledge and knowledge assets. Appropriate conceptualization and partitioning of knowledge is required since the cost, benefit,
    and imitability of knowledge assets largely depend on their form. Subsequently, the paper provides a historical and chronological overview of some of the most influential KM life cycle models, based on their scholarly adoption and frequency of use by prac
    titioners. Each represents an advance in the thinking concerning the KM life cycle and introduces valuable new elements to be considered in understanding how organizational knowledge is processed throughout its useful lifespan. Life cycle models examined
    include Wiig (1993), Meyer and Zack (1999), Bukowitz and Williams (1999), and McElroy (2003). Dalkirs (2005) integrated life cycle model and Heisigs (2009) examination of 160 KM frameworks are also reviewed for their contribution. Building o
    n these models and prior work by Evans and Ali (2013), the Knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) model is proposed. Finally, sample KM initiatives, activities, and technologies are mapped to the seven non-sequential KMC model phases (i.e., identify, store
    , share, use, learn, improve, and create) to illustrate its practical use. The main contribution of the KMC model is that it provides a holistic view of the knowledge life cycle, by building on previous life cycles models and Heisigs (2009) analysis o
    f KM frameworks. It further extends previous models by including different knowledge forms, integrating the notion of second order or double loop learning, and associating some facilitating initiatives and technologies for each of its phases.

    http://ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p148 2014/07/12 - 01:01
  • http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p89 2014/07/01 - 14:07
  • Abstract: As more companies implement knowledge management (KM), they require a practical and coherent strategy and practice anchored in a valid and comprehensive KM life cycle model or framework. Using a knowledge-based view, this paper aims to improve
    how firms conceptualize, strategize, and manage organizational knowledge. The paper opens with an analysis of organizational knowledge and knowledge assets. Appropriate conceptualization and partitioning of knowledge is required since the cost, benefit,
    and imitability of knowledge assets largely depend on their form. Subsequently, the paper provides a historical and chronological overview of some of the most influential KM life cycle models, based on their scholarly adoption and frequency of use by prac
    titioners. Each represents an advance in the thinking concerning the KM life cycle and introduces valuable new elements to be considered in understanding how organizational knowledge is processed throughout its useful lifespan. Life cycle models examined
    include Wiig (1993), Meyer and Zack (1999), Bukowitz and Williams (1999), and McElroy (2003). Dalkirs (2005) integrated life cycle model and Heisigs (2009) examination of 160 KM frameworks are also reviewed for their contribution. Building o
    n these models and prior work by Evans and Ali (2013), the Knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) model is proposed. Finally, sample KM initiatives, activities, and technologies are mapped to the seven non-sequential KMC model phases (i.e., identify, store
    , share, use, learn, improve, and create) to illustrate its practical use. The main contribution of the KMC model is that it provides a holistic view of the knowledge life cycle, by building on previous life cycles models and Heisigs (2009) analysis o
    f KM frameworks. It further extends previous models by including different knowledge forms, integrating the notion of second order or double loop learning, and associating some facilitating initiatives and technologies for each of its phases.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p91 2014/07/01 - 14:07
  • Abstract: This paper introduces the Innate Lesson Cycle (ADIIEA) as a uniting and integrated framework for business process operations and organizational learning. Thus far, the Knowledge Management (KM) and Organizational Learning (OL) movements ha
    ve tried to teach OLŽ to organizations as an add-onŽ while assuming that current business models are sound. Instead, we find that current business models are based on industrial age factory process work, and fail to keep up with the learning and innovat
    ion demands of the knowledge economy. This paper suggests that these current business models be replaced, not complimented, with a learning-based model. In the epistemological formulation of this learning model, ADIIEA is compared with the SECI model, and
    its underlying assumptions about tacit and explicit knowledge as appropriate foundational underpinnings are challenged. Instead of a nounŽ approach to knowledge foundations (tacit and explicit knowledge), a verbŽ approach (questioning, reflective, a
    nd reactive modes) to knowledge foundations is illustrated to be appropriately compared to required business process operations. Additionally, this approach is shown to be epistemologically aligned with the fundamental symbols of language, where we unive
    rsally find the question mark, period, and exclamation point, respectfully. From this verb-based foundation, several applications of ADIIEA are then illustrated to address current issues found in education, business processes, policy-making, and knowledge
    systems.

    http://www.ejkm.com/volume12/issue2/p105 2014/07/01 - 14:07