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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Czasopisma z Hindawi

Wydawnictwo Hindawi publikuje czasopisma Open Access z różnych dziedzin

Purpose. Over recent decades, no consensus has yet been reached on the optimal approach to cosmetic evaluation following breast-conserving therapy (BCT). The present study compared the strengths and weaknesses of the BCCT.core software with a 10-member panel from various backgrounds. Methods. Digital photographs of 109 consecutive patients after BCT were evaluated for 7 items by a panel consisting of 2 breast surgeons, 2 residents, 2 laypersons, and 4 plastic surgeons. All photographs were objectively evaluated using the BCCT.core software (version 20), and an overall cosmetic outcome score was reached using a four-point Likert scale. Results. Based on the mean BCCT.core software score, 41% of all patients had fair or poor overall cosmetic results (10% poor), compared with 51% (14% poor) obtained with panel evaluation. Mean overall BCCT.core score and mean overall panel score substantially agreed (weighted kappa: 0.68). By contrast, analysis of the evaluation of scar tissue revealed large discrepancies between the BCCT.core software and the panel. The analysis of subgroups formed from different combinations of the panel members still showed substantial agreement with the BCCT.core software (range 0.64–0.69), independent of personal background. Conclusions. Although the analysis of scar tissue by the software shows room for improvement, the BCCT.core represents a valid and efficient alternative to panel evaluation.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2014/716860/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Metal/semiconductor and transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/semiconductor heterojunctions have emerged as an effective modality in the fabrication of photoelectric devices. This review is following a recent shift toward the engineering of TCO layers and structured Si substrates, incorporating metal nanoparticles for the development of next-generation photoelectric devices. Beneficial progress which helps to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost, has been sequenced based on efficient technologies involved in making novel substrates, TCO layers, and electrodes. The electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be enhanced by structuring the surface of TCO layers. The TCO layers embedded with Ag nanoparticles are used to enhance the plasmonic light trapping effect in order to increase the energy harvesting nature of photoelectric devices. Si nanopillar structures which are fabricated by photolithography-free technique are used to increase light-active surface region. The importance of the structure and area of front electrodes and the effect of temperature at the junction are the value added discussions in this review.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/160379/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the hematopoietic profile in AAS abusers, during or short after their last abuse and approximately six months later. Moreover, we studied if supraphysiological doses of testosterone influence the concentration of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in healthy volunteers. Design and Methods. Subjects () were recruited through an antidoping hotline. The hematological profile was measured when the subjects entered the study and approximately 6 months later. Testosterone enanthate (500 mg) was administered to healthy volunteers (). Gene expression was studied in human hek293 cells exposed to 1 μM testosterone. Results. Decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocyte volume fraction, and erythrocyte counts were observed after 6 months without the use of AAS. Results in volunteers show that hemoglobin increased 3% four and 15 days after testosterone administration, whereas EPO was significantly increased by 38% four days after dose. Agreeingly, in vitro study shows that testosterone induces the mRNA level of EPO with 65% after 24-hour exposure. Conclusion. These results indicate that supraphysiological doses of testosterone may cause a perturbation in the hematopoietic profile. This is of interest in relation to the adverse cardiovascular effects observed in AAS abusers.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jhor/2014/510257/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, mostly triggered by an aberrant immune response to an infectious pathogen. Although several infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBS, not all such infected individuals develop this disease. Moreover, infection with a single agent might also lead to different subtypes of GBS emphasizing the role of host factors in the development of GBS. The host factors regulate a broad range of inflammatory processes that are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including GBS. Evidences suggest that systemically and locally released cytokines and their involvement in immune-mediated demyelination and axonal damage of peripheral nerves are important in the pathogenesis of GBS. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) link innate and adaptive immunity through transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines. TLR genes may increase susceptibility to microbial infections; an attenuated immune response towards antigen and downregulation of cytokines occurs due to mutation in the gene. Herein, we discuss the crucial role of host factors such as cytokines and TLRs that activate the immune response and are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/758639/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

The heart urchin Brisaster fragilis is an important bioturbator found in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Several adaptations allow it to move within fine sediments (e.g., test shape, spine morphology, and distribution), which are compared here to those of its Pacific sibling species B. latifrons. While ventral spatulate spines and dorsal and anterolateral curvilinear spines are similar between the two species, anterior spines differ significantly: sigmoid-shaped for B. fragilis and curvilinear for B. latifrons. This morphological difference, in addition to a narrower plastron for B. fragilis, suggests a different digging strategy. In situ video observations of B. fragilis show a “dig and move” strategy: anterior spines “dig” forward at the sediment while the plastron spines “move” the urchin into the newly created space. B. latifrons on the other hand uses an oblique rocking motion. This suggests that generalizations derived from one or few species displaying similar body shapes may not be possible. Factors such as sediment depth (i.e., the amount of sediment above the urchin) are likely to affect movement and force the animal to employ a different digging strategy, even within a single species. The role of spines for locomotion is further discussed, with additional reference to tubercle morphology.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2014/297631/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Abdominal wall endometriosis in a Caesarean section scar (AEC) is an infrequent type of extrapelvic endometriosis which rarely transforms into a malignant lesion. A painful mass located in the scar of a Caesarean section is a typical sign of AEC. This condition is diagnosed preoperatively using imaging modalities such as computed tomography and ultrasonography, as well as fine-needle aspiration. Although AEC has typical signs, general surgeons often misdiagnose it due to its rarity. Herein, we report our experience of AEC in a single institution.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srp/2014/765372/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM) and 3 peripheral blood (PB) smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95%) of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (; ). Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2014/604165/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Piriformis syndrome is an underdiagnosed extraspinal association of sciatica. Patients usually complain of deep seated gluteal pain. In severe cases the clinical features of piriformis syndrome are primarily due to spasm of the piriformis muscle and irritation of the underlying sciatic nerve but this mysterious clinical scenario is also described in lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leg length discrepancy, piriformis myofascial pain syndrome, following vaginal delivery, and anomalous piriformis muscle or sciatic nerve. In this paper, we describe piriformis and fibromyalgia syndrome in a 30-year-old young lady, an often missed diagnosis. We also focus on management of the piriformis syndrome.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/893836/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an attractive platform for monitoring and measuring physical phenomena. WSNs typically consist of hundreds or thousands of battery-operated tiny sensor nodes which are connected via a low data rate wireless network. A WSN application, such as object tracking or environmental monitoring, is composed of individual tasks which must be scheduled on each node. Naturally the order of task execution influences the performance of the WSN application. Scheduling the tasks such that the performance is increased while the energy consumption remains low is a key challenge. In this paper we apply online learning to task scheduling in order to explore the tradeoff between performance and energy consumption. This helps to dynamically identify effective scheduling policies for the sensor nodes. The energy consumption for computation and communication is represented by a parameter for each application task. We compare resource-aware task scheduling based on three online learning methods: independent reinforcement learning (RL), cooperative reinforcement learning (CRL), and exponential weight for exploration and exploitation (Exp3). Our evaluation is based on the performance and energy consumption of a prototypical target tracking application. We further determine the communication overhead and computational effort of these methods.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/765182/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

In advanced stages of hepatic fibrosis, the liver sinusoidal endothelium transforms to vascular endothelium with accompanying expression of factor VIII-related antigen (FVIIIRAg), a phenotypic marker of vascular endothelial cells. Liver fibrosis has been shown to be associated with aging and was found to be prevalent in elderly cadavers. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied FVIIIRAg expression in the livers of elderly cadavers with progressive stages of fibrosis. The vascular endothelium of portal tracts and central veins was stained for FVIIIRAg, providing an internal positive control. The incidence of FVIIIRAg expression was low in the sinusoids of livers that showed minimal fibrosis or perisinusoidal fibrosis but was increased in livers with advanced fibrosis (i.e., septa formation, bridging fibrosis, and cirrhosis). FVIIIRAg positive sinusoidal endothelial cells were distributed in loose aggregates in the periportal, periseptal, and midlobular parenchyma and were found less frequently in the centrilobular area. FVIIIRAg immune deposits appeared patchy and discontinuous along the sinusoidal lining, likely representing focalized transformation of sinusoidal to vascular endothelium. There was a discrete localization of FVIIIRAg immunoreactivity in the foci of severe parenchymal fibrosis. Conclusion. FVIIIRAg is a reliable marker for detecting the transformation of sinusoidal to vascular endothelium in advanced liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/839560/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Ectopic varices are defined as dilated portosystemic collateral veins in locations other than the gastroesophageal region. We present a case of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding as the first manifestation of portal hypertension. We diagnosed ectopic duodenal varices without gastroesophageal varices on upper GI endoscopy and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) on CT angiography and managed this case.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihep/2014/140959/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Influenza is a perennial problem affecting millions of people annually with the everpresent threat of devastating pandemics. Active prophylaxis by vaccination against influenza virus is currently the main countermeasure supplemented with antivirals. However, disadvantages of this strategy include the impact of antigenic drift, necessitating constant updating of vaccine strain composition, and emerging antiviral drug resistance. The development of other options for influenza prophylaxis, particularly with broad acting agents able to provide protection in the period between the onset of a pandemic and the development of a strain specific vaccine, is of great interest. Exploitation of broad-spectrum mediators could provide barricade protection in the early critical phase of influenza virus outbreaks. Passive immunity has the potential to provide immediate antiviral effects, inhibiting virus replication, reducing virus shedding, and thereby protecting vulnerable populations in the event of an impending influenza pandemic. Here, we review passive broad-spectrum influenza prophylaxis options with a focus on harnessing natural host defenses, including interferons and antibodies.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/irt/2014/267594/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are primitive endothelial precursors which are known to functionally contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. To date a number of distinct subtypes of these cells have been described, with differing maturation status, cellular phenotype, and function. Although there is much debate on which subtype constitutes the true EPC population, all subtypes have endothelial characteristics and contribute to neovascularisation. Vasculogenesis, the process by which EPCs contribute to blood vessel formation, can be dysregulated in disease with overabundant vasculogenesis in the context of solid tumours, leading to tumour growth and metastasis, and conversely insufficient vasculogenesis can be present in an ischemic environment. Importantly, it is widely known that transcription factors tightly regulate cellular phenotype and function by controlling the expression of particular target genes and in turn regulating specific signalling pathways. This suggests that transcriptional regulators may be potential therapeutic targets to control EPC function. Herein, we discuss the observed EPC subtypes described in the literature and review recent studies describing the role of a number of transcriptional families in the regulation of EPC phenotype and function in normal and pathological conditions.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/njos/2014/972043/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

A map f of the ring R into itself is of period 2 if for all ; involutions are much studied examples. We present some commutativity results for semiprime and prime rings with involution, and we study the existence of derivations and generalized derivations of period 2 on prime and semiprime rings.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2014/140790/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is termed malignant triton tumor (MTT), a rare neoplasm that poses a diagnostic dilemma in the differential diagnosis of neck masses and portends poor prognosis. We report a sporadic case of MTT of the neck in a 23-year-old female. We present the pathological findings. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the neurogenic origin with S-100 expression and the rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with desmin and vimentin positivity. Radical surgical excision was done. After 4 years there were no signs of recurrence or distant metastasis. The clinical, microscopic, and long-term follow-up of this case are consistent with those of a low-grade malignancy.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2014/674094/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms are two or more malignancies in an individual without any relationship between the tumors. Multiple primary malignancies are relatively rare but have increased in recent decades. Two cancers are commonly observed among those with multiple primary malignancies, but two malignancies of stomach and liver are relatively rare to be reported. Mechanisms of the tumors were unclear; we described a patient who had stomach carcinoma presenting with a synchronous liver cancer and investigated his family history; we suggest that family history may be a key risk factor and early detection for additional primary malignancies should be needed for patients who had specific cancer history in their pedigree. Early diagnosis may be the key risk factor affecting prognosis.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2014/970293/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Temperature profiling in both fluid and pipe walls had not been explained theoretically. The equations of energy balance and heat conductivity were queried by introducing known parameters to solve heat transfer using virtual mathematical experimentation. This was achieved by remodeling Poiseuille’s equation. Distribution of temperature profiles between pipe wall, fluid flow, and surrounding air was investigated and validated upon comparison with experimental results. A new dimensionless parameter (unified number (U)) was introduced with the aim of solving known errors of the Reynolds and Nusselts number.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/490302/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

The main aim of this study is to form a complete taxonomy of the types of interactions that relate to the use of a virtual world for engaging learning experiences, when blended and hybrid learning methods are to be used. In order to investigate this topic more accurately and effectively, we distinguish four dimensions of interactions based on the context in which these occur, and the involved parts: in-world and in-class, user-to-user and user-to-world interactions. In order to conduct investigation into this topic and form a view of the interactions as clear as possible, we observed a cohort of 15 undergraduate Computer Science students while using an OpenSim-based institutionally hosted virtual world. Moreover, we ran a survey where 50 students were asked to indicate their opinion and feelings about their in-world experience. The results of our study highlight that educators and instructors need to plan their in-world learning activities very carefully and with a focus on interactions if engaging activities are what they want to offer their students. Additionally, it seems that student interactions with the content of the virtual world and the in-class student-to-student interactions, have stronger impact on students’ engagement when hybrid methods are used.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2014/318317/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound-based technique to quantify the mechanical properties of bulk tissues by measuring the propagation speed of shear waves (SW) induced in the tissue with an ultrasound transducer. The technique has been successfully validated in liver and breast (tumor) diagnostics and is potentially useful for the assessment of the stiffness of arteries. However, SW propagation in arteries is subjected to different wave phenomena potentially affecting the measurement accuracy. Therefore, we assessed SSI in a less complex ex vivo setup, that is, a thick-walled and rectangular slab of an excised equine aorta. Dynamic uniaxial mechanical testing was performed during the SSI measurements, to dispose of a reference material assessment. An ultrasound probe was fixed in an angle position controller with respect to the tissue to investigate the effect of arterial anisotropy on SSI results. Results indicated that SSI was able to pick up stretch-induced stiffening of the aorta. SW velocities were significantly higher along the specimen’s circumferential direction than in the axial direction, consistent with the circumferential orientation of collagen fibers. Hence, we established a first step in studying SW propagation in anisotropic tissues to gain more insight into the feasibility of SSI-based measurements in arteries.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/272586/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we tested the effect of troglitazone (TG) and its newly synthesized derivative, 5-[4-(6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-yl-methoxy)-benzylidene]-2,4-thiazolidinedione (Δ2troglitazone, (Δ2TG)), on the adiponectin expression in monocytes/macrophages and the relative mechanisms. The expression of adiponectin was located in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions from patients and cholesterol-fed rabbits. TG and Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in THP-1 cells by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. TG induced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPARγ-dependent pathway whereas Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through a PPARγ-independent pathway in THP-1 cells. Both TG and Δ2TG enhanced adiponectin mRNA expression through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. TG and Δ2TG decreased the adhesion of THP-1 cells to TNF-α-treated HUVECs and the inhibitory effect was abolished by specific antiadiponectin antibodies. TG- and Δ2TG-induced suppression on monocyte adhesion were inhibited by a selective AMPK inhibitor compound C. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of TG and Δ2TG on monocyte adhesion might be at least in part through de novo adiponectin expression and activation of an AMPK-dependent pathway, which might play an important role in anti-inflammation and antiatherosclerosis.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/726068/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

In his 1952 publication, Ergun made the following proclamation: “Data of the present investigation and those presented earlier have been treated accordingly, and the coefficients and have been determined by the method of least squares. The values obtained are and, , representing 640 experiments.” In this paper, we demonstrate that because his experimental methodology was flawed, the corrected values, which his experimental results would otherwise have established for these coefficients, are significantly higher. This is, in part, because Ergun’s reporting of his measured data was ambiguous with respect to the embedded coefficients and . In addition, this ambiguity made it difficult for any subsequent researcher to figure out the true meaning of his empirical results which, in turn, resulted in his choice of the values for these coefficients being accepted by default in the scientific community.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2014/548482/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

A normal phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of four components, namely, alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, lupeol, and n-triacontane from two medicinally important plants, Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) CB. Clarke. In Ayurveda, both plants have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Chromatographic separation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) CB. Clarke. was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel using a suitable mobile phase. The densitometric scanning was done after derivatization at λ = 580 nm for α-amyrin, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, and at 366 nm for n-triacontane. The developed HPTLC method has been validated and used for simultaneous quantitation of the four components from the methanolic extracts of whole plant powders of Leptadenia reticulata Wight & Arn. and Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) CB. Clarke. The developed HPTLC method is simple, rapid, and precise and can be used for routine quality control.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ac/2014/143948/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

In digital systems, mostly adder lies in the critical path that affects the overall performance of the system. To perform fast addition operation at low cost, carry select adder (CSLA) is the most suitable among conventional adder structures. In this paper, a 3-T XOR gate is used to design an 8-bit CSLA as XOR gates are the essential blocks in designing higher bit adders. The proposed CSLA has reduced transistor count and has lesser power consumption as well as power-delay product (PDP) as compared to regular CSLA and modified CSLA.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aelc/2014/564613/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world’s population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to retrieve information regarding dietary habits and personal factors of participants. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. Of the 302 females, 17.5% () had mild anaemia and 7.9% () had moderate anaemia. Severely anaemic individuals were not observed. Participants’ dietary habits and personal factors were not significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia (whether a participant is a vegetarian or not (), drinking tea within one hour of a meal (), frequency of consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs (), antihelminthic treatment within past year (), and menorrhagia ()). Anaemia in the study population is below the average for Sri Lankan data. Diet and selected medical conditions were not a causative factor for anaemia in this population.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/526308/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Dermatomyositis (DM) is one of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies caused by complement-mediated vasculopathy or vasculitis in the muscle. Although the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa has been reported to be involved as a result of vasculitis or vasculopathy, ulceration in the pharynx is a rare manifestation of DM. A 54-year-old woman complaining of muscle weakness in the extremities, low-grade fever, and dysphagia was diagnosed as having DM. Despite medical treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, her DM progressed rapidly, leading to exacerbation of the dysphagia. About 3 weeks after undergoing tracheostomy as a preventive measure against aspiration, the patient developed intractable respiratory tract hemorrhage. Repeated laryngoendoscopy revealed a bleeding ulceration in the pharynx that required hemostasis with electric cautery under general anesthesia. No bleeding recurred thereafter. Histopathologically, the pharynx exhibited nonspecific inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle tissue. This rare manifestation may be considered in cases of DM with unexplainable airway bleeding.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2014/854841/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

A fifteen-year-old female patient presented with a severe bilateral groin contracture for the last 8 years. She had sustained burns at the age of seven years. Three attempts to release the contracture with split thickness skin grafts had been done without success. A pedicled anterior lateral thigh flap was raised and advanced into the defect after the contracture had been released. Postoperatively the patient healed well without any complications and was able to achieve hip abduction of about 130 degrees.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/451356/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of hemin (the heme oxygenase-1 [OH-1] inducer) against nephrotoxic effects induced by cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CP)] in male rats. Methods. The evaluation was performed through monitoring renal redox parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and reduced glutathione (GSH). The work also examined renal function tests (urea and creatinine), tissue proinflammatory mediator like nitric oxide (NO), and kidney cytopathology. Results. A single intraperitoneal dose of CP (10 mg/kg b.w.) caused significant elevation of blood urea, serum creatinine, and renal LPO and NO, along with significant decline of the activities of GPx and GR, but renal SOD activity and GSH level were statistically insignificant as compared to control group. Subcutaneous injection of hemin (40 µmol/kg b.w.) partially ameliorated CP-induced renal damage, based on suppression of blood urea, serum creatinine, the renal MDA and NO levels, and increased antioxidant capacity in CP-treated rats. The results of histopathological and ultrastructural investigations supported the renoprotective effect of hemin against CP-induced acute toxicity. Conclusion. The induction of HO-1 by hemin is a promising approach in the treatment of CP-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further preclinical studies are warranted to test effectiveness of CP/hemin on the outcome of tumor chemotherapy.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/476430/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of fishery resource with reserve area in the presence of bird predator. The aquatic region under investigation is divided into two zones: one free for fishing and another restricted for any kind of fishery. The criteria of biological and bionomic equilibrium of system are established. The points of local stability, global stability, and instability are obtained for the proposed model. An optimal harvesting policy is established using Pontryagin’s maximum principle. At last the theoretical results obtained are illustrated with the help of numerical simulation.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2014/218451/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

This research presents a method to construct a combustion model and a method to optimize some control parameters of diesel engine in order to develop a model-based control system. The construction purpose of the model is to appropriately manage some control parameters to obtain the values of fuel consumption and emission as the engine output objectives. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was applied to construct combustion model with the polynomial model. Using the experimental data of a single cylinder diesel engine, the model of power, BSFC, , and soot on multiple injection diesel engines was built. The proposed method succesfully developed the model that describes control parameters in relation to the engine outputs. Although many control devices can be mounted to diesel engine, optimization technique is required to utilize this method in finding optimal engine operating conditions efficiently beside the existing development of individual emission control methods. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was used to calculate control parameters to optimize fuel consumption and emission based on the model. The proposed method is able to calculate control parameters efficiently to optimize evaluation item based on the model. Finally, the model which added PSO then was compiled in a microcontroller.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jopti/2014/135163/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

By using a limited-area model (LAM) in combination with the scale-selective data assimilation (SSDA) approach, wind energy resources in the contiguous United States (CONUS) were downscaled from IPCC CCSM3 global model projections for both current and future climate conditions. An assessment of climate change impacts on wind energy resources in the CONUS region was then conducted. Based on the downscaling results, when projecting into future climate under IPCC’s A1B scenario, the average annual wind speed experiences an overall shift across the CONUS region. From the current climate to the 2040s, the average annual wind speed is expected to increase from 0.1 to 0.2 m s−1 over the Great Plains, Northern Great Lakes Region, and Southwestern United States located southwest of the Rocky Mountains. When projecting into the 2090s from current climate, there is an overall increase in the Great Plains Region and Southwestern United States located southwest of the Rockies with a mean wind speed increase between 0 and 0.1 m s−1, while, the Northern Great Lakes Region experiences an even greater increase from current climate to 2090s than over the first few decades with an increase of mean wind speed from 0.1 to 0.4 m s−1.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/897246/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Women who inject drugs (WID) are highly marginalized and stigmatized and experience ongoing discrimination in Georgia. Few opportunities exist for WID to receive publicly funded treatment for substance use disorders. The IMEDI (Investigating Methods for Enhancing Development in Individuals) project was developed in response to the need for women-specific and women-centered treatment services. This paper described our approach to understanding the Georgian culture—and WID within that culture—so that we could integrate two interventions for substance use found effective in other Western and non-Western cultures and to outline how we refined and adapted our integrated intervention to yield a comprehensive women-centered intervention for substance use. Reinforcement Based Treatment (RBT) and the Women’s CoOp (WC) were adapted and refined based on in-depth interviews with WID () and providers of health services () to such women and focus groups [2 with WID () and 2 with health service providers ()]. The resulting comprehensive women-centered intervention, RBT+WC, was then pretested and further refined in a sample of 20 WID. Results indicated positive pre-post changes in urine screening results and perceived needs for both RBT+WC and a case management control condition. The approach to treatment adaptation and the revised elements of RBT+WC are presented and discussed.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/163603/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Considering the guidance problem of relative motion of missile target without the dynamic characteristics of missile autopilot in the interception planar, non-homogeneous disturbance observer is applied for finite-time estimation with respect to the target maneuvering affecting the guidance performance. Two guidance laws with finite-time convergence are designed by using a fast power rate reaching law and the prescribed sliding variable dynamics. The nonsingular terminal sliding mode surface is selected to improve dynamic characteristics of missile autopilot. Furthermore, the finite-time guidance law with dynamic delay characteristics is designed for the target maneuvering through adopting variable structure dynamic compensation. The simulation results demonstrate that, for different target maneuvering, the proposed guidance laws can restrain the sliding mode chattering problem effectively and make the missile hit the maneuvering target quickly and accurately with condition of corresponding assumptions.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2014/890824/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmicro/2014/758942/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

The cornea is the front of the eye. Its inner cell layer, called the endothelium, is important because it is closely related to the light transparency of the cornea. An in vivo observation of this layer is performed by using specular microscopy to evaluate the health of the cells: a high spatial density will result in a good transparency. Thus, the main criterion required by ophthalmologists is the cell density of the cornea endothelium, mainly obtained by an image segmentation process. Different methods can perform the image segmentation of these cells, and the three most performing methods are studied here. The question for the ophthalmologists is how to choose the best algorithm and to obtain the best possible results with it. This paper presents a methodology to compare these algorithms together. Moreover, by the way of geometric dissimilarity criteria, the algorithms are tuned up, and the best parameter values are thus proposed to the expert ophthalmologists.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbi/2014/704791/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Parthenium hysterophorus, one of the world’s most dangerous weeds, is responsible for huge losses to the biodiversity, agriculture, economy, and health of livestock and human beings. High competitive success rate and adaptability of the species enable it to dominate diverse types of habitats. Various weed control strategies are being used globally to reduce its population to manageable levels. But owing to many limitations associated with the conventional methods, management of Parthenium still remains a challenge. Recently large scale utilization has been taken up as a holistic approach for the control of weeds. Parthenium hysterophorus can be managed by exploiting this weed in diverse fields. In agriculture, it can be used either as green manure or after composting. Industrially it can be used for producing various value added products. The weed also exhibits many environmental applications. Chemical constituents of Parthenium show extensive range of pharmacological activities suggesting its role as a chemotherapeutic agent. This review briefly discusses the problem of Parthenium and enlists its possible utilities which can open new avenues for effective management of this violent weed.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aag/2014/381859/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

The development of a novel switched-mode 2.45 GHz microwave (MW) multiapplicator system intended for laparoscopic and open surgical thermoablative treatments is presented. The system differs from the other synchronous and asynchronous commercially available equipments because it employs a fast sequential switching (FSS) technique for feeding an array of up to four high efficiency MW applicators. FSS technology, if properly engineered, allows improving system compactness, modularity, overall efficiency, and operational flexibility. Full-wave electromagnetic (EM) and thermal (TH) simulations have been made to confirm the expected performances of the FSS technology. Here we provide an overview of technical details and early ex-vivo experiments carried out with a full functional β-prototype of the system.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmst/2014/973736/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

The objective of this research was to measure the presence of metabolic syndrome risk factors in a sample population in the middle income Caribbean nation of St. Lucia and to identify the demographic and behavioral factors of metabolic syndrome among the study participants. Interviews and anthropometric measures were conducted with 499 St. Lucians of ages 18–99. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. Fifty-six percent of females and 18 percent of males had a waist size equal to or above the indicator for the metabolic syndrome. Behavioral risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and alcohol consumption varied by gender. Thirty-six percent of women and 22% of men reported a sedentary lifestyle and 43% of women and 65% of men reported any alcohol consumption. More research should be done to determine the cultural norms and gender differences associated with modifiable risk behaviors in St. Lucia.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apm/2014/501972/ 2014/10/03 - 18:33

Purpose. Over recent decades, no consensus has yet been reached on the optimal approach to cosmetic evaluation following breast-conserving therapy (BCT). The present study compared the strengths and weaknesses of the BCCT.core software with a 10-member panel from various backgrounds. Methods. Digital photographs of 109 consecutive patients after BCT were evaluated for 7 items by a panel consisting of 2 breast surgeons, 2 residents, 2 laypersons, and 4 plastic surgeons. All photographs were objectively evaluated using the BCCT.core software (version 20), and an overall cosmetic outcome score was reached using a four-point Likert scale. Results. Based on the mean BCCT.core software score, 41% of all patients had fair or poor overall cosmetic results (10% poor), compared with 51% (14% poor) obtained with panel evaluation. Mean overall BCCT.core score and mean overall panel score substantially agreed (weighted kappa: 0.68). By contrast, analysis of the evaluation of scar tissue revealed large discrepancies between the BCCT.core software and the panel. The analysis of subgroups formed from different combinations of the panel members still showed substantial agreement with the BCCT.core software (range 0.64–0.69), independent of personal background. Conclusions. Although the analysis of scar tissue by the software shows room for improvement, the BCCT.core represents a valid and efficient alternative to panel evaluation.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2014/716860/ 2014/10/03 - 18:32