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Astronomia Astrofizyka

Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Economics and Organization of Enterprise

Economics and Organization of Enterprise

  • This article presents and justifies the following thesis: competitiveness of businesses depends considerably on the existence of a regional environment. As an example to prove the set thesis, the author shows the Podkarpackie Aviation Valley, the first and the biggest modern cluster in Poland, which successfully linked industry and science. In other words, this work brings up theoretical and practical aspects of cluster operations, based on the available scientific literature and the case study.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 9-17
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0015-4
    • Authors
      • Beata Piasny, The Institute of Economy, Off-Campus Faculty of Social Studies, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Stalowa Wola 2011/01/31 - 07:06
  • Innovation is the engine of growth for many companies. Six Sigma on the other hand is an outgrowth of the quality movement and has found its way from manufacturing into the service industries. While many authors argue that the rigor of Six Sigma is in contradiction with the degrees of freedom an innovative company may need to come up with new ideas, this paper is seeking to show that Six Sigma may help the process of innovating effectively.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 22-32
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0017-2
    • Authors
      • Michael Arendt, Business Development Manager, SPBU 2011/01/28 - 22:11
  • On the basis of his personal observation Dr. Joseph Penbera has made an assessment both positive results and shortcomings of the transformation of the Polish economy during the period 1990-2006. He also offered some advice concerning the process in the years to come.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 18-21
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0016-3
    • Authors
      • Andrzej Wilk, University of Management and Law, Warsaw 2011/01/09 - 07:57
  • J. M. Bocheński in his analysis suggested rejecting traditional vision of enterprise limited only to conflict between labour and capital. Furthermore, he questioned the stereotype about two socio-economic systems. Instead he defined enterprise as the system. He highlighted and appreciated the role of entrepreneur. The analysis from the philosophers' perspective allows to draw far-reaching conclusions and to provoke a debate.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 33-36
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0018-1
    • Authors
      • Jan Parys, Institute of Organization and Management in Industry, ORGMASZ, Warsaw 2011/01/09 - 07:57
  • Life Cycle and the Efficiency of Virtual Enterprises Based on Research

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 52-64
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0020-7
    • Authors
      • Robert Perkowski, The mayor of Zabki City 2011/01/04 - 23:44
  • This article analyzes the attitudes of Polish recording industry towards selling music online and discuses reasons for popularity of traditional music business model among Polish small and medium record labels. Although Polish record labels are active in using the Internet to distribute and promote music, their main product is still represented by a compact disc. The empirical data shows that many Polish record labels approach digital files with mistrust and represent conservative business attitudes, which may be caused by insufficient knowledge about digital music market and new business models. Article suggests that the skepticism of Polish record labels may be also caused by the fact that they believe that traditional music business model gives them much more control over cultural production and distribution, especially since selling compact discs via labels' websites became popular.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 37-51
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0019-0
    • Authors
      • Patryk Gałuszka, The Academy of Humanities and Economics in Lodz 2011/01/04 - 23:44
  • The authors analyse the level of women's remuneration in Poland with particular emphasis on women-managers The first part of the study deals with an analysis of the women's salaries and wages in Poland. Next, we present women's remuneration at managerial positions.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 79-84
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0031-4
    • Authors
      • Julia Gorzelany-Plesińska
      • Magdalena Gorzelany-Dziadkowiec 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • Currently we witness the scientific, technical and also geopolitical and intellectual changes which lead to transformation of civilization in Europe. These changes concern the forms and ways of life and surroundings which form us and control the social processes to a large extent. After the years of effort the rightful and based on partnership participation in the NATO's activities and active membership in the European Union make us have some afterthoughts. The Polish police as the institution which is a guarantor of social order and internal security must blend into reality. This article discusses the issues of policing strategies in contacts with society at local level. Policing community philosophy is not easy to define because it combines the elements taken from many disciplines. Activities within this strategy refer not only to a single unit but also to the whole local community. In the democratic nations community policing is an effective freedom and safety "carrier", so a life without fear. It makes society friendly and more open to cooperation.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 74-78
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0030-5
    • Authors
      • Jacek Dworzecki 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The purpose of the paper, methodology and approach:This paper presents a methodology proposal for the implementation of lean manufacturing system adapted to the particular characteristics of Mexican SMEs.The findings of this research are the following:1. Methodology proposal2. Basic concepts for its practical validationThe conclusions and limitations presented in this research are the following:a) A lack of knowledge about the concept and about the objectives of lean manufacturing by Mexican SMEsb) The results obtained during validation process will allow to develop a general methodology of implementation of lean manufacturing in Mexican industrial plants

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 23-34
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0013-6
    • Authors
      • Mariusz Bednarek
      • Niño L. Fernando 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • This paper presents the results of the application of the modified Hopfield network to the travelling salesman problem (TSP). A cost function of the TSP consists of four components: two terms which ensure that the salesman's tour is valid, the term which forces neurons to have the output signal equal to 0 or 1, and the total length of the salesman's tour. For two 10-city benchmarks the average tour length of obtained solutions is equal to the optimal tour length. Other works did not report such results using the classical Hopfield network. For greater numbers of cities, the solution quality is significantly better in comparison with the quality of results achieved in other works. The method of auto-tuning of the constant in the fourth component of the cost function is presented. This method ensures very good quality results for randomly generated instances of the 10-city TSP. The presented network is destined for hardware implementation.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 58-66
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0028-z
    • Authors
      • Zbigniew Nagórny 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • Economy processes globalization, information and telecommunication technologies development2, service sector expansion with limitation of agriculture and industry significance at the same time, influences leaving traditional work model, its organization and corporate work relations. Additionally globalization processes implicate constant changes dynamics and impredictability as well as growing market competition determine increasing companies elasticity understood as the ability to adjust the activity to changeability in orders portfolio and growing difficulties in defining future demand on company's products and services as well as introducing temporary solutions. Customized companies activities adjustment to specific customers attributes and demands is an essential condition to keep the market's position and economical growth of the company.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 67-73
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0029-y
    • Authors
      • Jarosław W. Przybytniowski, Faculty of Management and Administration, Institute of Management, The Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of the American recession on the world economy, emphasizing that interdependence is both the cause and the possible solution to the global economic crisis. The paper is structured into five sections. The main conclusions indicate that the recession in America was basically due to domestic problems (the housing market slow down, over consumption and indebtedness of households partially due to the idiosyncrasy of the average American consumer and his reliance on housing and stock markets, the credit crunch resulting from the recession, and the banks' reluctance to lend after the defaults on the housing market and the credit industry). The situation was worsened by the twin deficits, and an increase in the foreign debt. Since most countries depend on America as their top export market and key location for capital outflows, the recession was extended to their economies. The paper also concludes that because of Chinese exports' role in the structure of its GDP and its dependence on American consumers, as well as China's role in funding the US deficits there is a mutual interdependence between China and the US. Despite America's present predicaments, the US dollar still remains as the primary currency in international trade.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 2-22
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0016-3
    • Authors
      • Antonio E. Morales-Pita
      • Brian Cihlar
      • Ross Richmond
      • David Stout
      • Randall Towner 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • In the study, the need for the research of controlling solutions adopted in practice has been justified. Furthermore, the authors have presented the results of the research into the functional solutions of controlling applied in big enterprises in Lower Silesia. They have also characterised the concepts of controlling adopted in those enterprises as well as the coordination function of controlling and the types of controlling. The research results have been presented from a general perspective as well as from a perspective which takes into account the period of controlling use and the level of environment changeability as key criteria of diverse results.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 35-57
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0027-0
    • Authors
      • Agnieszka Bieńkowska
      • Zygmunt Kral
      • Anna Zabłocka-Kluczka 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • What is a steam turbine retrofit and what are the advantages of such retrofit - hundreds of papers have been written on the subject and thousands of presentation, not to mention multi-million euro retrofit market and businesses devoted to this activity. Upon deeper reflection it may be concluded that the idea of retrofit may be applied not only to steam turbines but to large enterprises too, including those which supply steam turbines. As an old adage says: "medice, cura te ipsum".The analysis of cost and effectiveness management in a large enterprise indicates the occurrence of phenomena of "no man's land" and "imaginary cost". Even thought they significantly influence the economic result, the classic management model does not account for these phenomena at all. This paper presents three propositions of retrofit packages of management system of large enterprises, functioning on the global marked of complex products with strong competition.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 84-90
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0026-1
    • Authors
      • Krzysztof M. Kietliński 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • As an extension of the traditional stage internationalization model of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), born global (BG) theories have become popular with the practitioners and academia of international management. As the post-stage internationalization approach, born global theories still need conceptual contributions from other branches of management studies. In this paper, the perspective of cultural ecology will be adopted to analyse the essential cultural value difference that prevails in BGs' trust-led social capital, which translates the BGs' network into the elements of trust and social capital. These elements inherit a significant ecological impact.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 78-83
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0025-2
    • Authors
      • Linjie Chou 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • This article considers the findings of the project called ‘Szkoła Promująca Zdrowie’ by Polish schools. It emphasizes the importance of health promotion: a wholesome and physical education in our schools. As well as raising awareness of the subject, the article also considers the stages of the program as they were introduced.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 72-77
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0024-3
    • Authors
      • Barbara Wolny, Faculty of Social Sciences in Stalowa Wola, The Catholic University of Lublin 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The paper examines the concept of Human Capital and its role in national development with a view to situating the importance given to it in Nigeria. It identifies the avenues through which human capital is developed such as provision of formal education, on-the-job training, adult education, health services, labour market information and support for internal migration, among others. The paper then briefly looks at the administrative structure of the Nigerian state and the constitutional responsibilities given to each level of government (local, state, and federal) and observes that the federal government plays a leading role in human capital formation. It therefore considers the tasks of the federal government in promoting human capital development, bearing in mind the avenues for developing human resources - formal education, and so on. It also highlights the support that the federal government has given to the private sector in its efforts to develop human capacities in the country. Moreover, it considers the responsibility of the federal government in helping international agencies to advance human capital development as one of the latter's responsibilities toward member nations. Specifically, the paper focuses on the policies, programmes and agencies of the federal government that have helped to promote human capital development. The constraints that have impeded the efforts of this tier of government in meeting stated objectives such as inadequate funding of formal education and brain drain are also discussed. Finally, the paper makes appropriate recommendations to ensure that the nation's human capital development process serves the expected purposes effectively.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 58-71
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0023-4
    • Authors
      • R. A. Alani
      • W. A. Isola 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The purpose of this article is insurance market's changes analysis in second sector with tendencies of changes in Poland after European Union (EU) access. Observation and presentation of insurance market by second sector's prism shows actual conditions and changes directions. Common market of 21 century and unification of EU law allowed creating integrating standards though big difference between internal markets of member countries. At the same time the market must cope with2: globalisation, structural changes, growing meaning of services in economy and getting old societies3 as well as more and more differential EU.Together with improvement of economic situation on world's markets in 2006-2007 economic situation in Poland also improved. Evaluation of economic situation in the scope of financial market (especially insurance market) was much better than in other sectors, we could say that insurances were the motor of economic development.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 51-57
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0022-5
    • Authors
      • Jarosław W. Przybytniowski, The Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences in Kielce 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • A brief analysis of optimal intervention in trading systems seems to indicate that it is an important determinant for entrepreneurial activities in an international economy. Undoubtedly all the turbulent changes on the global scene, as most vividly expressed in such areas as mobility of financial capital or labour force resources, direct both entrepreneurs and their respective governments to take a particular approach towards their management and effective competitiveness in the international market. The new trade economies thus created transform information management into knowledge management, which then becomes indispensable to the existence and evolution of each organization. Therefore it is most important that both national states and single enterprises are aware of the consequences of unconscious or unconsidered interventionism, both now and in the future.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 45-50
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0021-6
    • Authors
      • Konrad Raczkowski, Ministry of Finance, Institute of Organization and Management in Industry ORGMASZ, Świętokrzyska str. 12, 00-916 Warsaw, Żelazna 87, 00-879 Warsaw 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • This paper touches upon the knowledge environment (KE) as a factor attracting foreign direct investments (FDI) to clusters. Clusters - geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and associated institutions - can enhance the regions' attractiveness and stimulate inflow of FDI mainly thanks to the features such as closer cooperation, tacit knowledge, low communication costs, and other advantages stemming from proximity.KE has been conceived as one of the sources of clusters' attractiveness and is defined as an ecosystem conducive for broadly defined knowledge processes. This concept has two dimensions - knowledge base and knowledge mechanisms - assuming that cluster does not only posses certain knowledge attributes such as scientific institutes or pool of highly qualified labor force but it also provides for necessary elements facilitating the dissemination and accumulation of knowledge, such as social networks, spillovers, etc.Besides literature review, field study qualitative research has been conducted. It encompasses in-depth interviews with the representatives of NorCOM - North Jutland Wireless Communications and Maritime Communications and Navigation Cluster in Denmark and a quasi cluster (cluster in statu nascendi) around Warsaw. The results obtained indisputably indicate clusters offer an environment favorable for foreign investors conducting research and development activities (R&D). However, confronting the Polish and Danish cases revealed the perception of knowledge environment differs between these two cohorts.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 35-44
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-020-7
    • Authors
      • Marta A. Götz 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The paper deals with the new challenges for the E.U.27 after the latest two enlargements. One of these challenges is the regional sustainable development. As a result, the paper analyses the convergence and the divergence process across the E.U.27 and inside the Member States. For the beginning, we analyse the interregional disparities and the regional policy instruments which are able to decrease them. The next step of the analysis is to quantify the regional disparities in Romania and across the E.U. A distinct part of the paper deals with the Cluster analysis and the SPSS soft, the 14th version, in order to calculate the development distance between the regions and to forecast the regional development, as well. The paper uses statistic data, diagrams, graphics and a dedicate soft in order to conclude that the present regional evolution across the E.U.27 is a contradictory one.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 22-34
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0019-0
    • Authors
      • Romeo Ionescu 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The main objective of this paper is to analyze the interdependence between the U.S. and Chinese economies in relation to the world economy. The paper is structured in three main sections. Section I deals with China's fiscal policy (specifically tax structure influence on the East and West parts of the country), its relationship with the GDP structure, and the latent possibility of inflation. Section II is dedicated to foreign trade issues such as the manipulation of the currency, China's dependence on exports, as well as being the main creditor of the U.S. foreign debt, and the largest holder of U.S. reserves in the world. Section III focuses on the current and perspective role that both China and the U.S. may play as engines of the world economy. The main conclusions are mainly related to: a) unemployment in China and budget deficits in the U.S. in the context of the Chinese export-led growth; b) the significance of the emerging halt on market reforms on China's future development; and finally c) the fact that without US FDI and imports it would be difficult for China to get out of the recession given its export-driven GDP structure.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 10-21
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0018-1
    • Authors
      • Antonio E. Morales-Pita
      • Sydney Evans 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The American Hotel and Lodging Association (AH&LA) has released green guidelines for the hospitality industry. Those guidelines include information on effective energy usage, water conservation and waste management. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the literature to determine if the green movement has impacted the hospitality industry's bottom line. Determining whether or not it is practical for older hotels to refurbish and adhere to the guidelines proposed by the AH&LA's recommendations is something that every property must determine on its own. Properties being built now have the option to create sustainable and efficient properties. However, some choose not to due to the perceived cost increases and the fear that there will be little benefit to their own business in the long run. How do we make being green, greener?

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 2-9
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-010-0017-2
    • Authors
      • Richard J. Mills
      • Denis P. Rudd, Robert Morris University Moon Township Pennsylvania, United States of America 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The paper aims are presenting the concept of food supply chain and networks management and its components applicable in design of modern fresh and processed (frozen) food distribution systems. Introduction of the traceability concept allows analysis of shipments movements and their origin and, as a consequence tracing the movement of food and its components throughout all stages of its production and distribution. The principles of consistency and transparency in data and information exchange among the participants in the food supply chain and networks create conditions for effectivity and efficiency of food supply systems operation securing their safety and quality making full use of the resources thanks to flexibility of reaction to changes occurring in the needs appearing in the market. The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) allows identification of the placement in space and time of food products, the sender and the destination within the food chain. In the second part of the paper the main conclusions of an international benchmark study of traceability systems in different supply chains in several countries are presented. The paper concludes with cost-benefits discussion related to issues that need to be taken into consideration when an organisation develops its chain traceability strategy.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 83-93
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0023-4
    • Authors
      • Wacław Szymanowski, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • The main targets of the common agriculture policy aiming at sustainable development should be: increasing emphasis on fostering and maintaining sustainable development, promoting environmentally-driven high quality products, managing biodiversity and implementing environmentally-driven technologies including use of renewable raw materials. On September 22, 2006 the Polish Parliament enacted a law on using funds sourced from the European Union budget and allocated to finance the common agricultural policy. The law applies to authorities engaged in making payments financed from the European funds allocated for financing agriculture and development of rural areas, such as: Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture, Agricultural Market Agency as well as Customs Service and inspectorates reporting to the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development (including the ones reporting to National Bank of Poland which handles relevant bank accounts).

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 65-71
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0021-6
    • Authors
      • Antoni Magdoń 2011/01/04 - 04:39
  • Trust Management as a base of New Economy Management Practices

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • Pages 2-8
    • DOI 10.2478/v10061-009-0014-5
    • Authors
      • Wiesław Maria Grudzewski, Institute of Organization and Management in Industry, "ORGMASZ"
      • Irena Krystyna Hejduk, Department of Management Systems, The Warsaw School of Economics
      • Anna Sankowska, Warsaw School of Economics 2011/01/04 - 04:39