Skip to Content

Instrukcja korzystania z Biblioteki

Serwisy:

Ukryty Internet | Wyszukiwarki specjalistyczne tekstów i źródeł naukowych | Translatory online | Encyklopedie i słowniki online

Translator:

Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation (EJISE)

Abstract: Power is an important aspect of the social systems that make up organizations. The concept of power helps to explain how organizational decisions are made and executed, despite opposition that results from competing goals and desires amongst tho
se in which a given decision affects. Using resource dependence and strategic contingency theories for guidance, we identify potential sources of intra-organizational power for the information technology (IT) department and its members. The comprehensiv
e list of propositions developed in this paper will provide researchers potential hypotheses to test in future research, as well as a means to assess overall IT departmental power. While power plays an important role in facilitating the execution of the a
ctivities by an organization⠒s IT department, it is often pursued by self-interested individuals, due to the fact that it provides the ability to influence decisions, such as resource allocation, as well as providing a sense of control over organization
al outcomes and personal satisfaction. Based on the propositions developed in this paper, we demonstrate how power considerations provide one plausible explanation for many of the poor organization outcomes that occur with respect to the IT function, incl
uding technology for technology⠒s sake, a lack of user preferences being integrated into IT systems development projects, resistance to using of knowledge management systems, and resistance to IS outsourcing. Our discussion of power-gaining activities p
rovides practitioners an explanation of dysfunctional behaviors that previously may have been perceived as irrational, or even undetected. In our discussion section, we provide suggestions for researching the propositions we have developed. In particular,
we suggest that a longitudinal or multi-case study approach may provide the best method for researchers to test our set of propositions. At the same time, we caution that results from case studies would be difficult to generalize, as the configuration of
IT solutions adopted by organizations tend to

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p88 2014/07/14 - 17:45

Abstract: In this paper we try to assess the impact of ERP-implementations on the development of non-financial organizational performance, as described by Shang and Seddon (2002) and Eckartz et al. (2009). We assess this impact for Dutch small and med
ium-sized enterprises, using a small but unique dataset. Several aspects of the performance of organizations are compared before and after the introduction of an ERP-system, taking into account a three-year period, and controlling for several influential
factors (like organizational size, financial health and sectoral differences). We conclude that by and large, organizational performance increased significantly more for organizations that implemented an ERP-system in the last three years than for organ
izations that did not implement such a system. We also conclude that organizations that implemented an ERP-system at most three years ago did not have significantly lower non-financial performance than organizations that did not implement such a system. A
dditional analyses suggest that we would oversell our results if we would claim that ERP-systems are the main or sole source of the effects found. Nevertheless, although limited to Dutch SMEs, our results contradict some of the views expressed in the ERP-
literature.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p103 2014/07/14 - 17:45

Abstract: An ERP System is among the core information system (IS) software being adopted in the process industries globally. Such systems are claimed to offer strategic and operational improvement to firms supply chain effectiveness. Prior studies have
shown that most adopting firms are not achieving the strategic business value identified in the project justification due to employees ineffective use of the system. The gains that such firms have achieved by implementing ERP systems in terms of increas
e in operational efficiency are often accompanied by daunting ineffective usability problems. Building on Technology…Organization…Environment (TOE) theory, Task-Technology Fit (TTF) theory and the theory of usage inhibition, this study examines the in
hibitors of the effective use of ERP systems. The study used the Delphi technique to draw from the experiences of a few ERP adopters from New Zealands process industries. Findings suggest that non-collaborative training among employees, low absorptive ca
pacity and system misfit are the top most critical inhibitors. Others inhibitors include inadequate ERP expertise, ERP default attributes, lack of continuous improvement and poor vendors support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findin
gs are discussed in the concluding section.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p116 2014/07/14 - 17:45

Abstract: Broadband infrastructure is seen as crucial to a countrys social, economic and scientific goals and a requirement of the knowledge economy. Broadband has the ability to improve the lives of citizens as it can provide ICT skills for employment a
nd improve access to online forms of education. It has been purported to provide consumers with better work/life balance attributed to increased empowerment and productivity, the ability to work from home and reduced stress. South Africa has recognized th
e importance of high-speed broadband technology to advance the communications infrastructure of the country. However, although the demand for broadband is quite high, the adoption of the technology is lower than anticipated, particularly within the househ
olds of consumers. South Africa has fallen behind international peers in both the developed and some developing markets in its rollout of broadband services. While various studies and models aim to explain the adoption of broadband, there is little litera
ture on the impact of broadband services in African countries. To address this need this paper investigates the use and impact of broadband services in South African households. The research comprises an initial literature review, followed by a qualitativ
e study which is then validated by a quantitative study. The study shows that South African broadband users are predominantly experimental users. Users with higher usage of broadband in terms of variety or rate of use are able to work from home and purpor
t to save time which results in a more comfortable lifestyle. They are more satisfied with the technology and show an interest in future-oriented communication technologies. The resultant model adds to the existing literature and this analysis will allow
various stakeholders such as government, Internet Service Providers (ISP), business consumers and public organisations to make more informed decisions on broadband infrastructure investments

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p134 2014/07/14 - 17:45

Abstract: The critical importance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in modern business has created a demand for ERP consultants with the appropriate competencies to implement, maintain and support these systems. Education and training progra
mmes have been implemented in order to provide ERP specialists and graduates with the required industry relevant ERP competencies. The majority of these education and training programmes utilise large ERP systems for instructional purposes, however users
of these systems encounter usability issues whilst learning to use the systems. The use of medium-sized ERP systems has been proposed for educational purposes as they are less complex and easier to learn than large ERP systems. Empirical studies on the us
ability of ERP systems, particularly for medium-sized ERP systems are limited. This paper reports on empirical research on the usability evaluation of a medium-sized ERP system. The study identified three categories of criteria and 10 criteria which can b
e used for usability evaluations of medium-sized ERP systems. The criteria were used in a case study to evaluate the usability of a medium-sized ERP system and to obtain qualitative feedback on the usability of the system. The most frequently reported pos
itive usability features of the ERP system were the tree-structure of the menus and the grouping of logically related items. Negative features which were reported included the clutter of the user interface and difficulties with finding information and con
trols. These results can provide valuable insight into the ERP learning process for university educators and researchers. The usability evaluation results can assist ERP designers with improving ERP usability, which can improve the quality of ERP training
and education programmes and ultimately ERP project success. The usability evaluation results provide considerable insight into the usability problems encountered by students when learning to use ERP systems in their university courses and provide a val
uable contribution to usability theory and in particular frustration theory.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p148 2014/07/14 - 17:45

Abstract: Cloud Computing adoption has experienced a considerable rate of growth since its emergence in 2006. By 2011, it had become the top technology priority for organizations worldwide and according to some leading industry reports the cloud computing
market is estimated to reach $241 billion by 2020. Reasons for adoption are multi-fold, including for example the expected realisation of benefits pertaining to cost reduction, improved scalability, improved resource utilization, worker mobility and coll
aboration, and business continuity, among others. Research into cloud computing adoption has to date primarily focused on the larger, multinational enterprises. However, one key area where cloud computing is expected to hold considerable promise is for th
e Small and Medium Sized Enterprise (SME). SMEs are recognized as being inherently different from their large firm counterparts, not least from a resource constraint perspective and for this reason, cloud computing is reported to offer significant benef
its for SMEs through, for example, facilitating a reduction in the financial burden associated with new technology adoption. This paper reports findings from a recent exploratory study into Cloud Computing adoption among Irish SMEs. Despite its purported
importance, this study found that almost half of the respondents had not migrated any services or processes to the cloud environment. Further, with respect to those who had transitioned to the cloud, the data suggests that many of these SMEs did not rigor
ously assess their readiness for adopting cloud computing technology or did not adopt in-depth approaches for managing their engagement with cloud. While the study is of an exploratory nature, nevertheless the findings have important implications for the
development/ improvement of national strategies or policies to support the successful adoption of Cloud Computing technology among the SME market. This research has implications for academic research in this area as well as proposing a number of practical
recommendations to support the SME cloud adop

http://ejise.com/volume16/issue4/p258 2014/03/12 - 06:44

Abstract: The current economic climate of funding stringency has intensified the need for non-profit organisations (NPOs) to find new delivery models of their services as a way of creating greater efficiencies and reducing costs. Consideration of improv
ement to their back-office operations is one way of addressing overheads associated with delivery functions of NPOs so that they can continue to focus on their core business activities. The overheads for back-office functions are much larger for smaller N
POs (by about 10-15 percent) than the larger ones and interest in sharing services could appeal to that sector. One approach to reduce overhead costs is for two or more NPOs to collaborate in sharing office space and office equipment and, in some instan
ces, outsourcing some functions, for example, human resources and information technology. Currently, in New Zealand, there is very little engagement by NPOs in sharing services, particularly back office computing services. It was against this background t
hat meetings with representatives of eight NPOs in Wellington, New Zealand, identified the challenges they were facing. These included funding, client management, compliance with reporting (financial and non-financial), financial management and control
, governance, marketing and promotion and retention and management of staff and volunteers. Wellington City Council, as a significant funding agent of some local NPOs, commissioned a national online survey with the aim of understanding the interest and re
adiness of NPOs in adopting shared computing services. The survey was developed collaboratively with the council, a computing charitable trust and a local university. The objectives of the survey were: to provide a snapshot of computing usage within the o
rganisations, identify significant issues challenging the sector and understand their perceptions of shared computing services. The perceptions of the NPO representatives from across New Zealand (431 valid surveys) regarding shared services are reported
in this paper. Results reveal the factors that driv

http://ejise.com/volume16/issue4/p270 2014/03/12 - 06:44

Abstract: Often the purpose of personal health and well-being systems is to change users behaviour. Many theoretical frameworks have been developed to support the design and evaluation of these persuasive systems for behaviour change, but their design re
mains challenging. No systematic way yet exists by which to put the information into practice and build in persuasiveness effectively. The aim of this study is to investigate how the Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) model can be utilised so as to support
the development of personal health and well-being systems. To do this, the study discusses and analyses related research and also integrates the PSD model into the development of two health-related behaviour change support systems. In Case 1, the purpose
of using the PSD model was to identify new persuasive functionality within a fall risk assessment and fall prevention system. In Case 2, the purpose of using the PSD model was to identify new persuasive functionality and new service concepts within an ex
isting smartphone application for mental wellbeing. The study shows that the PSD model has been used in the development of BCSSs to describe the overall process, analyse the persuasion context and design system qualities. It has also been applied in the e
valuation of the existing systems by providing heuristics for expert evaluations and systematic ways to analyse user experience data. The study also reveals that the PSD model can be successfully applied during the user requirements analysis and concept d
esign phases to identify new potential persuasive functionalities. In both Case 1 and 2, this resulted in having more variety in persuasive functionalities compared to those in the initial user requirements or existing application. The PSD model provides
support for designing and evaluating BCSSs, but some future directions of development of the model can be recognised.

http://ejise.com/volume16/issue4/p278 2014/03/12 - 06:44

Abstract: Although Enterprise System (ES) implementation (formerly Enterprise Resource Planning systems) literature is extremely broad, most of it takes the perspective of the implementing organisation and its employees, i.e., project managers, key us
ers and users. The fact that it is both possible and popular to conduct such a complicated, time-consuming and expensive project using functional consultants is largely omitted. This study explores the Enterprise System implementation project from the per
spective of the functional consultants and is based on the analysis of project documentation and interviews. The research questions answered by this study include the consultants requirements from other project participants, which help them to accomplish
the goals of each project phase, to complete the activities performed in each project phase, and to deliver the products that are requested of them.

http://ejise.com/volume16/issue4/p291 2014/03/12 - 06:44

Abstract: A business case is in many organisations perceived as a valuable instrument for the justification and evaluation of information technology (IT) investments. This attention from practice has been ascertained by academic scholars, resulting in a
growing number of publications in both top academic and practitioner journals since 1999. However, much knowledge on business case research is scattered throughout literature and a clear definition of what actually constitutes a business case is still mi
ssing. Therefore, the present paper aims to understand and integrate the current state of research on business cases in an attempt to realise two objectives with clear contributions. First, we tackle the problem of scattered knowledge by organising fragme
nted knowledge into a newly developed Business Case Research Framework that clearly structures the study field into six dimensions. Second, we identify what constitutes a business case and provide a clear definition to resolve the misunderstanding among s
cholars. A systematic literature review methodology is performed in a selection of top academic and practitioner journals. Based on the literature findings, we observe that the application of business cases is useful in a broad range of investment context
s. We also find sufficient argumentation that using a business case continuously throughout an entire investment life cycle can increase the investment success rate, that a richer set of information (rather than only financial numbers) should be include
d in a business case and that stakeholder inclusion is important when developing and using business cases.

http://ejise.com/volume16/issue4/p302 2014/03/12 - 06:44

Abstract: This paper discusses the value of social technologies in organizations. It is based on value focused thinking approach to establish the fundamental objectives of social technology applications in organizations. Data for the study was gathered
from interviews with 26 individuals in 10 organizations about the value of social technologies. Value focused thinking approach helped structure the interview responses to establish value of social technology in terms of business improvements. The finding
s highlight innovation of internal processes, creation of organisational identity and new business models, integrated business functions, as well as employee support to be important values of social technology enabled innovation in organisations. Other va
lues include low cost interactive marketing, dissemination of a large amount of information, , organizational transparency and better customer service. This research suggests social technology values are achieved from both internal as well as external a
pplications.

http://ejise.com/volume16/issue4/p315 2014/03/12 - 06:44

Abstract: The ability of a company to either adapt to the changes in the business environment or to influence the environment, for example by innovations, determines its success in gaining competitive advantage or even survival in the contemporary busines
s environment. Both scholars and practitioners are constantly devising ways to survive the environmental pressures, such as, information overload, technological advances and obsolescence and globalization. This research proposes strategic agility comprise
d of strategic sensitivity, strategic response and collective capabilities as one such business virtue required. One such competitive and complex industry is Telecommunication industry and this study makes use of a company in that industry to investigate
strategic agility and information systems (IS) role in promoting strategic agility. In addition, the supply chain setting is considered because of its significance in the industry as one of the competitive factors. The research revealed different point
s of view for the role of IS from business and information technology (IT) managers. The value of strategic agility is appreciated by both sets of managers. However, the managers have different views on the value of IS in promoting the strategic agility
dimensions, for instance, most business managers highlighted that IS is of no strategic value and one even claimed it is the worst performing function. But IS managers noted that, IS, for instance, business intelligence and enterprise resource planning s
ystems could be utilized hand-in-hand to support strategic agility. Moreover, this study make use of dynamic capabilities view in drawing both strategic agility dimensions and IS input. This study contributes to the ever required knowledge on how busines
s could make use of IS and adapt organizational features to the environment requirements in order to survive the competition.

http://ejise.com/volume16/issue4/p327 2014/03/12 - 06:44

Abstract: Power is an important aspect of the social systems that make up organizations. The concept of power helps to explain how organizational decisions are made and executed, despite opposition that results from competing goals and desires amongst tho
se in which a given decision affects. Using resource dependence and strategic contingency theories for guidance, we identify potential sources of intra-organizational power for the information technology (IT) department and its members. The comprehensiv
e list of propositions developed in this paper will provide researchers potential hypotheses to test in future research, as well as a means to assess overall IT departmental power. While power plays an important role in facilitating the execution of the a
ctivities by an organization⠒s IT department, it is often pursued by self-interested individuals, due to the fact that it provides the ability to influence decisions, such as resource allocation, as well as providing a sense of control over organization
al outcomes and personal satisfaction. Based on the propositions developed in this paper, we demonstrate how power considerations provide one plausible explanation for many of the poor organization outcomes that occur with respect to the IT function, incl
uding technology for technology⠒s sake, a lack of user preferences being integrated into IT systems development projects, resistance to using of knowledge management systems, and resistance to IS outsourcing. Our discussion of power-gaining activities p
rovides practitioners an explanation of dysfunctional behaviors that previously may have been perceived as irrational, or even undetected. In our discussion section, we provide suggestions for researching the propositions we have developed. In particular,
we suggest that a longitudinal or multi-case study approach may provide the best method for researchers to test our set of propositions. At the same time, we caution that results from case studies would be difficult to generalize, as the configuration of
IT solutions adopted by organizations tend to

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p87 2013/11/14 - 10:14

Abstract: In this paper we try to assess the impact of ERP-implementations on the development of non-financial organizational performance, as described by Shang and Seddon (2002) and Eckartz et al. (2009). We assess this impact for Dutch small and med
ium-sized enterprises, using a small but unique dataset. Several aspects of the performance of organizations are compared before and after the introduction of an ERP-system, taking into account a three-year period, and controlling for several influential
factors (like organizational size, financial health and sectoral differences). We conclude that by and large, organizational performance increased significantly more for organizations that implemented an ERP-system in the last three years than for organ
izations that did not implement such a system. We also conclude that organizations that implemented an ERP-system at most three years ago did not have significantly lower non-financial performance than organizations that did not implement such a system. A
dditional analyses suggest that we would oversell our results if we would claim that ERP-systems are the main or sole source of the effects found. Nevertheless, although limited to Dutch SMEs, our results contradict some of the views expressed in the ERP-
literature.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p102 2013/11/14 - 10:14

Abstract: An ERP System is among the core information system (IS) software being adopted in the process industries globally. Such systems are claimed to offer strategic and operational improvement to firms supply chain effectiveness. Prior studies have
shown that most adopting firms are not achieving the strategic business value identified in the project justification due to employees ineffective use of the system. The gains that such firms have achieved by implementing ERP systems in terms of increas
e in operational efficiency are often accompanied by daunting ineffective usability problems. Building on Technology…Organization…Environment (TOE) theory, Task-Technology Fit (TTF) theory and the theory of usage inhibition, this study examines the in
hibitors of the effective use of ERP systems. The study used the Delphi technique to draw from the experiences of a few ERP adopters from New Zealands process industries. Findings suggest that non-collaborative training among employees, low absorptive ca
pacity and system misfit are the top most critical inhibitors. Others inhibitors include inadequate ERP expertise, ERP default attributes, lack of continuous improvement and poor vendors support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findin
gs are discussed in the concluding section.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p115 2013/11/14 - 10:14

Abstract: Broadband infrastructure is seen as crucial to a countrys social, economic and scientific goals and a requirement of the knowledge economy. Broadband has the ability to improve the lives of citizens as it can provide ICT skills for employment a
nd improve access to online forms of education. It has been purported to provide consumers with better work/life balance attributed to increased empowerment and productivity, the ability to work from home and reduced stress. South Africa has recognized th
e importance of high-speed broadband technology to advance the communications infrastructure of the country. However, although the demand for broadband is quite high, the adoption of the technology is lower than anticipated, particularly within the househ
olds of consumers. South Africa has fallen behind international peers in both the developed and some developing markets in its rollout of broadband services. While various studies and models aim to explain the adoption of broadband, there is little litera
ture on the impact of broadband services in African countries. To address this need this paper investigates the use and impact of broadband services in South African households. The research comprises an initial literature review, followed by a qualitativ
e study which is then validated by a quantitative study. The study shows that South African broadband users are predominantly experimental users. Users with higher usage of broadband in terms of variety or rate of use are able to work from home and purpor
t to save time which results in a more comfortable lifestyle. They are more satisfied with the technology and show an interest in future-oriented communication technologies. The resultant model adds to the existing literature and this analysis will allow
various stakeholders such as government, Internet Service Providers (ISP), business consumers and public organisations to make more informed decisions on broadband infrastructure investments

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p133 2013/11/14 - 10:14

Abstract: The critical importance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in modern business has created a demand for ERP consultants with the appropriate competencies to implement, maintain and support these systems. Education and training progra
mmes have been implemented in order to provide ERP specialists and graduates with the required industry relevant ERP competencies. The majority of these education and training programmes utilise large ERP systems for instructional purposes, however users
of these systems encounter usability issues whilst learning to use the systems. The use of medium-sized ERP systems has been proposed for educational purposes as they are less complex and easier to learn than large ERP systems. Empirical studies on the us
ability of ERP systems, particularly for medium-sized ERP systems are limited. This paper reports on empirical research on the usability evaluation of a medium-sized ERP system. The study identified three categories of criteria and 10 criteria which can b
e used for usability evaluations of medium-sized ERP systems. The criteria were used in a case study to evaluate the usability of a medium-sized ERP system and to obtain qualitative feedback on the usability of the system. The most frequently reported pos
itive usability features of the ERP system were the tree-structure of the menus and the grouping of logically related items. Negative features which were reported included the clutter of the user interface and difficulties with finding information and con
trols. These results can provide valuable insight into the ERP learning process for university educators and researchers. The usability evaluation results can assist ERP designers with improving ERP usability, which can improve the quality of ERP training
and education programmes and ultimately ERP project success. The usability evaluation results provide considerable insight into the usability problems encountered by students when learning to use ERP systems in their university courses and provide a val
uable contribution to usability theory and in particular frustration theory.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue2/p147 2013/11/14 - 10:14

Abstract: In the anticipation of the knowledge economy and the organisational pursuit of knowing what we know modern organisations have endeavoured to achieve varying levels of KM. It has typically been larger organisations that have possessed the econ
omies of scale i.e. the financial resources to pursue this strategy, where they perceive they will lose their market share if they do not follow the trend. Smaller organisations have not had the same luxury. Ironically however, it is smaller organisations
that have successfully managed knowledge for centuries. However there remains an absence of empirical evidence that highlights how SMEs operationalise their approach to KM, particularly in the high-technology sectors. In view of the current financial ins
tability, never has it been more important to focus on the knowledge capabilities of software SMEs where managing organisational knowledge is essential to the continued success of an SME. Pursuing a qualitative analysis approach using multiple case studie
s in four Irish software SMEs, this study identifies sources of knowledge and occurrences of knowledge activities (KAs) as a means of understanding the firms approach to knowledge management (KM) and how this may be closely aligned to the organisatio
ns greater strategic objectives thus providing them with greater flexibility to deal with environmental uncertainty. At the level of the cases, it was evident that software SMEs leverage KAs to serve their knowledge transfer needs. Unexpectedly, the find
ings from this study indicate that these software SMEs were not good at knowledge creation activity. This may be attributed to the nature of the SME where a small number of key players i.e. founder/manager/head of development assumed responsibility for th
is type of activity. Fundamentally, these software SMEs choose to leverage knowledge and KAs in order to serve the greater needs of the firm such as the need to develop a new software product, improve their customer relationships or ensure their position
as an important cog in a larger organisation.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p26 2013/11/08 - 15:55

Abstract: The development and expansion of evaluation theory and practice is at the core of several different disciplines. There exist different traditional Information System (IS) evaluation approaches, like experimental, pragmatic, constructivist, plu
ralist and realist IS evaluation. IS evaluation approaches are influenced by the way they address to technology. Recently actor network theory (ANT) and sociomateriality are two influential information systems (IS) entanglement perspectives. Additiona
lly, El Sawy identified three faces of IS views: connection, immersion, and fusion. In terms of IS evaluation approaches, connection and immersion view are the dominant views in which these approaches are positioned. We believe the IS fusion view calls fo
r IS evaluation approaches to be revised. This paper uses the relational emergence theory, based on the philosophy of critical realism to theorize and operationalize the fusion view, as it lacks a theoretical grounding and as well to push forward the trad
itional IS evaluation research approaches. At the core of relational emergence theory is the emergence concept, in which parts are structured by the relations among each other to create an entity as a whole. Based on this, we present and discuss the im
plications for IS evaluation in terms of how to evaluate a process as well as the output of the process. The discussion on IS evaluation is illustrated through an empirical example, drawn on a longitudinal research study within a police organization. This
paper concludes that in the fusion view, the evaluation process shall embrace a holistic perspective. The focus of the evaluation process shall be the emergent entity consisting of IS, users, task and processes structured by means of relationships among
each other. The properties exhibited by this emergent entity shall be evaluated.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p38 2013/11/08 - 15:55

Abstract: As researchers evaluate organisations, projects, and teams, there is a desire for a consensus from those within the organisations who are participating in the research. A common consensual perspective from a team appears to reflect an optimal st
ate where those being evaluated have a common understanding of the current state of events within the context of their environment. The question arises, though, whether an evaluation finding consensus reflects the reality: there are a variety of reasons w
hy a common understanding may be false consensus. Hidden behind this false consensus may be a variety of unaddressed issues which are actually the core of the problem. This paper proposes an evaluation method incorporating the principles of sensemaking an
d devils advocate, where a consensus of perspectives is challenged before they are considered valid. This is achieved in a workshop where participants reflect on their own perception of reality and represent this reality in a matrix of influencing and re
levant factors. The individual matrices are then combined and used to highlight disparities in the participants perspectives through a single matrix visualisation. Discussion in the workshop then focusses on the areas, highlighted by the matrix, where di
fferences of perspectives are identified. In effect, the consensus presented by those being evaluated will be challenged, and a new common understanding will have to be created. Problems such as groupthink can create a false consensus, and it is proposed
herein that the workshop provides a mechanism for challenging this. The objective of the research herein was to determine the feasibility and potential benefits of the proposed workshop. The workshop itself is evaluated in this paper, to determine if it
has value. The benefits of such a workshop are described, showing how an organisation went from a false consensus concerning problems within the organisation, to the start of a process to address the real underlying issues.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p48 2013/11/08 - 15:55

Abstract: An academic group and discussion forum were established on Facebook for a cohort of postgraduate students studying Concepts and Principles of eLearning. The Forum had a constructivist, student-centric ethos, in which students initiated discuss
ion topics, while the course leader and administrator facilitated. In previous research, content analysis was undertaken of the discussions, but the present study evaluates the collaborative learning environment on Facebook, investigating social relations
hips, study-related pursuits and the balance between them, as well as considering whether the Group could be viewed as a Web 2.0 application. A literature review shows how social networking by students, initially social, began to overlap with academia, l
eading to groups and forums for academic purposes. In mixed-methods research, qualitative analysis was done on free-text data to extract themes from students reflective essays and from an exam question, while heuristic evaluation was conducted by expert
evaluators, who analysed forum discourse in line with contemporary learning theory and considered the social culture of participation. Findings of the qualitative analysis and results of the heuristic evaluation of forum participation confirmed each other
, indicating a good social climate and a conducive, well-facilitated environment. Inter-personal relationships were fostered between distance learners, and academic value arose from independent research, peer-learning and social negotiation. Facebook serv
ed well as an environment for collaborative learning, but did not provide a full Web 2.0 environment for the collaborative generation of artifacts or projects.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p59 2013/11/08 - 15:55

Abstract: Agent based modelling (ABM) is a new modelling paradigm and one of the most advanced practical developments in modelling. ABM promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that business practitioners and academic researchers use information
communication technologies to support decision making at different levels of management. Modern design models and architectural structures are opening up new possibilities and new application areas are coming to the foreground. Multi-agent systems as sys
tems of distributed artificial intelligence are now having a significant influence on information systems design, simulation and analysis. This paper focuses on the various modelling methods and technologies that are employed in the development of intelli
gent decision support systems. Its goal is to evaluate the role of the agent based modelling in the design of management decision processes. The paper considers the main features of intellectual agent modelling methodology, and discusses the different ty
pes modelling categorization. It does so from research base that draws from theoretical underpinnings as well as international and domestic industry practices. The basic principles of agent-based modelling are first introduced and areas of application are
then discussed from perspective of real-world applications: flow simulation, organizational simulation, market simulation, and diffusion simulation. The classification of modelling types is discussed, together with and business application simulation fra
meworks.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p74 2013/11/08 - 15:55
http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p1 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: Understanding the value derived from IT investments and IT enabled operational improvements is difficult, and has been a subject of research and debate among ICT practitioners and academics for many years. This is particularly so because innovat
ive technological developments have supported transformative changes in organizational operational activities. Research continues to investigate approaches to not only understanding the value derived by IT but also to optimizing this value. One of the key
aspects of optimizing IT-driven value is the requirement to effectively manage risk. The continual evolution of the IT risk landscape requires effective Risk Management (RM) practices for all IT risk areas, such as, but not limited to security, investm
ents, service contracts, data protection and information privacy. Effectively managing these risk areas pose specific concerns from the perspective of Chief Information Officers (CIOs) and Chief Risk Officers (CROs). Hence, significant considerations
should be given to not only the processes involved in assessing, prioritizing, handling and monitoring these risks but also to ensuring the development of an appropriate risk culture and the establishment of effective RM governance structures, to support
effective RM. This paper examines the maturity model/framework approach to improving an organizations IT capabilities, with specific reference to effectively managing IT-related risks, and increasing value derived over time. A new IT Risk Management mat
urity model is presented; this framework is part of the IT Capability Maturity Framework (IT CMF) which supports value-driven IT management practices. It was developed by the Innovation Value Institute at the National University of Ireland Maynooth, fol
lowing a design science and open innovation research approach. The IT CMF, consisting of 33 Critical Capabilities, focuses on maturing key activities of the IT organization. The Risk Management Critical Capability presented in this paper enables organizat
ions to determine their IT RM maturity and identify key recommendations in specific areas to improve maturity overtime. Thereafter the paper presents an analysis of the maturity model approach to managing risk, to improving an organizations IT capabiliti
es, and to deriving enterprise-wide value from more mature IT practices.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p3 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: Many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) turn to consultants for assistance with IS projects, for example, to help the firm select and implement a new system. Prior studies have shown that consultants have a major influence on IS success
for SMEs. However, despite its importance to IS success, relatively little research has focused on the relationship between SMEs and IS consultants and whether this relationship has any impact or influence on the development of IS competences in SMEs. T
his study investigates whether consultants compensate for or enhance an SMEs IS competences during a major IS project. A multiple case study approach was adopted involving SMEs who implemented an Accounting Information System (AIS). The case firms prov
ide evidence that SMEs lack many IS skills and abilities. The study identified a number of competences that are compensated or enhanced by consultants. The major finding of this study is that IS consultants help SMEs overcome a lack of IS competences, rat
her than help develop IS competences within an SME. Managing the relationship between consultant and SME is crucial for SMEs lacking many IS competences.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p14 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: In the anticipation of the knowledge economy and the organisational pursuit of knowing what we know modern organisations have endeavoured to achieve varying levels of KM. It has typically been larger organisations that have possessed the econ
omies of scale i.e. the financial resources to pursue this strategy, where they perceive they will lose their market share if they do not follow the trend. Smaller organisations have not had the same luxury. Ironically however, it is smaller organisations
that have successfully managed knowledge for centuries. However there remains an absence of empirical evidence that highlights how SMEs operationalise their approach to KM, particularly in the high-technology sectors. In view of the current financial ins
tability, never has it been more important to focus on the knowledge capabilities of software SMEs where managing organisational knowledge is essential to the continued success of an SME. Pursuing a qualitative analysis approach using multiple case studie
s in four Irish software SMEs, this study identifies sources of knowledge and occurrences of knowledge activities (KAs) as a means of understanding the firms approach to knowledge management (KM) and how this may be closely aligned to the organisatio
ns greater strategic objectives thus providing them with greater flexibility to deal with environmental uncertainty. At the level of the cases, it was evident that software SMEs leverage KAs to serve their knowledge transfer needs. Unexpectedly, the find
ings from this study indicate that these software SMEs were not good at knowledge creation activity. This may be attributed to the nature of the SME where a small number of key players i.e. founder/manager/head of development assumed responsibility for th
is type of activity. Fundamentally, these software SMEs choose to leverage knowledge and KAs in order to serve the greater needs of the firm such as the need to develop a new software product, improve their customer relationships or ensure their position
as an important cog in a larger organisation.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p25 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: The development and expansion of evaluation theory and practice is at the core of several different disciplines. There exist different traditional Information System (IS) evaluation approaches, like experimental, pragmatic, constructivist, plu
ralist and realist IS evaluation. IS evaluation approaches are influenced by the way they address to technology. Recently actor network theory (ANT) and sociomateriality are two influential information systems (IS) entanglement perspectives. Additiona
lly, El Sawy identified three faces of IS views: connection, immersion, and fusion. In terms of IS evaluation approaches, connection and immersion view are the dominant views in which these approaches are positioned. We believe the IS fusion view calls fo
r IS evaluation approaches to be revised. This paper uses the relational emergence theory, based on the philosophy of critical realism to theorize and operationalize the fusion view, as it lacks a theoretical grounding and as well to push forward the trad
itional IS evaluation research approaches. At the core of relational emergence theory is the emergence concept, in which parts are structured by the relations among each other to create an entity as a whole. Based on this, we present and discuss the im
plications for IS evaluation in terms of how to evaluate a process as well as the output of the process. The discussion on IS evaluation is illustrated through an empirical example, drawn on a longitudinal research study within a police organization. This
paper concludes that in the fusion view, the evaluation process shall embrace a holistic perspective. The focus of the evaluation process shall be the emergent entity consisting of IS, users, task and processes structured by means of relationships among
each other. The properties exhibited by this emergent entity shall be evaluated.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p37 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: As researchers evaluate organisations, projects, and teams, there is a desire for a consensus from those within the organisations who are participating in the research. A common consensual perspective from a team appears to reflect an optimal st
ate where those being evaluated have a common understanding of the current state of events within the context of their environment. The question arises, though, whether an evaluation finding consensus reflects the reality: there are a variety of reasons w
hy a common understanding may be false consensus. Hidden behind this false consensus may be a variety of unaddressed issues which are actually the core of the problem. This paper proposes an evaluation method incorporating the principles of sensemaking an
d devils advocate, where a consensus of perspectives is challenged before they are considered valid. This is achieved in a workshop where participants reflect on their own perception of reality and represent this reality in a matrix of influencing and re
levant factors. The individual matrices are then combined and used to highlight disparities in the participants perspectives through a single matrix visualisation. Discussion in the workshop then focusses on the areas, highlighted by the matrix, where di
fferences of perspectives are identified. In effect, the consensus presented by those being evaluated will be challenged, and a new common understanding will have to be created. Problems such as groupthink can create a false consensus, and it is proposed
herein that the workshop provides a mechanism for challenging this. The objective of the research herein was to determine the feasibility and potential benefits of the proposed workshop. The workshop itself is evaluated in this paper, to determine if it
has value. The benefits of such a workshop are described, showing how an organisation went from a false consensus concerning problems within the organisation, to the start of a process to address the real underlying issues.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p47 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: An academic group and discussion forum were established on Facebook for a cohort of postgraduate students studying Concepts and Principles of eLearning. The Forum had a constructivist, student-centric ethos, in which students initiated discuss
ion topics, while the course leader and administrator facilitated. In previous research, content analysis was undertaken of the discussions, but the present study evaluates the collaborative learning environment on Facebook, investigating social relations
hips, study-related pursuits and the balance between them, as well as considering whether the Group could be viewed as a Web 2.0 application. A literature review shows how social networking by students, initially social, began to overlap with academia, l
eading to groups and forums for academic purposes. In mixed-methods research, qualitative analysis was done on free-text data to extract themes from students reflective essays and from an exam question, while heuristic evaluation was conducted by expert
evaluators, who analysed forum discourse in line with contemporary learning theory and considered the social culture of participation. Findings of the qualitative analysis and results of the heuristic evaluation of forum participation confirmed each other
, indicating a good social climate and a conducive, well-facilitated environment. Inter-personal relationships were fostered between distance learners, and academic value arose from independent research, peer-learning and social negotiation. Facebook serv
ed well as an environment for collaborative learning, but did not provide a full Web 2.0 environment for the collaborative generation of artifacts or projects.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p58 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: Agent based modelling (ABM) is a new modelling paradigm and one of the most advanced practical developments in modelling. ABM promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that business practitioners and academic researchers use information
communication technologies to support decision making at different levels of management. Modern design models and architectural structures are opening up new possibilities and new application areas are coming to the foreground. Multi-agent systems as sys
tems of distributed artificial intelligence are now having a significant influence on information systems design, simulation and analysis. This paper focuses on the various modelling methods and technologies that are employed in the development of intelli
gent decision support systems. Its goal is to evaluate the role of the agent based modelling in the design of management decision processes. The paper considers the main features of intellectual agent modelling methodology, and discusses the different ty
pes modelling categorization. It does so from research base that draws from theoretical underpinnings as well as international and domestic industry practices. The basic principles of agent-based modelling are first introduced and areas of application are
then discussed from perspective of real-world applications: flow simulation, organizational simulation, market simulation, and diffusion simulation. The classification of modelling types is discussed, together with and business application simulation fra
meworks.

http://www.ejise.com/volume16/issue1/p73 2013/10/02 - 01:36

Abstract: This paper looks at issues in Information Technology (IT) outsourcing in public sector local government in the UK, to determine how successful they have been and to establish any best practice. This is important because, whilst outsourcing has
become a significant issue in the restructuring of organisations and is increasingly used within both the private and public sectors, there has been a lack of research into IT outsourcing in the public sector and particularly within local government. Thi
s paper provides an in-depth study into how outsourcing is managed in local councils and how successful it has been; especially considering its sometimes controversial nature and the mixed press results it receives. This paper focuses in particular on an
analysis of the risks of IT outsourcing and the management of the outsourcing contract. The research shows that a thorough risk assessment must be completed before an outsourcing contract is agreed. Local government tends to adopt a very cautious approach
to outsourcing based on risk minimisation. Hidden costs are one of the greatest risks when outsourcing. Hidden costs occur in selection, managing the contract, and making changes to the contract, all of which can offset any cost savings identified at the
start of the outsourcing contract. The research shows that local councils recognise the importance of the contract and that it has the largest single impact on the success or failure of the outsourcing agreement. Having a well written contract is necessa
ry to minimise the risks posed by outsourcing. However, the local government bodies recognised that it is impossible to cover every detail in the contract, particularly where needs are fluctuating, and that an element of trust is required to manage the co
ntract successfully. The research suggests that contracts need to be strict enough to motivate the provider but should be realistic and achievable so that they do not inhibit the development of a working relationship. The paper also addresses issues in th
e selection of outsourcing providers and more recent developments since the new UK governments austerity programme The study concludes that, whilst councils recognise that both the contract and trust are important to ensure that outsourcing is successful
, the culture of risk aversion in the public sector tends to lead to a play it safe mentality resulting in an overemphasis on the contract. This can lead to a short-term focus that could make it difficult for the council and the provider to work togethe
r to meet long-term goals. The councils were generally skeptical of developing partnerships; however, the research reveals that councils who focused predominantly on the contract were less successful than those who developed partnerships with their provid
ers. The authors therefore recommend that, in order to achieve greater success, councils should develop partnerships and focus on best value and long-term strategic goals when outsourcing IT.

http://www.ejise.com/volume15/issue3/p231 2013/05/24 - 08:40

: With the Internet of Things (IoT) being a new research area, the work that is going on worldwide in this field is disjoint. The picture is not clear on who is doing what and where, thus making it difficult not only for newcomers into this field to define their space and also engage with potential collaboration partners, but also for the relatively established researchers as well to gain the necessary support in their work. There is a massive increase in the amount of data that is generated globally. This data is traditionally generated by a number of different autonomous devices. The IoT is about interfacing these autonomous devices to communicate without human intervention and generate integrated data. Intelligence is then required to process this integrated data and make it available to the humans for decision-making. If advantage is to be taken of IoT technologies, the need therefore arises to gain sufficient information that will be an impetus to further research on IoT and open the way to collaborations among the various researchers. This paper documents the international research that is going on in the area of IoT. It shows the main role players and the research territory they operate in. It also documents future research trends. The question that this research answers therefore is, “Who are the main role players in IoT research internationally, in which research space do they operate and how their work is shaping the future of IoT research?” The research is a qualitative study. A number of IoT conferences that have been held since 2008 when the first IoT conference was held in Zurich, Switzerland were identified. From the conference programs, contact details of individuals who had submitted papers or participated were identified. Emails were sent to the various stakeholders requesting information on their institutions, areas of application of IoT research and projects they were working on. Responses received also pointed to websites and publications which were then sampled to extract the relevant information. Preliminary results show that the European Union leads the pack in IoT research. Also, worldwide, institutions tend to specialise in particular aspects of IoT. Predominantly, it is the universities that are involved in IoT research as opposed to private sector institutions. Iot Research is a multidisciplinary field.

http://www.ejise.com/volume15/issue3/p244 2013/05/24 - 08:40

SNS offer many benefits, especially for the youth who are striving to establish their identity as young adults. The youth are the most active users of SNS but are also the biggest perpetrators of behaviour that would not be tolerated offline. Although differences between these two environments have been identified, the link between the underlying behavioural norms and what is regarded as acceptable and unacceptable behaviour online has not been comprehensively explored – even less so how that behaviour is determined. Given the gap in the knowledge and the prevalence of use by the youth, the objectives of this research were to determine: (1) what behaviour is regarded as acceptable/unacceptable on SNS, (2) how that is determined, and (3) whether there are differences between online behavioural norms and those that apply to offline behaviour. Guided by social cognitive theory, qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 youth aged 18-20 years who had Facebook accounts.

Findings indicate there is greater clarity on what is unacceptable behaviour than what is acceptable. Personal behavioural norms appear to guide determination of unacceptable behaviour whereas the lead of others’ indicates acceptable behaviour. Acceptable behaviour appears to be more audience dependent than unacceptable behaviour, and there sre strong indications of herding behaviour with regard to determination of acceptable norms.

The lack of clarity regarding acceptable online behavioural norms is distinctly different from the offline environment. The “protection” that the computer screen provides also contributes to the differences between offline and online behaviour. The distinction between types of friends that exists offline is emphasized online because users usually have one Facebook page that serves all audiences as opposed to encountering different groups separately as is the case offline. Online there is also the obligation to befriend people one normally would avoid offline.

http://www.ejise.com/volume15/issue3/p259 2013/05/24 - 08:40

The present study qualitatively assesses Internet users' experiences of cultural changes. The type of method is phenomenological. Research participants were 14 university students from Khorasgan Islamic Azad University with intensity case sampling. The subjects were introduced by the administrator of the Internet site. Data collection was conducted by a semi-structured interview and data were analyzed by Colaizzi 7-step method. Total findings of this study after excluding common codes, including 236 concept codes that represented the experiences of participants in this study, were classified in three main themes as follows: 1 - Change of Values such as Opinions, Beliefs and Morality (" Change of Beliefs " and " Lack of the Observation of Moral Laws ") 2 - Norm Change ( "Life Style Changing" that come from Change of Tasks Doing Way, Change of Communication Way, Accelerate of knowledge exchanging and Social Participation Changing and " Change of Identity "that come from False Freedom and Corruption, Distrust, Social Change and Change of Wearing Mode ) and 3 - A Change in Verbal Symbols (" Influence of English Words in Farsi "and" Getting Loan Terms from the Internet " ). These findings indicate that students have acquired a lot of positive and negative experiences while using the Internet which have affected the norms, ideas, beliefs, ethics and verbal symbols showing cultural changes in the society which mostly affect the young.

http://www.ejise.com/volume15/issue3/p269 2013/05/24 - 08:40

The conduct of IT/IS evaluation and its associated approaches, techniques and methods have been the subject of IS research for many years, particularly in the last two decades. This paper reflects on the body of knowledge which has emerged over the past twenty-five years in order to identify where research efforts are focussed, what are the important issues in IT/IS evaluation research, and where future research efforts should be placed. This study presents a descriptive analysis of research on IT/IS evaluation over the last 25 five years, from 1986 to 2010, in five leading IS journals In total, 176 papers related to IT/IS evaluation are identified and reviewed in this study. Based on the Context, Content and Process model, IT/IS evaluation can be broken down to five interrelated elements: why evaluation is carried out, what is evaluated,whenwhen evaluation takes place, how evaluation is performed and who is involved in evaluation. Each of these elements are identified and classified in the sample research articles and based on this analysis, we propose a new perspective for classifying IT/IS evaluation approaches.

http://www.ejise.com/volume15/issue3/p276 2013/05/24 - 08:40
http://ejise.com/volume15/issue3/p230 2012/11/23 - 20:57