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Translator:

Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods (EJBRM)

The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods (EJBRM)

  • Abstract: This paper examines the distinctive features of narrative inquiry, reviews how narrative has been taken up in a range of disciplinary areas, and argues for the use of a narrative approach to the study of social processes in marketing organisatio
    n. An illustration is provided of narrative analysis of an exemplar case with the aim of surfacing tacit knowledge and drawing lessons from practice on a successful collaborative branding activity. A series of practices, including accounting, justifying a
    nd empathising are identified as important in the development of this emergent branding project. The findings resonate with Bojes (1991) contention that being able to perform stories is an underrated yet important management skill that can assist orga
    nisation members to make sense of what is going on and to effect change.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p93 2013/12/18 - 14:46
  • Abstract: The astonishing growth of academic publications worldwide and the increasing access to online bibliographic databases of recent decades represent a challenge to researchers and professionals concerning the integration of findings on their area o
    f expertise. As management studies multiply the importance of using new methods of qualitative research synthesis increases. New methods of qualitative synthesis have been recently developed, such as qualitative meta-synthesis and realist synthesis (or r
    ealist review). Yet, these qualitative syntheses methods remain relatively unknown by management researchers. Objectives - The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the realist synthesis method, and to show how knowledge cartography techniques and
    tools can be used in realist synthesis in order facilitate the process of theory building. Design/methodology - Underpinnings and method of realist synthesis are described, followed by a discussion on knowledge cartography and its applications to qualitat
    ive research. A realist synthesis on collaborative teaching serves as an illustration of how knowledge mapping tools can facilitate the realist review process. Findings … Cartographic techniques and tools can facilitate organizing and analysing studies, a
    rranging and re-arranging concepts and, thus, can help designing theoretical frameworks in realist reviews. Originality/value … This paper can contribute to the instrumentalization of the realist review method, and to disseminate this method of research s
    ynthesis in Management Research.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p106 2013/12/18 - 14:46
  • http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p117 2013/12/18 - 14:46
  • http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p53 2013/12/06 - 18:55
  • Abstract: The aim of this paper is to apply a quality framework for mixed methods studies referred to as the Good Reporting of A Mixed Methods Study (GRAMMS) framework which was developed by OCathain, Murphy & Nicholl (2008). Mixed methods research i
    s an emerging methodological movement and one which is gaining in popularity across business and management fields. Those who have studied the use of mixed methods research in business have noted that a common criticism of mixed methods studies reported i
    n academic journals is the lack of a justification or rationale for the use of mixed methods and how the study has integrated the data or findings from the study. The aim of this paper is to apply and therefore demonstrate what needs to be documented when
    reporting a mixed methods study. To do this we have applied the GRAMMS to a piece of field research already reported to a community based audience. The study utilised an exploratory mixed methods research design over three sequential phases and involved
    a combination of both qualitative and quantitative data combinations throughout the three phases. The research and its findings are now being prepared for academic publication through the process of applying the GRAMMS framework. We have documented this p
    rocess as a means of assisting novice mixed methodologists who may be struggling with how they might report this new and emergent approach to research. The GRAMMS framework consists of six main points which address the rationale for utilising mixed method
    s as well as issues relating to the methodological choices attached to data collection methods, sequencing, sampling, priority of data, points of integration and data analysis techniques. The value of the paper lies firmly in the documenting of the GRAMMS
    application process and therefore how to best write up community based mixed methods field research for an academic outlet and audience.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p55 2013/12/06 - 18:55
  • Abstract: This paper foregrounds multi-layered and polyphonic narrative inquiry to elucidate an authentic representation of the intersectional sensemaking processes of organisational actors. This can afford particular value during the complex and dynamic
    circumstances of transformational change, as exemplified within the narrative tension of the joint venture Communications Sector Provider case examined in this study. The approach is panoptic and deeply situated within the context of understanding meaning
    -making. This is achieved by adopting a multiplicity of embedded, creative and integrative approaches to narrative elucidation, evaluation and articulation, supported by robust triangulation and process transparency. The original framework STRIKE - STruct
    ured Interpretation of the Knowledge Environment is demonstrated to afford particular value as a diagnostic and prescriptive observational tool, based on Wittgenstein's (2001) picture theory of meaning. With notable attention to non-somatic artefacts, S
    TRIKE surfaces actor sensemaking and emergent narratives in situ. In addition, creative art and visualisation techniques optimise the conduits for direct participant expression, augmenting the traditional focus group method to enhance the capacity for all
    voices to be heard. The collocation of narrative data within context benefits authenticity and advances the production of coherent and cohesive findings. A holistic, multi-dimensional, multi-textured and representational understanding of the problem sit
    uation emerges. This brings the criticality of human interaction with the physical as well as the social environment in order to create meaning to sharp focus. It is through an intersection of human-material, social-technical dialogue, across physical, t
    extual, linguistic and visual dimensions, that organisational actors maintain, recreate and reinterpret their individual and collective identity as a means to navigate and make sense of, the complex self and group challenges catalysed by transformational
    change.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p67 2013/12/06 - 18:55
  • Abstract: This paper draws upon a personal research journey and makes the case for recording this experience using a research journal. tol The context for this paper is based on a study of family life and leisure, which collected data using more tradition
    al qualitative methods, namely focus groups and interviews with pre-birth and post birth couples and leisure managers in New Zealand. The research design for this study was based on phenomenology, where the experience of the subjects being studied was sig
    nificant and involved developing an understanding of the lived experiences of pre-birth and post-birth couples, where the way they acted was dependent upon their understanding and meaning of their behavior (Waters, 1994) This paper draws on the research
    ers own reflections recorded in a research journal, whilst undertaking this research study over a five year period. The paper discusses the meaning and importance of reflection as a way of evaluating the researchers own research journey and highlights a
    number of issues with reference to the validity of such data. The paper concludes by revisiting the key benefits of reflection and affirms the belief that research journals are a useful tool, which enables the researcher to record personal thoughts and o
    bservations in a systematic manner.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p84 2013/12/06 - 18:55
  • Abstract: This paper examines the distinctive features of narrative inquiry, reviews how narrative has been taken up in a range of disciplinary areas, and argues for the use of a narrative approach to the study of social processes in marketing organisatio
    n. An illustration is provided of narrative analysis of an exemplar case with the aim of surfacing tacit knowledge and drawing lessons from practice on a successful collaborative branding activity. A series of practices, including accounting, justifying a
    nd empathising are identified as important in the development of this emergent branding project. The findings resonate with Bojes (1991) contention that being able to perform stories is an underrated yet important management skill that can assist orga
    nisation members to make sense of what is going on and to effect change.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p92 2013/12/06 - 18:55
  • Abstract: The astonishing growth of academic publications worldwide and the increasing access to online bibliographic databases of recent decades represent a challenge to researchers and professionals concerning the integration of findings on their area o
    f expertise. As management studies multiply the importance of using new methods of qualitative research synthesis increases. New methods of qualitative synthesis have been recently developed, such as qualitative meta-synthesis and realist synthesis (or r
    ealist review). Yet, these qualitative syntheses methods remain relatively unknown by management researchers. Objectives - The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the realist synthesis method, and to show how knowledge cartography techniques and
    tools can be used in realist synthesis in order facilitate the process of theory building. Design/methodology - Underpinnings and method of realist synthesis are described, followed by a discussion on knowledge cartography and its applications to qualitat
    ive research. A realist synthesis on collaborative teaching serves as an illustration of how knowledge mapping tools can facilitate the realist review process. Findings … Cartographic techniques and tools can facilitate organizing and analysing studies, a
    rranging and re-arranging concepts and, thus, can help designing theoretical frameworks in realist reviews. Originality/value … This paper can contribute to the instrumentalization of the realist review method, and to disseminate this method of research s
    ynthesis in Management Research.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p105 2013/12/06 - 18:55
  • http://www.ejbrm.com/volume11/issue2/p116 2013/12/06 - 18:55
  • Guest Reviewers: Martin Rich, Barbara Crump, Marie Ashwin and Angela Benson

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p53 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • The challenges and crises that face organisations are frequently the result of unintended, unanticipated or unforeseen consequences of well-intended decisions. In this paper the role of research ethics is analysed in as far as it contributes to or militat

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p54 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • The paper addresses the methodological commonalities linking quantitative and qualitative methodologies. It offers a three dimensional framework of research methodology that spans the assumed divide and shows that quantitative and qualitative research app

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p64 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • In the last two decades, interpretive research has become more established and more popular in information systems field. The work of Klein and Myers (1999) consists of a set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive research, which provide fair and appropriate criteria for assessing the validity and reliability of such studies and, given the number of citations, has had a significant impact in the interpretive research literature. Our article focuses on understanding how this set of principles has informed research articles published in two of the highest-ranked information systems journals and, specifically, questions if these principles have been translated into common practices when conducting interpretive research in the field of information systems and whether authors incorporate them explicitly when they communicate the results of their research. We reviewed articles published in Management Information Systems Quarterly and Information Systems Research, collected any explicit or implicit evidence of quality criteria that informed the research, and highlighted direct or indirect reference to Klein and Myers criteria. We summarize and compare our findings in a comprehensive table, and note that, apparently, the principle of hermeneutic circle and the principle of suspicion are the most explicitly discussed in this sample. Moreover, Klein and Myers’ set of principles seem to have had a greater influence in the papers published in the period from 2002 to 2006. This study provides a reflexion about methodological rigor in interpretive research that, to our knowledge, had never been done. Thus, the findings here presented may be useful for junior researchers and doctorate level students to understand how validity and quality criteria are enacted in high-quality interpretive research and, we hope, may encourage them to build on the exemplary work of the authors we reviewed and thus to contribute to enriching the literature of qualitative research methodology in information systems field.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p77 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • Information Systems (IS) design science literature offers a plethora of findings on various aspects, such as the general steps in design science, problem identification, objectives of solutions, and evaluation of the artefacts. However, there appears to b

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p89 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • The Internet is becoming an increasingly prominent medium for the administration of surveys. Although individual findings vary, the majority of the literature agrees that the appropriateness and response rates of web surveys is expected to rise in the fut

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p101 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • This study aims at generating new interview methods for obtaining more detailed information regarding human emotional factors by utilizing sensing technology. It can improve the weaknesses of qualitative research past discussions have pointed out, and develop the validity of collected data and more objective analysis of collected data in qualitative research. As the first step for a new research method, the study uses two types of sensing device which assess the emotional condition of an interviewee. The first device is ST technology, voice analysis software and a system of emotion estimation. This device using voice analysis defines what emotional condition the interviewees have. When the interviewee makes a statement, the ST technology can investigate his-her emotional condition, such as whether the interviewee stated it disappointedly, delightly, or angrily, while the conventional coding simply relies on text data. The second device is WHS-1, portable sensing device. This device investigates whether the interviewee stated certain things in a relaxed or stressed condition by measuring heart rate and analysing the condition of autonomic nerves. The study finally adopts both devices to precisely assess the interviewee’s emotional condition, and demonstrates that the two devices enable the researcher to obtain closer view of the interviewees. The study suggests that generally the two types of sensing device can play a supportive role in analysing emotional factors for interview research. While the researcher can only ascertain stressful or delightful factors based on coding analysis, using sensing devices enables the researcher to identify how stressful or joyful the interviewee is, and why they are in this state, ie. are they stressed due to anger or sorrow? It is expected to enable the researcher to more deeply consider the reason the interviewee is in a certain emotional condition, and also lead to contextual or theoretical discussion.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p110 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • Against a backdrop of public sector cuts, increasing university fees and high youth unemployment, we are facing challenges in Higher Education to demonstrate the value of our courses. Assessing the value of learning, however, is not straight forward. This

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p121 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • Research philosophy classifications such as ontology, epistemology, and anxiology and their conflicting applications to the ‘quantitative-qualitative’ debates, are a major source of dilemma to research students in establishing their relevance to subjects areas and discipline. A number of studies have used different descriptions, categorisations and classifications of research paradigms and philosophies in relation to research methods with overlapping emphasis and meanings. This has not only resulted in tautological confusion of what is rooted where, and according to whom; but raises a critical question of whether these opposing views are enriching knowledge or subtly becoming toxic in the field? . This paper puts forth a student voice towards these debates and aims to provoke research advocates from their peripheral standpoint to become concerned about this subtle but deepening concern of students and their future impacts. A concerted effort in this direction should eventually result in the development of a planned, systematic framework and procedure that show some consensus to bail research students from these bewildering classifications and debates. The paper briefly reviews, discusses, and analyses these research philosophy classifications and debates and provides a mapping thereby through literature. Then, assesses how they impact on research students through case studies based on three North West Universities in the UK. Responses were elicited using structured interview questionnaires where students fall into different faculties and subject groupings for comparison purposes. Although the findings paint a grim picture of research, they are not conclusive to all UK students as the sample studied is skewed geographically. Future studies must survey the impact from other geographical locations. It is the conglomeration of these studies that will provide the ‘real’ magnitude of the impact on research students. This paper contributes to discussions on research methods and calls for a consensus in the field of research.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p132 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • This paper argues that Design Science is an appropriate paradigm for research into Research Methods. Research Methods (along with their tools and techniques) are purposeful artefacts, designed and created by people to achieve a specific purpose – i.e. to create new, truthful knowledge. Like other artefacts, research methods vary in their fitness to purpose, i.e. in their utility, depending on their fit and appropriate application to the particular purpose, contexts, and contingencies for which they were developed. Design Science Research aims at developing new purposeful artefacts with evidence of their utility. Applying a DSR perspective to research methods should yield increased utility in the application of research methods, better guidance in applying them and greater confidence in achieving the desired outcomes of applying them. Based on these premises, this paper reviews the basic concerns and issues in Design Science Research (using the balanced scorecard as an example purposeful artefact), then analyses the logical consequences of taking a Design Science perspective on research methods (using the Partial Least Square approach as an example research method purposeful artefact). First, it analyses the various purposes of research methods to clarify the alternative and competing design goals of research methods. Second, it analyses and characterises the types of purposeful (design) artefacts that comprise research methods. Third, it considers issues of the evaluation of research methods. Fourth and finally, it considered the development of design theories of research methods.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p141 2013/01/29 - 16:55
  • Guest Reviewers: Martin Rich, Barbara Crump, Marie Ashwin and Angela Benson

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p53 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • The challenges and crises that face organisations are frequently the result of unintended, unanticipated or unforeseen consequences of well-intended decisions. In this paper the role of research ethics is analysed in as far as it contributes to or militat

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p54 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • The paper addresses the methodological commonalities linking quantitative and qualitative methodologies. It offers a three dimensional framework of research methodology that spans the assumed divide and shows that quantitative and qualitative research app

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p64 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • In the last two decades, interpretive research has become more established and more popular in information systems field. The work of Klein and Myers (1999) consists of a set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretive research, which provide fair and appropriate criteria for assessing the validity and reliability of such studies and, given the number of citations, has had a significant impact in the interpretive research literature. Our article focuses on understanding how this set of principles has informed research articles published in two of the highest-ranked information systems journals and, specifically, questions if these principles have been translated into common practices when conducting interpretive research in the field of information systems and whether authors incorporate them explicitly when they communicate the results of their research. We reviewed articles published in Management Information Systems Quarterly and Information Systems Research, collected any explicit or implicit evidence of quality criteria that informed the research, and highlighted direct or indirect reference to Klein and Myers criteria. We summarize and compare our findings in a comprehensive table, and note that, apparently, the principle of hermeneutic circle and the principle of suspicion are the most explicitly discussed in this sample. Moreover, Klein and Myers’ set of principles seem to have had a greater influence in the papers published in the period from 2002 to 2006. This study provides a reflexion about methodological rigor in interpretive research that, to our knowledge, had never been done. Thus, the findings here presented may be useful for junior researchers and doctorate level students to understand how validity and quality criteria are enacted in high-quality interpretive research and, we hope, may encourage them to build on the exemplary work of the authors we reviewed and thus to contribute to enriching the literature of qualitative research methodology in information systems field.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p77 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • Information Systems (IS) design science literature offers a plethora of findings on various aspects, such as the general steps in design science, problem identification, objectives of solutions, and evaluation of the artefacts. However, there appears to b

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p89 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • The Internet is becoming an increasingly prominent medium for the administration of surveys. Although individual findings vary, the majority of the literature agrees that the appropriateness and response rates of web surveys is expected to rise in the fut

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p101 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • This study aims at generating new interview methods for obtaining more detailed information regarding human emotional factors by utilizing sensing technology. It can improve the weaknesses of qualitative research past discussions have pointed out, and develop the validity of collected data and more objective analysis of collected data in qualitative research. As the first step for a new research method, the study uses two types of sensing device which assess the emotional condition of an interviewee. The first device is ST technology, voice analysis software and a system of emotion estimation. This device using voice analysis defines what emotional condition the interviewees have. When the interviewee makes a statement, the ST technology can investigate his-her emotional condition, such as whether the interviewee stated it disappointedly, delightly, or angrily, while the conventional coding simply relies on text data. The second device is WHS-1, portable sensing device. This device investigates whether the interviewee stated certain things in a relaxed or stressed condition by measuring heart rate and analysing the condition of autonomic nerves. The study finally adopts both devices to precisely assess the interviewee’s emotional condition, and demonstrates that the two devices enable the researcher to obtain closer view of the interviewees. The study suggests that generally the two types of sensing device can play a supportive role in analysing emotional factors for interview research. While the researcher can only ascertain stressful or delightful factors based on coding analysis, using sensing devices enables the researcher to identify how stressful or joyful the interviewee is, and why they are in this state, ie. are they stressed due to anger or sorrow? It is expected to enable the researcher to more deeply consider the reason the interviewee is in a certain emotional condition, and also lead to contextual or theoretical discussion.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p110 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • Against a backdrop of public sector cuts, increasing university fees and high youth unemployment, we are facing challenges in Higher Education to demonstrate the value of our courses. Assessing the value of learning, however, is not straight forward. This

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p121 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • Research philosophy classifications such as ontology, epistemology, and anxiology and their conflicting applications to the ‘quantitative-qualitative’ debates, are a major source of dilemma to research students in establishing their relevance to subjects areas and discipline. A number of studies have used different descriptions, categorisations and classifications of research paradigms and philosophies in relation to research methods with overlapping emphasis and meanings. This has not only resulted in tautological confusion of what is rooted where, and according to whom; but raises a critical question of whether these opposing views are enriching knowledge or subtly becoming toxic in the field? . This paper puts forth a student voice towards these debates and aims to provoke research advocates from their peripheral standpoint to become concerned about this subtle but deepening concern of students and their future impacts. A concerted effort in this direction should eventually result in the development of a planned, systematic framework and procedure that show some consensus to bail research students from these bewildering classifications and debates. The paper briefly reviews, discusses, and analyses these research philosophy classifications and debates and provides a mapping thereby through literature. Then, assesses how they impact on research students through case studies based on three North West Universities in the UK. Responses were elicited using structured interview questionnaires where students fall into different faculties and subject groupings for comparison purposes. Although the findings paint a grim picture of research, they are not conclusive to all UK students as the sample studied is skewed geographically. Future studies must survey the impact from other geographical locations. It is the conglomeration of these studies that will provide the ‘real’ magnitude of the impact on research students. This paper contributes to discussions on research methods and calls for a consensus in the field of research.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p132 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • This paper argues that Design Science is an appropriate paradigm for research into Research Methods. Research Methods (along with their tools and techniques) are purposeful artefacts, designed and created by people to achieve a specific purpose – i.e. to create new, truthful knowledge. Like other artefacts, research methods vary in their fitness to purpose, i.e. in their utility, depending on their fit and appropriate application to the particular purpose, contexts, and contingencies for which they were developed. Design Science Research aims at developing new purposeful artefacts with evidence of their utility. Applying a DSR perspective to research methods should yield increased utility in the application of research methods, better guidance in applying them and greater confidence in achieving the desired outcomes of applying them. Based on these premises, this paper reviews the basic concerns and issues in Design Science Research (using the balanced scorecard as an example purposeful artefact), then analyses the logical consequences of taking a Design Science perspective on research methods (using the Partial Least Square approach as an example research method purposeful artefact). First, it analyses the various purposes of research methods to clarify the alternative and competing design goals of research methods. Second, it analyses and characterises the types of purposeful (design) artefacts that comprise research methods. Third, it considers issues of the evaluation of research methods. Fourth and finally, it considered the development of design theories of research methods.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue2/p141 2013/01/08 - 18:03
  • This paper considers the use of narrative exchanges in the form of letters and conversations as a legitimate research method when collecting “secret data” within organisational settings. It refers to narrative exchanges the authors’ undertook over a three-month period, regarding their different perspectives on their University Staff Appraisal System. It explores personal tensions and anxieties that reside within the “secret data” of organisational life. It also reveals a concern regarding “professional commitments” with colleagues and the “managerial” edicts that dominate their work environment. From a “critical management” perspective, the paper initially provides an overview of the postmodern position and its impact upon organisational power relationships and knowledge, as individuals strive to attain and gain their authentic, personal voice within the domination of modernistic organisations. It then explains the methodological approach used for the narrative exchanges and describes the context and relationship of the two colleagues. Commencing from a discussion of organisational policy and postmodernist critiques the conversations increasingly developed into a dialogical meditation on the relationship between “self” and “other”. These narratives revealed, through their autographical, autobiographical and at times surreal discourses, messages that are often absent from conventional research data. The paper concludes with a perspective regarding critical management in which individual values, dignity, honesty and respect are upheld. Thus, narrative exchanges of this kind allow dialogical conversations in which statements are agreed, accepted, challenged or sometimes synthesised to be used as a means to explore and collect legitimate “secret data” of organisational life within an environment that respects the ethical and value systems of the participants engaged in narrative exchanges.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue1/p1 2012/02/29 - 17:32
  • The article depicts a mixed methodology case which uses a qualitative-quantitative-qualitative approach. The research described used qualitative work with expert interviews for data collection, a quantitative analysis of the interviews and then a qualitative method of final scenario development for analysing and presenting the results. The case is offered to demonstrate that the introduction of the quantitative step of a cross-impact-analysis, which gives a mixed methodology, was beneficial for the overall research leading to surprising results that could not have been achieved with only a qualitative approach. Having a quantitative analysis step in-between, which demonstrated the most frequent and consistent results out of a wide range of overall possibilities, helped reduce researcher bias, thereby increasing the credibility of the findings. The paper concludes that judiciously used mixed methodology in general, and this approach in particular, will give researchers using qualitative data collection a much stronger foundation in terms of the analysis and display of data.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue1/p9 2012/02/29 - 17:32
  • Though business strategy has long been the subject of academic interest, neither the question of the unified philosophical paradigm that govern it, nor the scientific disciplines that guide it has not yet been resolved (Mintzberg et al.1998). We argue that by adopting the rhizome paradigm to explain business strategy we can set the ground for understanding the intellectual foundation of business strategy and resolve the diverse, inconsistent or one may say complementary, definitions of business strategy. The article starts by presenting the various concepts of business strategy. It then portrays the many scientific disciplines that impinge on strategy, showing how none of them may be considered as a base for a unified paradigm. Turning to philosophy for a solution, we try first to look into the traditional western arbores cent philosophies but find that they do not give the needed framework for business strategy. The next step is to look at the rhizome philosophy as a possible paradigm. We follow with a brief description of the six principals of the rhizome, demonstrating how it does offer the necessary way to blend the influences of the various scientific disciplines on business strategy. We then explain how the rhizome paradigm serves to establish an intellectual foundation for business strategy that provides us with a rationalization for the coexistence of its many definitions. We conclude by describing the contribution of this article to the emerging discipline of business strategy as well as suggest directions for further research.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue1/p22 2012/02/29 - 17:32
  • This paper highlights theoretical and mathematical differences between formative and reflective measurement models, in the context of academic SEM oriented research in Operations and Manufacturing Management, an area of significant current interest. It discusses problems associated with measurement model misspecification. It further illustrates, using survey data, the effects of possible misspecification on model fit parameters and path coefficients in a nomological model, using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach. It then proposes guidelines for the use of the PLS methodology for analyzing formative measurement models.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume10/issue1/p34 2012/02/29 - 17:32
  • The new textbook Writing a Research Proposal – Practical guidelines for business students by Professor Pumela Msweli published by Juta ISBN 978-0-70218-877-0 is a professionally produced easy to access guide to a very important aspect of academic research. The research proposal is the first step in any important research project. It is the research proposal which sets the agenda for the research, indicates its feasibility and most of all it demonstrates the researcher’s ability to undertake the work required. It is therefore most important that a competent research proposal is developed.
    This short book which is only 120 pages is a good guide to the work involved when developing the research proposal. It is designed for the novice to have with him or herself during the early days of their research while they are finding their feet. Over the 8 Chapters the author addresses all the important issues in an easy to understand way. Another important aspect of the book is that many of the key concepts and terms which are used in academic research are explained. Useful diagrams and tables are supplied.
    The issue of research language is an important one. Many novice researchers find it very difficult to get started because they do not know the terms which are used by researchers. Novices stumble over issues like deduction and induction and non sequitur are explained. However a Glossary of terms would be a helpful addition to the next edition of this book.
    Books by their nature have a target readership and this one is written for the novice researcher in the business studies field. Books also have a pre-determined scope and depth and this book is written as a starter-book which is really needed and no doubt this book will be a great success. When considering a master degree more depth may be required even at MBA and MBL level. Perhaps the book would be fully adequate for those undertaking honours level research.
    Finally publishers are always optimistic about the utility of their books and on the back cover it is suggested that Research Proposal – Practical guidelines for business students would be of use to doctoral students. It is true that even doctoral students have to start somewhere but I would say that a doctoral degree candidate would need to move on to more detailed texts rather soon.

    http://www.ejbrm.com/volume9/issue2/p197 2011/09/24 - 10:08
  • The discussion of qualitative or quantitative approaches has been going on for many years. One way to reduce the most dogmatic standings is to use mixed methods consisting of combinations of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In this paper, we have analysed usage experiences from combining qualitative and quantitative approaches in different ways. We refer to these combinations as method configurations. Our findings point out that a researcher should commence with a qualitative approach when: 1) the researcher has a lower pre-knowledge of phenomenon to be studied, 2) the phenomenon to be studied is abstract and 3) there is an uncertainty if the questions asked are the right questions. On the contrary, there is a tendency in our results that the researcher should start with a quantitative study when 1) the researcher has a good pre-knowledge of the phenomenon or 2) the phenomenon is more concrete.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume9/issue2/p87 2011/09/21 - 17:28
  • Mixed methods research (MMR) is often referred to as the third methodological movement and has witnessed a rapid rise in popularity in the last 10 years. Prominent authorities in the field now refer to the MM research community which has developed its o
    wn philosophical, theoretical, methodological, analytical and practical foundations and constructs for the conduct of MMR. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the more common definitions of mixed methods research and methodology before introdu
    cing the conceptual framework of the Five Ps of mixed methods research. The Five P framework will be used to structure an exploration of some of the key challenges facing those who choose the innovative path of mixed methods research and some of the key a
    reas for capacity building. The Five Ps include: Paradigms; Pragmatism; Praxis; Proficiency; and Publishing. This Five Ps framework will be mapped against the contemporary landscape of the MMR movement as developed by some of the most prominent mixed meth
    odologists within the MMR community. These include: the overlapping components of an emerging map of MMR (Teddlie and Tashakkori 2010) and the domains of MMR (Creswell 2010). The Five Ps framework can provide those wishing to embark into mixed methods
    research with the essential components of a mixed methods starter kit, inclusive of a contemporary checklist of contentious issues, risks and traps that require consideration. Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010b: 29) refer to the need for MM researchers to
    become methodological connoisseur[s]Ž whilst Cameron (2011: 263) calls for the need to build methodological trilingualismŽ in those wishing to engage in MMR. Both these capacities require advanced research skill levels and competencies. As a conseque
    nce the framework also offers higher degree supervisors and educators with a pedagogic tool for guiding and teaching mixed methods.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume9/issue2/p96 2011/09/21 - 17:28
  • Design science (DS) is a problem solving paradigm that involves building and evaluating innovative artifacts in a rigorous manner to solve complex, real world problems, make research contributions that extend the boundaries of what is already known, and communicate the results to appropriate audiences. The importance of this paradigm in the Information Systems (IS) field has been recognised since the early 1990’s with the publication of seminal articles by for example Nunamaker et al (1991), Walls et al (1992) and March and Smith (1995). However, over the past 15 years, DS research in IS has been sparse. In more recent times this has begun to change, with an increasing number of research contributions considering DS research. DS research in IS is important as the dominant behavioural science paradigm is not sufficient for addressing the types of problems that call for human creativity and innovative and novel solutions. One widely debated problem in the IS field that calls for such novel solutions centres on how organisations manage, deliver and optimise value from their IT investments. This paper presents a DS research project in the IS field that aims to improve organisational ability in managing and optimizing value realised from IT investments through increasing maturity in critical areas. This research involves development of an IT Capability Maturity Framework (IT CMF). The IT CMF project is centered at the Innovation Value Institute (IVI) at the National University of Ireland Maynooth (NUIM). The IVI is a joint venture between NUIM, Intel and the Boston Consulting Group and seeks to drive innovation in the management and use of IT in order to optimise business value. The IT CMF represents an emerging blueprint of key IT capability processes, and at a high level consists of four integrated IT management strategies or macro processes: managing IT like a business, managing the IT budget, managing the IT capability, and managing IT for business value. The IT CMF represents a blueprint for incrementally improving these four macro processes across five maturity levels: initial, basic, intermediate, advanced, and optimized. These four macro processes are further broken into 32 critical processes (CPs), which are the key activities that an IT organisation needs to manage in order to deliver IT solutions and measure the business value generated. The content development and review for the IT CMF is performed by the IVI development community, which comprises academic researchers, industry based practitioner-researchers and consultants based in over 55 global companies. This paper discusses its development in terms of key DS principles and presents reflections on the challenges and value associated with adopting a DS approach. The paper adds to the growing body of DS literature in the IS field, and enables other researchers and practitioners to judge the rigor with which the IT CMF artifact was created and evaluated, and its utility in practical application.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume9/issue2/p109 2011/09/21 - 17:28
  • Research in business can address a variety of goals, including explanation or evaluation of extant business practices, development of new business practices, critiquing business practice, and examining business goals other than profit. Empirical research about extant business practices is conducted in one or both of the positivist and interpretive research paradigms. Development of new business practices, rather than simply examining existing ones, is conducted by research within the Design Science Research (DSR) paradigm. The DSR paradigm emphasises the invention, design, and development of new technologies, techniques, and methods, yet still achieving research rigour. Critically examining organisational practices and goals other than profit, such as business ethics, sustainability, and the triple bottom line, is much better conducted within the Critical Research (CR) paradigm, which critically examines the purpose, goals, and social and societal impacts of business and other practices. Unfortunately, the Introduction to Business Research Methods courses and textbooks that develop the business research community’s fledgling members’ ability to conduct, interpret, and critique and develop high quality research typically place heavy if not exclusive emphasis on positivist and interpretive research paradigms and methods at the expense of other research paradigms and methods. Such exclusive emphasis on positivist and interpretive research at the expense of other paradigms handicaps new researchers and severely limits their future ability to conduct, interpret, critique, and develop high quality research. To address this problem, this paper describes how DSR and CR have been successfully incorporated within an introductory business research methods course, which introduces students, regardless of their specific business discipline, to business research. The paper describes how it (1) deals with textbooks that have a limited perspective on business research paradigms and methods and (2) provides a needed, holistic perspective on business research, regardless of the specific discipline. To accomplish the above, the new course does four specific things. First, it situates business research as an applied discipline, along with other applied disciplines, such as medicine and engineering, and in contrast to non-applied disciplines, such as physics or psychology. Second, it includes a key new framework that contrasts the assumptions and perspectives of different research paradigms, including business research knowledge goals, the role of values in research, and epistemological issues. Third, it modifies and extends frameworks and figures from a popular business research methods textbook to supplement the limited perspective of the textbook with alternative research goals and paradigms. Fourth, the new course adds relevant introductory readings. The paper presents these extensions to the course, including how and where they are included within the course presentation, materials, and assessments, as a model for others wishing to enhance their introductory business research methods courses.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume9/issue2/p119 2011/09/21 - 17:28
  • In fast-paced business organisations, there is critical need for conducting systematic research in order to explain and solve recurring problems in the industry. However, we find many building professionals losing their patience over the unknown end of a doctoral study as most of them practise problem-solving in their jobs since they were so trained. The purpose of this article is to present a visualisation tool developed by a built environment faculty to explain a typical three-year journey that mature building professionals are required to take for solving their own research inquiries. We claim that if these mature students are given a quick overview on how and what their doctoral journey would involve at the start of their studies, they will be less fearful of uncertainties and will accordingly fulfil the requirements of their doctoral studies successfully. The Eagle Research Design Table (Eagle Table) is a self-filled tool guided by three research question’s constructs. The key to expanding the Eagle Table is identifying these constructs in a research inquiry first. We have established three constructs—“WHO”, “WHAT” and “HOW”—through prolonged participatory experience in teaching research methodology to building professionals. The “WHO” construct refers to the element or subject being used in, or impacted by, the study while the “WHAT” construct refers to the body of knowledge that is required to solve the research inquiry. The final “HOW” construct refers to the action to be taken on the element or subject during the study. In this article, we present how these three research question’s constructs, when presented in a table form, proved to be successful in providing a quick overview of a doctoral study’s journey. Hence, enabling many mature building professionals to persevere in their studies. Consequently, the academic community would benefit from the rich experience and wisdom of their industry partners in handling and tackling recurring problems in the built environment.

    http://ejbrm.com/volume9/issue2/p130 2011/09/21 - 17:28