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Astronomia Astrofizyka

Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Business & Information Systems Engineering (BISE)

  • 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • In a world filled with an increasing number of choices people must carefully select the information they acquire in order to make sound decisions that they will not regret in the future. This ranges from everyday life decisions to those made by experts in the business world. The authors introduce a novel information acquisition algorithm based on the value that information has when preventing a decision maker from regretting his or her current decision. The main features of the model include the capacity to account for different risk attitudes of the decision maker aswell as his or her forwardlooking behavior, the ability to assess choice objects (projects or products) defined by multiple characteristics and a self-regulation mechanism for the information acquisition process, even in the absence of information acquisition costs. The main properties of the algorithm are examined numerically. 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • The paper aims to optimize the final part of a firm’s value chain with regard to attended last-mile deliveries. It is assumed that to be profitable, ecommerce businesses need to maximize the overall value of fulfilled orders (rather than their number), while also limiting costs of delivery. To do so, it is essential to decide which delivery requests to accept and which time windows to offer to which consumers. This is especially relevant for attended deliveries, as delivery fees usually cannot fully compensate costs of delivery given tight delivery time windows. The literature review shows that existing order acceptance techniques often ignore either the order value or the expected costs of delivery. The paper presents an iterative solution approach: after calculating an approximate transport capacity based on forecasted expected delivery requests and a cost-minimizing routing, actual delivery requests are accepted or rejected aiming to maximize the overall value of orders given the computed transport capacity. With the final set of accepted requests, the routing solution is updated to minimize costs of delivery. The presented solution approach combines well-known methods from revenue management and time-dependent vehicle routing. In a computational study for a German metropolitan area, the potential and the limits of value-based demand fulfillment as well as its sensitivity regarding forecast accuracy and demand composition are investigated. 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • Service compositions are used to implement business processes in a variety of application domains. A quality of service (QoS)-aware selection of the service to be composed involves multiple, usually conflicting and possibly uncertain QoS attributes. A multi-criteria solution approach is desired to generate a set of alternative service selections. In addition, the uncertainty of QoSattributes is neglected in existing solution approaches. Hence, the need for service reconfigurations is imposed to avoid the violation of QoS restrictions. The researched problem is NP-hard. This article presents a heuristic multicriteria service selection approach that is designed to determine a Pareto frontier of alternative service selections in a reasonable amount of time. Taking into account the uncertainty of response times, the obtained service selections are robust with respect to the constrained execution time. The proposed solution approach is based on the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA)-II extended by heuristics that exploit problem specific characteristics of the QoS-aware service selection. The applicability of the solution approach is demonstrated by a simulation study. 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • Today’s forecasting techniques, which are integrated into several information systems, often use ensembles that represent different scenarios. Aggregating these forecasts is a challenging task: when using the mean or median (common practice), important information is lost, especially if the underlying distribution at every step is multimodal. To avoid this, the authors present a heatmap visualization approach. It is easy to visually distinguish regions of high activity (high probability of realization) from regions of low activity. This form of visualization allows to identify splitting paths in the forecast ensemble and adds a “third alternative” to the decision space. Most forecast systems only offer “up” or “down”: the presented heatmap visualization additionally introduces “don’t know”. Looking at the heatmap, regions can be identified in which the underlying forecast model cannot predict the outcome. The authors present a software prototype with interactive visualization to support decision makers and discuss the information gained by its use. The prototype has already been presented to and discussed with researchers and practitioners. 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • 2014/07/23 - 13:06
  • 2014/06/25 - 13:40
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  • The allocation of students to courses is a wide-spread and repeated task in higher education, often accomplished by a simple first-come first-served (FCFS) procedure. FCFS is neither stable nor strategy-proof, however. The Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Al Roth and Lloyd Shapley for theirwork on the theory of stable allocations. This theory was influential in many areas, but found surprisingly little application in course allocation as of yet. In this paper, different approaches for course allocation with a focus on appropriate stablematchingmechanisms are surveyed. Two such mechanisms are discussed in more detail, the Gale- Shapley student optimal stable mechanism (SOSM) and the efficiency adjusted deferred acceptance mechanism (EADAM). EADAM can be seen as a fundamental recent contribution which recovers efficiency losses from SOSM at the expense of strategy-proofness. In addition to these two important mechanisms, a survey of recent extensions with respect to the assignment of schedules of courses rather than individual courses is provided. The survey of the theoretical literature is complemented with results of a field experiment, which help understand the benefits of stable matching mechanisms in course allocation applications. 2014/06/25 - 13:40
  • In this contribution, we introduce “social media analytics” (SMA) as an emerging interdisciplinary research field that, in our view, will have a significant impact on social media-related future research from across different academic disciplines. Despite a number of challenges, we argue that SMA can provide other disciplines – including IS – with methodological foundations for research that focuses on social media. Furthermore, we believe that SMA can help IS research to develop decisionmaking or decision-aiding frameworks by tackling the issue of social mediarelated performance measurement, which has been challenging until now. Moreover, SMA can provide architectural designs and solution frameworks for new social media-based applications and information systems. Finally, we call for an interdisciplinary SMA research agenda as well as a significantly increased level of interdisciplinary research co-operation, which must aim to generate significant advancements in scientific methods for analyzing social media, as well as to answer research questions from across different disciplines. 2014/06/25 - 13:40
  • Knowledge management represents a key issue for both information systems’ academics and practitioners, including those who have become disillusioned by actual results that fail to deliver on exaggerated promises and idealistic visions. Social software, a tremendous global success story, has prompted similarly high expectations regarding the ways in which organizations can improve their knowledge handling. But can these expectations be met, whether in academic research or the real world? This article seeks to identify current research trends and gaps, with a focus on social knowledge environments. The proposed research agenda features four focal challenges: semi-permeable organizations, social software in professional work settings, crowd knowledge, and crossborder knowledge management. Three solutions emerge as likely methods to address these challenges: designoriented solutions, analytical solutions, and interdisciplinary dialogue. 2014/06/25 - 13:40
  • Service systems engineering (SSE) focuses on the systematic design and development of service systems. Guided by a value proposition, service systems enable value co-creation through a configuration of actors and resources (often including a service architecture, technology, information, and physical artifacts), therefore constituting complex socio-technical systems. IS research can play a leading role in understanding and developing service systems. SSE calls for research leading to actionable design theories, methods and approaches for systematically designing, developing and piloting service systems, based upon understanding the underlying principles of service systems. Three major challenges have been identified: engineering service architectures, engineering service systems interactions, and engineering resource mobilization, i.e. extending the access to and use of resources bymeans of IT. Researching SSE is challenging. Assessing the models, methods, or artifacts of SSE often requires embedded research within existing or even novel service systems. Consequently, approaches such as piloting IT-based innovations, design research or action research are the most promising for SSE research. As an integrative discipline, IS is in a unique position to spearhead the efforts in advancing the architecture, interaction, and resource base of service systems with evidence-based design. 2014/06/25 - 13:40
  • 2014/06/25 - 13:40
  • 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • Business and Information Systems Engineer- ing (BISE) is at a turning point. Planning, de- signing, developing and operating IT used to be a management task of a few elites in pub- lic ad-ministrations and corporations. But the continuous digitization of nearly all areas of life changes the IT landscape fundamentally. Success in this new era requires putting the human perspective – the digital user – at the very heart of the new digitized service-led economy. BISE faces not just a temporary trend but a complex socio-technical phenomenon with far-reaching implications. The challenges are manifold and have major consequences for all stakeholders, both in information systems and management research as well as in practice. Corporate processes have to be re-designed from the ground up, starting with the user’s perspective, thus putting usage experience and utility of the individual center stage. The digital service economy leads to highly personalized application systems while orga- nizational functions are being fragmented. Entirely new ways of interacting with infor- mation systems, in particular beyond desk- top IT, are being invented and established. These fundamental challenges require novel approaches with regards to innovation and development methods as well as adequate concepts for enterprise or service system ar- chitectures. Gigantic amounts of data are be- ing generated at an accelerating rate by an in- creasing number of devices – data that need to be managed. In order to tackle these extraordinary chal- lenges we introduce ‘user, use & utility’ as a new field of BISE that focuses primarily on the digital user, his or her usage behavior and the utility associated with system usage in the digitized service-led economy. The research objectives encompass the de- velopment of theories, methods and tools for systematic requirement elicitation, sys- tems design, and business development for successful Business and Information Systems Engineering in a digitized economy – infor- mation systems that digital users enjoy us- ing. This challenge calls for leveraging in- sights from various scientific disciplines such as Design, Engineering, Computer Science, Psychology and Sociology. BISE can provide an integrated perspective, thereby assuming a pivotal role within the digitized service led economy. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • The business model concept, although a relatively new topic for research, has garnered growing attention over the past decade. Whilst it has been robustly defined, the concept has so far at- tracted very little substantive research. In the context of the wide-spread dig- itization of businesses and society at large, the logic inherent in a business model has become critical for business success and, hence, a focus for aca- demic inquiry. The business model con- cept is identified as the missing link between business strategy, processes, and Information Technology (IT). The authors argue that the BISE community offers distinct and unique competen- cies (e.g., translating business strate- gies into IT systems, managing busi- ness and IT processes, etc.) that can be harnessed for significant research con- tributions to this field. Within this re- search gap three distinct streams are delineated, namely, business models in IT industries, IT enabled or digital business models, and IT support for developing and managing business models. For these streams, the cur- rent state of the art, suggest critical re- search questions, and suitable research methodologies are outlined. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • The research field “Modeling business information systems” has a long tradi- tion in the scientific discipline of Busi- ness and Information Systems Engi- neering (BISE). The present paper high- lights research shaping the research field, discusses challenges impairing the development of the research field in the coming years, and outlines ele- ments of a future research agenda. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • This article reflects on existing and emerging future challenges arising in the area of “evolutionary business in- formation systems”, a class of systems that demand an evolutionary software development process and which sup- port secondary design of various con- ceptual layers. We place both existing contributions and future research op- portunities in context by referring to an idealized, preliminary system archi- tecture. Finally, we emphasize our plu- ralistic perspective on the research ob- ject and the resulting need for method- ological flexibility in the sense of inter- disciplinary configurations of research methods. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • Due to the increasing importance of producing and consuming energy more sustainably, Energy Informatics (EI) has evolved into a thriving research area within the CS/IS community. The arti- cle attempts to characterize this young and dynamic field of research by de- scribing current EI research topics and methods and provides an outlook of how the field might evolve in the fu- ture. It is shown that two general re- search questions have received the most attention so far and are likely to dominate the EI research agenda in the coming years: How to leverage infor- mation and communication technol- ogy (ICT) to (1) improve energy effi- ciency, and (2) to integrate decentral- ized renewable energy sources into the power grid. Selected EI streams are reviewed, highlighting how the re- spective research questions are broken down into specific research projects and how EI researchers have made con- tributions based on their individual academic background. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • In this paper, we sketch some of the challenges that should be addressed in future research efforts for model- based decision support in manufactur- ing and service networks. This includes integration issues, taking into account the autonomy of the decision-making entities in face of information asymme- try, the modeling of preferences of the decision makers, efficiently determin- ing robust solutions, i.e. solutions that are insensitive with respect to changes in the problem data, and a reduction of the time needed for model build- ing and usage. The problem solution cycle includes problem analysis, the design of appropriate algorithms and their performance assessment. We are interested in a prototypical integration of the proposed methods within appli- cation systems, which can be followed up with field tests of the extended ap- plication systems. We argue that the described research agenda requires the interdisciplinary collaboration of busi- ness and information systems engi- neering researchers with colleagues from management science, computer science, and operations research. In addition, we present some exemplify- ing, illustrative examples of relevant research results. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • The body of knowledge generated by Business Intelligence (BI) research is constantly extended by a stream of heterogeneous technological and or- ganizational innovations. This paper shows how these can be bundled to a new vision for BI that is aligned with new requirements coming from socio- technical macro trends. The building blocks of the vision come from five research strings that have been ex- tracted from an extensive literature re- view: BI and Business Process Man- agement, BI across enterprise borders, new approaches of dealing with un- structured data, agile and user-driven BI, and new concepts for BI gover- nance. The macro trend of the diffu- sion of cyber-physical systems is used to illustrate the argumentation. The realization of this vision comes with an array of open research ques- tions and requires the coordination of research initiatives from a variety of dis- ciplines. Due to the embedded nature of the addressed topics within gen- eral research areas of the Information Systems (IS) discipline and the linking pins that come with the underlying Dynamic Capabilities Approach such research provides a contribution to IS. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • The objective of this commentary is to propose fruitful research directions built upon the reciprocal interplay of social media and collective intelligence. We focus on “wicked problems” – a class of problems that Introne et al. (Künstl. Intell. 27:45–52, 2013) call “prob- lems for which no single computational formulation of the problem is suffi- cient, for which different stakeholders do not even agree on what the prob- lem really is, and for which there are no right or wrong answers, only answers that are better or worse from differ- ent points of view”. We argue that in- formation systems research in partic- ular can aid in designing appropriate systems due to benefits derived from the combined perspectives of both so- cial media and collective intelligence. We document the relevance and time- liness of social media and collective in- telligence for business and information systems engineering, pinpoint needed functionality of information systems for wicked problems, describe related re- search challenges, highlight prospec- tive suitable methods to tackle those challenges, and review examples of initial results. 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • 2014/06/19 - 12:45
  • 2013/11/25 - 20:43
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  • The importance of high data quality and the need to consider data quality in the context of business processes are well acknowledged. Process modeling is mandatory for process-driven data quality management, which seeks to improve and sustain data quality by redesigning processes that create ormodify data. A variety of process modeling languages exist, which organizations heterogeneously apply. The purpose of this article is to present a context-independent approach to integrate data quality into the variety of existing process models. The authors aim to improve communication of data quality issues across stakeholders while considering process model complexity. They build on a keyword-based literature review in 74 IS journals and three conferences, reviewing 1,555 articles from 1995 onwards. 26 articles, including 46 process models, were examined in detail. The literature review reveals the need for a context-independent and visible integration of data quality into process models. First, the authors present the enhancement of existing process models with data quality characteristics. Second, they present the integration of a data-quality-centric process model with existing process models. Since process models are mainly used for communicating processes, they consider the impact of integrating data quality and the application of patterns for complexity reduction on the models’ complexity metrics. There is need for further research on complexity metrics to improve the applicability of complexity reduction patterns. Lacking knowledge about interdependency between metrics and missing complexitymetrics impede assessment and prediction of process model complexity and thus understandability. Finally, our contextindependent approach can be used complementarily for data quality integration with specific process modeling languages. 2013/11/25 - 20:43
  • This paper analyzes approaches investigating success drivers of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the software industry. The literature review covers a classification of research papers in the generic and software industry specific M&A research discipline. The results accentuate that the impact of success factors depends on the research context and that many factors have not been examined so far with respect to the software industry. Building on these insights, the resulting areas for research are pointed out. The investigation of software industry specific factors, in particular, promises to contribute to the analysis of variance in M&A performance. 2013/11/25 - 20:43
  • The article looks at the differences between “digital natives” and “digital immigrants.” Digital natives are the new generation of young people born into the digital age, while “digital immigrants” are those who learnt to use computers at some stage during their adult life. Whereas digital natives are assumed to be inherently technologysavvy, digital immigrants are usually assumed to have some difficulty with information technology. The paper suggests that there is a continuum rather than a rigid dichotomy between digital natives and digital immigrants, and this continuum is best conceptualized as digital fluency. Digital fluency is the ability to reformulate knowledge and produce information to express oneself creatively and appropriately in a digital environment. The authors propose a tentative conceptual model of digital fluency that outlines factors that have a direct and indirect impact on digital fluency namely, demographic characteristics, organizational factors, psychological factors, social influence, opportunity, behavioral intention and actual use of digital technologies. 2013/11/25 - 20:43
  • In recent studies on recommendation systems, the choice-based conjoint analysis has been suggested as a method for measuring consumer preferences. This approach achieves high recommendation accuracy and does not suffer from the start-up problem because it is also applicable for recommendations for new consumers or of new products. However, this method requires massive consumer input, which causes consumer reluctance. In a simulation study, we demonstrate the high accuracy, but also the high user’s effort for using a utility-based recommendation system using a choice-based conjoint analysiswith hierarchical Bayes estimation. In order to reduce the conflict between consumer effort and recommendation accuracy, we develop a novel approach that only shows Paretoefficient alternatives and ranks them according to the number of dominated attributes. We demonstrate that, in terms of the decision accuracy of the recommended products, the ranked Pareto-front approach performs better than a recommendation system that employs choice-based conjoint analysis. Furthermore, the consumer’s effort is kept low and comparable to that of simple systems that require little consumer input. 2013/11/25 - 20:43
  • Despite increasing acceptance of digital channels, total sales in the music business decreased by 31 % from 2004 to 2010. Music piracy is still considered one of the main causes for this. However, several studies found no effects or even positive effects of illegal downloading on record sales. In the past, piracy has been counteracted especially by prosecution and legal offers. Music as a Service (MaaS) represents a new, differing distribution approach in digital music. In contrast to the wellknown music platforms for so-called àla- carte downloads, such as the iTunes Store, MaaS possesses two important characteristics: transmission (streaming instead of downloading) and pricing model (flat rate instead of pay-perdownload). Therefore, the consumption of music by means of purchasing and downloading is replaced by a monthly payment service (paid MaaS) and an ad-supported (free MaaS) service. First user surveys suggest that many music pirates are making use of these offers. To find out if MaaS is an attractive distribution channel for music pirates, we developed a model to explain the intention to use MaaS based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. To empirically test this model, we surveyed 132 music pirates. Among others, the outcome shows that the intention to use free MaaS is mainly affected by the attitude towardsMaaS, while using paid MaaS is predominantly a result of the influence of users’ closest peers. The attitude towards MaaS is positively influenced by the desire to receive music recommendations, the payment type (in the form of a flat rate model), and the relative advantage of MaaS compared to illegal choices. 2013/11/25 - 20:43
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  • Agile systems development (SD) is described as a cooperative game of invention and communication, in which teams are characterized by relying heavily on informal communication mechanisms such as face-to-face conversations. Our current state of knowledge about the actual communication process in agile SD projects is fragmented because of the lack of an integrative lens across different studies. On the basis of the Unified Model of SD Success, we provide an integrated view on the role of communication in agile SD by conducting a structured, systematic literature review. Our data collection process resulted in 333 relevant papers on agile SD and communication. We find that despite its acknowledged importance, our knowledge on communication and agile SD is limited and research is scattered, inconclusive, as well as contradictory. In consequence, we present several research gaps that deserve future research attention. Specifically, we call for research that opens up the communication process and empirically validates the implications for communication frequency and quality triggered by agile SD. 2013/09/21 - 11:33
  • 2013/09/21 - 11:33
  • 2013/09/21 - 11:33
  • Real Options Theory is often applied to the valuation of IT investments. The application of Real Options Theory is generally accompanied by a monetary valuation of real options through option pricing models which in turn are based on restrictive assumptions and thus subject to criticism. Therefore, this paper analyzes the application of option pricing models to the valuation of IT investments. A structured literature review reveals the types of IT investments which are valued with Real Options Theory in scientific literature. These types of IT investments are further investigated and their main characteristics are compared to the restrictive assumptions of traditional option pricing models. This analysis serves as a basis for further discussion on how the identified papers address these assumptions. The results show that a lot of papers do not account for critical assumptions, although it is known that the assumptions are not fulfilled. Moreover, the type of IT investment determines the criticality of the assumptions. Additionally, several extensions or adaptions of traditional option pricing models can be found which provide the possibility to relax critical assumptions. Researchers can profit from the results derived in this paper in two ways: First, it is demonstrated which assumptions can be critical for various types of IT investments. Second, extensions of option pricing models that relax critical assumptions are introduced. 2013/09/21 - 11:33
  • 2013/09/21 - 11:33