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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

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Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

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Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

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Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

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Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Adoption and Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights: Experiences of Selected Countries†

Title: Adoption and Implementation of Intellectual Property Rights: Experiences of Selected Countries†

Authors: Mysore, Sudha

Abstract: The new global trade order, initiated at
the Uruguay
round of global trade negotiations culminated in the establishment of the World
Trade Organization (WTO). One of the important prescriptions of the new trade
rules in the form of Trade- Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
includes the compulsive modification of the existing Intellectual property
protection legislation with regard to agriculture especially by the developing
countries. The new set of rules prescribed by WTO under TRIPS were opined to
open new dimensions in the type and extent of research exchange between the
nations and also aim at redefining the role of public and private research
organizations. One of the important reasons for extending intellectual property
(IP) protection for plants and other living organisms, it is said, is to make
agriculture a commercial venture and for attracting private investment into
agricultural research. The popular rationale in support of intellectual
property rights (IPR) for plants has

often said to be one of stimulating
effect. The present study reviews the economic impact of the adoption of IP
protection mechanisms in USA
and Latin American countries. Results indicated that availability of IP
protection is in itself insufficient in determining the rate of innovation.
More important factors like the scientific base of plant breeding, market
forces and demand side factors appear to have greater influence in determining
the rate of introduction of new varieties. Consolidation by the multinationals
in seed industry and increased seed prices were among the other significant
results. The need to commercialize new plant varieties has raised the strategic
importance of public germplasm and reduced its availability for other users. On
the other hand, access to public germplasm by the private seed industry
improved due to more formal and transparent procedures. The PBRs like many
other policy instruments were favourable towards resource rich farmers than the
small and marginal groups.

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