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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Patenting, Licensing, Trade, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis of Middle and Low Income Countries

Title: Patenting, Licensing, Trade, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: A Panel Data Analysis of Middle and Low Income Countries

Authors: Sattar, Abdul; Mehmood, Tahir; Malik, Wasim Shahid; Subhan, Qazi Abdul

Abstract: Transfer of technology through various
channels like patenting, licensing, trade and foreign direct investment is
considered as an integral component of economic growth both in developed and
developing economies. The study investigates the impact of different technology
transfer channels such as patenting, licensing, trade and foreign direct
investment on economic growth for a balanced panel of 28 middle and low income
countries over a period of 1975–2010 through fixed effect methods and the
empirical results show that each channel affects differently in the sample
countries. For full sample of middle income countries, only licensing and
foreign direct investment are the most effective channels for the transfer of
technology, while this is true for patenting and licensing in case of upper
middle income countries. In lower middle income countries, licensing and
foreign direct investment and in low income countries, only foreign direct
investment have been found to be the effective channels for the transfer of
technology.

Page(s): 475-484