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Dermatology Reports

Psoriasis is a lifelong condition which is caused by the negative signals produced by immune system, which leads to hyper proliferation and other inflammatory reactions on the skin. In this case, keratinocytes which are the outermost layer of skin possess shortened life cycle and results in the alteration of desquamation process where the cytokines will come out through lesions of affected patients and as a result, scaling marks appears on the skin. These conditions may negatively affect the patient’s quality of life and lead to psychosocial stress. Psoriasis can be categorized as mild, moderate and severe conditions. Mild psoriasis leads to the formation of rashes, and when it becomes moderate, the skin turns into scaly. In severe conditions, red patches may be present on skin surface and becomes itchy. Topical therapy continues to be one of the pillars for psoriasis management. Drug molecules with target effect on the skin tissues and other inflammations should be selected for the treatment of psoriasis. Most of the existing drugs lead to systemic intoxication and dryness when applied in higher dose. Different scientific approaches for topical delivery are being explored by researches including emollient, modified gelling system, transdermal delivery, spray, nanogels, hydrogels, micro/nano emulsion, liposomes, nano capsules etc. These topical dosage forms are evaluated for various physico chemical properties such as drug content, viscosity, pH, extrudability, spreadability, toxicity, irritancy, permeability and drug release mechanism. This review paper focus attention to the impact of these formulation approaches on various anti-psoriasis drugs for their successful treatment. 2014/09/09 - 06:03

We report here the case of a man presenting with mucinous eccrine carcinoma (MEC) involving eyelid. This is a rare adencocarcinoma of the skin that originates from the deepest portion of eccrine sweat duct. The aim of our paper is to underline the importance of distinguishing MEC from metastatic carcinomas of the skin, making clinicians aware that what seems to be a harmless benign lesion may be a malignant one. 2014/09/03 - 22:47

Saree is a common, traditional garment of Indian women, wrapped around the waist tightened by a thick cord and with one end draped over the shoulder. Tight knot in the same place, sweat, soiling and continuous use can cause pigmentation, scaling of the waist and even transform to malignancy. We present here a case of saree cancer successfully managed with multimodality therapy. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital (India) for itching and non-healing ulcerative lesion on waistline. She was wearing saree continuously for 34 years with knot at the same place. Magnetic resonance images suggested ulcerative growth with lymph node metastasis. She then underwent wide local excision; histopathological examination confirmed it was a squamous cell carcinoma. She therefore received concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She is now (2 years after the completion of treatment) in remission state. Awareness of saree cancer among Indian is important to avoid malignant lesions at waistline. Multimodality management with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is ideal mean for good outcome. 2014/05/23 - 16:30

Orofacial granulomatosis is a chronic granulomatous condition characterized by relapsing and remitting lip swelling and oral involvement that may include deep ulcers, tags and cobblestone formation. It occurs as an independent entity but also in conjunction with systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and Crohn’s disease. The clinical presentation is not indicative of concomitant systemic disease. To highlight the importance of thorough examination to rule out systemic disease, we present two childhood cases of orofacial granulomatosis, one of which was associated to Crohn’s disease. 2014/05/14 - 10:40

Angina bullosa hemorrhagica is a rare and benign disorder, usually localized in the subepithelial layer of the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal mucosa. The lesions are characterized by their sudden onset. They appear as a painless, tense, dark red and blood-filled blister in the mouth that rapidly expand and rupture spontaneously in 24-48 hours. The underlying etiopathology remains ill defined, although it may be a multifactorial phenomenon including diabetes, and steroid inhalers. The condition is not attributable to blood dyscrasias, nor other vesicular-bullous disorders. In this study, eleven patients with such blisters are described. Physical examination of the patients revealed a single blister with hemorrhagic content localized in the oral mucosa. Biopsy of the lesions showed sub epithelial blisters with a mild infiltrate. In general practice, dermatologists could face a blood-filled bullous lesion of the oral mucosa. Recognition is, therefore, of great importance for dermatologists. 2014/05/14 - 10:40

Lichen planus is a chronic papulosquamous dermatoses in which both skin and mucosae are involved. There are various morphological forms of lichen planus. Hypertrophic lichen planus is one of the rare clinical variants. Herein, we report a very unusual presentation of hypertrophic lichen planus. A similar presentation has not been reported in literature yet, to the best of our knowledge. 2014/05/14 - 10:40

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by infiltration and accumulation of mast cells within multiple organs, most commonly the skin. Given the rarity of the disease and the fact that many of its symptoms are shared by more common disorders, a diagnosis may be delayed or hindered. These patients have an elevated risk of developing potentially life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions, thus underscoring the importance of keeping SM in mind as a differential diagnosis when a patient presents with chronic, itchy skin lesions and a history of multiple allergic reactions to bites, drugs, and anesthesia. We present a case illustrating that features of SM common to many disorders may hinder or delay its diagnosis. 2014/02/18 - 20:41

A 73-year-old Japanese woman presented with cutaneous horn on the right cheek. The resected tumor was 9 mm in diameter, with 14 mm protrusion, and showed exophytic growth with marked papillomatosis. Histopathology showed proliferation of atypical melanocytes with melanin pigments in the epidermis and dermis under the cutaneous horn. These cells were confined to the base of the cutaneous horn, and did not spread to the surrounding epidermis. The final diagnosis was cutaneous horn malignant melanoma. This pathological entity is considered a specific form of verrucous melanoma, and might be added to the list of cutaneous horn-forming lesions. 2013/12/05 - 20:13

A 73-year-old Japanese woman presented with cutaneous horn on the right cheek. The resected tumor was 9 mm in diameter, with 14 mm protrusion, and showed exophytic growth with marked papillomatosis. Histopathology showed proliferation of atypical melanocytes with melanin pigments in the epidermis and dermis under the cutaneous horn. These cells were confined to the base of the cutaneous horn, and did not spread to the surrounding epidermis. The final diagnosis was cutaneous horn malignant melanoma. This pathological entity is considered a specific form of verrucous melanoma, and might be added to the list of cutaneous horn-forming lesions. 2013/12/05 - 20:13

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that directly affects the quality of life. Biologics are prescribed for patients unresponsive to conventional treatments and with severe forms of the disease. Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against the p40 subunit of interleukins 12/23 that is being used with satisfactory responses, achieving an improvement in the baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index of approximately 75% after 12 weeks of treatment. It has few side effects, including grater susceptibility to infections and development of reactions to the drug. Our report discusses a case of a cutaneous reaction to the use of ustekinumab in a 27 year-old male patient after the third dose of the medication. No similar case has been reported in the literature. 2013/09/09 - 21:45

Current standard of treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infection requires the use of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. Treatment with these two agents has been associated with numerous side effects, which frequently include dermatologic eruptions. We report a cutaneous eruption associated with interferon having clinical presentation of erythema annulare centrifugum. The eruption occurred within days of the first interferon injection and repeatedly flared following subsequent injections. Our patient was able to continue therapy without interruption, while managing the reaction with topical corticosteroid and oral antihistamine. We conclude that this is a benign cutaneous eruption associated with interferon which can be managed without dis- continuing treatment for hepatitis C. 2013/07/29 - 17:39

Cutaneous metastases of internal malignancies occur infrequently and the zosteriform spread of the skin lesions represents a rare entity. We report here a case of cutaneous metastases from a colon carcinoma clinically mimicked Herpes varicella-zoster. The literature is also reviewed. 2012/12/19 - 07:16

The combined tumors are neoplasms consisting of 2 or more distinct cell population that are intimately admixed. The presence of more than one neoplasm in the same lesion comprising melanocytes and keratinocytes are rare but well documented. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with a melanoma in situ, a basal cell carcinoma and an intradermal naevus in collision that clinically appeared as a single lesion. Clinical, dermoscopic and histological features are discussed. 2012/12/04 - 12:05

This brief report is about a 9 year old girl presenting with a 2.5 cm circular blue to violet discoloration on the anterolateral upper left thigh. The first biopsy taken revealed the diagnosis dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The patient underwent surgery at a specialized sarcoma center with post operative histology showing free wide resection margin. Preoperative chest x-ray showed no sign of metastasis. This brief report emphasizes the significance of the use of biopsy when cutaneous elements look suspicious and diagnosis is unclear. 2012/07/27 - 12:53

We reported here two cases of vitiligo vulgaris successfully treated with the combination therapy of topical steroid and vitamin D3 compound and currently maintained by vitamin D3 analog without any adverse effects: skin atrophy, striae or telangiectasia on the exposed areas. The best-known mechanism of topical vitamin D3 analog is the enhancement of keratinocytes differentiation and anti-proliferative effects. Vitamin D3 analog is also reported to suppress T-cell mediated immunity, T-cell skin recruitment, and skin infiltration via down-regulating cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression. Furthermore, vitamin D3 compounds are known to influence melanocyte maturation and differentiation and also to up-regulate melanogenesis. Autoreactive lymphocytes against melanocytes are one of the causes. Topical vitamin D3 analog may control vitiligo itself, however stronger immunosuppressive effects of topical corticosteroid may contribute to rapid re-pigmentation suppressing auto-reactive lymphocytes. The topical combination therapy is a simple, effective and safe option for vitiligo vulgaris in sun-exposed areas. 2012/06/07 - 20:26

Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP), also known as pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, is a common benign dermatosis of pregnancy mainly affecting primigravidae and multiple pregnancies. We report here two cases of PEP with typical clinical and histological features presenting in the postpartum period. 2012/06/07 - 20:26

Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling. 2012/06/01 - 16:27

A 20 years-old girl presented with multiple asymptomatic reddish vesicles on face for four years. It used to get worse in summer and was associated with localized hyperhidrosis. The lesions were notable for disappearance on diascopy. Histopathology from the vesicle showed mononuclear cell infiltration in the upper dermis, especially around eccrine sweat apparatus, along with dilatation of superficial capillaries and lymphatics. Based on clinical presentation and histopathology, diagnosis of Granulosis rubra nasi (GRN) was made. GRN usually resolves at puberty; however, rarely it may persist in adulthood. We here report a case of GRN having lesions in adulthood. Moreover, she showed excellent response to topical tacrolimus, a finding not observed in literature. 2012/02/23 - 10:04

Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed. 2012/02/08 - 12:20

Chronic eczematous hand dermatoses with and without contact allergies are complex diseases, which makes it a challenge to select the best treatment and obtain an optimal patient experience and a satisfactory treatment result. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical effect and patient experience of local treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) soaks and TL01 phototherapy for severe chronic hand dermatoses, and also to evaluate the quality of life for the subgroup of patients with allergic contact dermatitis including Compositae allergy. A retrospective evaluation of results for 94 consecutive patients having received a total of 121 treatment courses with local PUVA soaks or TL01 phototherapy for one of the following diagnoses (n=number of treatment courses): psoriasis (n=19), hyperkeratotic hand eczema (n=27), Pustulosis Palmoplantaris (PPP) (n=22), vesicular eczema (n=16), Compositae dermatitis (n=24), and allergic contact dermatitis (n=13). Moreover, semi-structured interviews with 6 selected patients having multiple contact allergies including Compositae allergy were used to evaluate quality of life. As a result, we found that PUVA soaks has good effect in patients with psoriasis and hyperkeratotic hand eczema and local phototherapy for chronic hand dermatoses is a useful treatment option in selected cases. 2012/02/08 - 12:20

Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and it is the second most common cancer among adolescents and young adults. The aim of this work is to determine if surgical intervals differ between four different clinics and between departments within the hospitals, and to compare these to industry standards. Surgical intervals were measured through retrospective chart review at four dermatology clinics. Of 205 melanoma cases, clinic and departmental median surgical intervals ranged 15-36.5 days and 26-48 days, respectively. There was significant association between clinic and time between biopsy and pathology report, time between pathology report and excision, and total surgical interval (P<0.0001, P=0.03, and P<0.0001 respectively). There was significant association between department and time between pathology report and excision, and surgical interval (P<0.0001, and P=0.003 respectively). Pair-wise comparisons detected significantly longer intervals between some clinics and departments (maximum difference 67.3%, P<0.0001). Hypothesis-based, informal guidelines recommend treatment within 4-6 weeks. In this study, median surgical intervals varied significantly between clinics and departments, but nearly all were within a 6-week frame. 2012/01/18 - 09:33

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10-20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10- 30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5-15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients’ quality of life (QoL). The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases. 2012/01/02 - 19:07

Clear cell hidroadenoma (CCA) is a uncommon variant of bening cutaneous adnexial tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. they occur most frequently on the scalp, face, abdomen and the extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45- year-old woman presented us with a nodule with a central ulceration and a minimal hemoragic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion. On dermatological examination there was a 6.5x4x5 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule with lobular appearence and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all the hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A CT scan demonstrated a cyctic tumor with lobulated countour with contrast enhancement. The lesion excised totally. In histopathological examination the tumor was composed of biphasic  smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clera cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and duct like structures showed PAS positive and d-Pas resistant staining. There was a positive reactivity to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembrionic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of bening CCA. 2011/12/15 - 21:10

We report the case of woman who presented a vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on the inner part of the labium majus, treated with local resection. Vulvar BCC is a rare cancer but can be long misdiagnosed due to a non-specific presentation. Though even rarer, BCC involving the mucosal side of the labium majus has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of the vulvar tumors. A complete excision with free margins is the treatment most recommended. Other recommendations include the early identification of aggressive subtypes, which carry a greater risk of recurrence and spreading potential as well as a long-term follow-up with exhaustive muco-cutaneous examination. 2011/12/15 - 21:10

A 77-year-old male patient presented with an ulcerated exophytic tumor (T2, N0, M0) with three macroscopically visible satellite metastases in the right temporo-occipital region. Mohs surgery could not control the disease due to lymphangiosis carcinomatosa and perineural infiltration, and recurrence of satellite skin metastases. Re-staging demonstrated a T2, N1, M0 profile (stage III, AJCC). Chemotherapy was limited by the patient’s co-morbidities. Therefore, we used targeted therapy with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab in combination with volumetric modulated arc- radiotherapy (VMAT). Cetuximab was well tolerated except for the loading dose when the patient developed fever chills. To verify the correct application of VMAT, it was applied to a 3-dimensional measuring phantom prior to the patient’s first treatment session. To minimize these tolerances, patient set-up was checked and corrected by orthogonal fluoroscopic images recorded daily by the on-board imager used in our Varian accelerator. The average daily beam time was 6 min (6 arcs, 767 monitor units); the total treatment time including patient set-up and set-up correction was less than 20 min. Combined therapy was well tolerated and complete remission was achieved. 2011/12/14 - 04:29

Ellagic is a polyphenolic compound with anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties as well as exhibits antitumor properties against various cancer cells in vitro. There are few studies, however, which examine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma. In the present study, we observe effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cells in vitro. Three metastatic melanoma cell lines (1205Lu, WM852c and A375) were examined to determine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cell viability, cell-cycle, apoptosis, NF-κβ activity, and IL-1β & IL-8 secretion. Cell viability assays demonstrated that ellagic acid possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at concentrations between 25 and 100 µM. In addition, ellagic acid promoted G1 cell cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and decreased synthesis of IL-1β and IL-8 in melanoma cells. Ellagic acid also decreased NF-κβ activity, suggesting at least one potential mechanism by which ellagic acid may exert its effects in melanoma cells. Our findings support further investigation into prospective roles for ellagic acid as a therapeutic, adjuvant, or preventive agent for melanoma. 2011/12/13 - 04:02

Mantle cell lymphoma is a type of no-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects extranodal areas, especially, bone narrow, digestive tract and Waldeyer ring. Here we report a case of mantle cell lymphoma IV Ann Arbor stage with cutaneous lesions on nasal dorsum and gland as the first manifestations. Skin involvement is a very rare manifestation and less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. The importance of stablishing multidisciplinary relationships for a global approach has been shown by this clinical case. 2011/12/08 - 00:07

Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosuslike ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces. 2011/12/08 - 00:07

This report presents a case of bullous mycosis fungoides associated with an extensive ulcer and a severe leukemoid reaction. The rash began as indurated erythema which was always followed by ulceration. The rashes initially responded to radiation therapy, but multiple recurrences appeared. Several bullae appeared on the trunk during the course of the illness, without any evidence of paraneoplastic pemphigus. Finally, the ulcer covered a large part of the trunk, and the patient died of sepsis with an extreme leukocyte count of 118,000/μL. A bone marrow analysis revealed a leukemoid reaction and an autopsy revealed pseudomembranous colitis. 2011/12/03 - 14:30

Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare syndrome characterized by sinusitis, asthma and peripheral eosinophilia. This vasculitic syndrome affects medium and small-sized vessels, the lung being the most commonly affected organ, followed by the skin. The authors report a case of a 59-year-old male with a past history of asthma and allergic rhinitis. He presented necrohemorragic lesions in the distal phalanx of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers of the lefthand and petechial lesions in the plant of both feet, accompanied by asthenia, anorexia and weight loss. The analytical study revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia, elevated inflammatory parameters and p-ANCA positive antibodies. The diagnosis of CSS was established based on clinical and histopathological data. Cutaneous manifestations of hemorragic vasculitis are rare in CSS syndrome but can be the first manifestation of the disease. The recognition of this presentation is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. 2011/12/03 - 14:30

Piloleimyoma is a type of cutaneous leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum. It can present as either a solitary nodule or multiple lesions. Usually it is localized on the extremities, but can also occur on trunk, neck area and face. Lesions are usually cold, ulcerated and spontaneously painful. Herein we report a case of piloleiomyoma with cytological atypia that was painless despite the presence of central ulceration. 2011/12/02 - 01:05

Cullen’s sign, ecchymosis of the subcutaneous periumbilical tissue often described in association with non-malignant conditions such as ruptured ectopic pregnancy or acute pancreatitis, has been reported in malignancies involving the abdomen. In melanoma, hematoma-like metastasis has been observed and can resolve with an effective therapy. We observed resolution of Cullen’s sign (probably hematoma-like metastasis) in a patient with metastatic melanoma. The patient was participating in a phase I clinical trial and treated with TH-302, a hypoxia-activated prodrug. After 2 months on study, complete resolution of Cullen’s sign resolved in concert with extracranial response in lung, liver, and lymph node metastases. Based on the dramatic extracranial response to this investigational agent, additional patients with metastatic melanoma without evidence of brain metastasis were treated on study with TH-302. 2011/12/02 - 01:05

Tumor responses in advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been observed in clinical trials with vismodegib, a SMO antagonist. The result of SMO antagonism is inhibition Hedgehog Signaling Pathway (HHSP) downstream target genes. HHSP inhibition has been shown to affect stem cells responsible for blood, mammary, and neural development. We report on our experience of treating two patients with advanced BCC participating. These two patients have had no new BCCs develop for at least 2.25 years. Both patients have been receiving ongoing daily treatment with vismodegib for greater than 2.75 years without experiencing any significant side effects. After prolonged continuous daily dosing with a SMO antagonist, we have not observed a significant alteration in hematologic parameters or physical abnormalities of the pectoral regions of two patients with advanced BCC. 2011/12/02 - 01:05

Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE) is a rare skin disorder clinically characterized by the appearance of diffuse fine wrinkling, most often of the trunk and arms. This entity is distinguished from other elastolytic disorders by its characteristic selective loss of elastic fibers of the mid dermis. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear as well as the effective treatment. Half of the cases described in the literature are associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure. Other reported triggering conditions such as urticaria, eczema and granuloma annulare suggests different eliciting inflammatory pathways. The authors describe the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed an urticarial eruption during months which progressed to generalized and severe fine wrinkling. 2011/12/02 - 01:05

Tattooing has become more and more popular in today’s society. The most common dermatological tattoo complications are represented by hypersensitivity reaction to tattoo pigments like irritant and allergical contact dermatitis, development of lichenoid areas and granulomatous responses, such as sarcoid granulomas or foreign body granulomas. Less frequently patients developing discoid lupus erythematous have been reported. Pseudolymphoma is an uncommon reactive lymphocytic proliferation mimicking the histological and clinical features of a malignant skin lymphoma. We herein report a pseuldoymphoma limited to the red area of a multicolour tattoo of the leg. 2011/11/30 - 01:29

Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired, autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease with an approximate prevalence of 0,2/million people. The hallmark of EBA is the presence of autoantibodies (mainly IgG class) to anchoring fibril collagen (type VII collagen) located at the dermal-epidermal junction. Clinically EBA is subdivided into the inflammatory and the non-inflammatory phenotypes, depending on the level of the cleavage in the basal membrane. A recent addition to the diagnostic techniques is the analysis of the serration pattern of the autoantibody deposits at the basal membrane in the direct immunofluorescence. EBA and the closely related bullous systemic lupus erythematosus are the only diseases presenting with the so-called u-serration pattern which distinguishes them from many other autoimmune subepidermal blistering diseases. We also discuss the recent advances in therapy, including the experience with Rituximab. 2011/11/28 - 17:36

Hyperimmunoglobulin E recurrent infection syndrome (HIES) is characterized by recurrent skin and lung infections, eczema, elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels (>2000 IU/mL), various connective tissue, skeletal, and vascular abnormalities.1 We describe herein two brothers with HIES and documented the complications and management of such involvement. 2011/11/28 - 17:36

Lupus erythematosus (LE) and lichen planus (LP) may occur as an overlap syndrome. We report the clinical characteristics of a young man with lesions diagnosed as LE and LP by histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations. We achieved remarkable clinical response from the treatment with topical corticosteroids and no recurrence was seen in a 6 months of follow up time. We found this case interesting because of the rapid improvement with corticosteroid and discussed if there is a real overlap or a coexistence according to the literature. 2011/11/26 - 10:52

Wegener´s granulomatosis (WG) is a rare, systemic vasculitis involving multiple organs. The clinical presentation is highly diverse, and there is considerable risk of mortality if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. We present a case illustrating that patients with WG may initially present with localized cutaneous symptoms and signs. 2011/10/29 - 12:30

Lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP) is an autoimmune disease characterised by evolution of subepidermal blisters on normal and lichen planus affected skin. We describe a case of LPP in a 54-year-old Chinese woman. The patient presented with psoriasiform plaques and was diagnosed with guttate psoriasis. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB) therapy was commenced, and she experienced a generalised eruption of violaceous papules, bullae over the lower limbs, and Wickham’s striae over the buccal mucosa. Histology from a plaque revealed interface dermatitis, while a specimen from a blister showed subepidermal bulla. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear deposition of IgG and C3 along the basement membrane. A diagnosis of LPP was made on clinicopathological grounds. This is the first case report of NBUVB alone in unmasking LPP. In this case report, we describe the pathological mechanism of NBUVB in the development of LPP and key features distinguishing LPP from bullous lupus erythematosus, bullous lichen planus, bullous pemphigoid, and psoriasis. 2011/10/26 - 13:23