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Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Jassy, CONSTRUCTIONS. ARCHITECTURE

Sunlight admitted into a building impacts on the building energy consumption in different ways in different seasons. In summer, excessive solar heat gain results in greater energy consumption due to the increased cooling load requirement. In winter, sunlight reaching the south-facing façade can provide passive solar heating. In all seasons of the year the sun improves daylight quality. Well-designed shading devices can significantly reduce the building peak cooling load and corresponding energy consumption and enhance daylight utilization in buildings. Studies of the impact of shading on annual energy use have demonstrated that shading devices reduce the cooling demand in buildings. Shading has been always recommended for solar control and reduction of heat gain in buildings. There are both interior and exterior shade options which can be used to protect windows not otherwise shaded from the sun. In general it is best to block the sun before it reaches the window. The variety of shading strategies shown in this paper is effective at accomplishing that goal. 2014/09/21 - 19:17

Expansive/active soils that consist of reactive minerals (which present unstable networks and thus tend to modify their volume by water adsorption and cationic exchange) raise a major challenge to geotechnical engineers being also considered geological hazards. Studying the potential volume changes of a soil becomes compulsory (because of the degradations that might appear following heaving and settlement) at the outset of future construction projects, especially the low weighted ones and positioned close to the surface and thus subjected to a greater extent of water content variations. This study investigates the swelling and compressible behavior of undisturbed samples of Bahlui clay using a direct method. Indirect methods of estimating the swelling potential are considered as well. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

Reinforced concrete frame structures are a wide spread structural system all around the world. Considered to be flexible structures, they are strongly recommended in areas with height seismicity. The main principle is to create weak breams and strong column, in order that the failure mechanism to be beams and then columns. Severe problems appear due to the supplementary stiffness the non-structural elements bring. Among them is the infill masonry that can be made of several materials and can influence the overall behavior of the structure. The present paper presents the influence of the infill material on the overall behavior of the structure. Numerical simulation in two different computer software is performed. The authors present also a solution to make the infill material to work in the same way as the structural system. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

The thermal protection level for dwellings has constantly increased during recent decades. Therefore, in areas with very low outside temperature during the cold season, very thick thermal insulations are required. When expanded polystyrene (EPS) is used for the thermal protection of the external walls made from clay bricks or from autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry, the issue that arises is how this layer influences the mass transfer through the envelope element.
The paper presents the evaluation of the global insulation coefficient of a low rise building whose external walls are protected with 15 cm of EPS. The analysis is performed for two different technical solutions for the walls, namely, hollow clay brick (HCB) and AAC masonry. The paper also assesses the EPS layer influence on the mass transfer through the external wall, considered in the same two different technical solutions.
Finally, some conclusions are drawn with regard to both the advantages and disadvantages of thermal protection with EPS and the influence of the heat losses through the external walls in the building thermal balance. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

This paper presents the particularities of Romania’s seismicity, with emphasis especially on the North-Eastern part of the country. Firstly, an introduction into the Romania’s seismicity is made. Then, the recurrence interval relations with values specific for Vrancea region are presented, together with a seismic hazard analysis for Iaşi region. In this respect, information regarding the seismic scenarios for Iaşi region based, on the deterministic approach and on the probabilistic one, is presented. Also, an overview on the seismic vulnerability evaluation is presented. Considering that the hazard maps are based on MMI values, while the seismic codes – on PGA values, a correlation between these two was computed for Iaşi region. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

This paper presents an overview of the resilience concepts, being focused on the seismic resilience linked to the North-Eastern region of Romania. This research theme is studied in varied and distinct disciplines, and in the engineering field is one of the most important issues because seismic resilience must be achieved in order to have a safety built environment.
Earthquakes produced in the Vrancea region affect a large part of Romania, but few studies have particularized the general framework of Vrancea earthquakes’ effect on the Iaşi county, Iaşi municipality within N-E Romania context. In this manner, this paper analyses the situation of the Iaşi County related to the resilience against natural disaster, like earthquakes, and the actual state of the road network. For a right analysis, it is important to understand the resilience definitions, the way of quantifying it, the possible natural hazards that could affect the area and to identify the critical components in case of emergency situations. Using the resilience aspects is possible to improve the way engineers, planners and stakeholders design and evaluate the built environment.
The idea of building resilience to natural hazards, such as earthquakes, or man-made disasters is now a dominant research theme. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

Optimization of floor girders is a complex nonlinear problem for which a simple computational procedure has been suggested. The Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG). Nonlinear algorithm available in Excel Solver were utilized to optimize the design of plate girder for minimum weight and maximum allowable distance between secondary beams, given the span and grade of the material of the girder. Optimizing a girder for bending moment is achieved by moving material away from the neutral axis of the beam, in other words, by making the web more slender. When lateral supports are used to prevent from lateral torsional buckling, all the forms of the compressed flange instability will become the critical failure mechanism. Due to high slenderness values, the deflection of the beam is not a gouverning condition. In this paper, the maximum spacing between lateral supports against lateral-torsional buckling were maximized meanwhile respecting the provisions of the norm SR EN 1993-1-1. Results of the numerical computations considering various lengths of beams and girders are presented herein. Girders are considered to be efficiently designed with respect of the presented technique of optimization. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

For a certain sewerage system the designed operation parameters of the pumping station serving the wastewater treatment plant couldn’t be achieved. The problems reported by the personnel have leaded the Technical University of Civil Engineering, Bucharest, research team to multiple possible causes. One of this is related to the flow conditions ensured by the sewerage, a very complex hydraulic system, conceived and built long before the pump-treatment ensemble.
The paper presents the mathematical modeling efforts made by the authors to answer to the questions regarding the water level influence on the malfunction of the pumping station. Based on the developed model which analyses the entire system as a whole, several conclusions were driven for improving the operation capacity of the pumping station. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

The experts of the pervasive systems do say that these systems will be developed in two steps: a first step comprising of relatively small applications and a second step comprising in the engineering of a complex system. This paper can be included in the research work related to the first step. The proposed idea is intending to allow for the aged people to remain a longer time in their own homes, having meanwhile the benefits of proper assistance. The proposed method has been engineered in order to ensure the aged peoples’ intimacy, by replacing the human surveillance by continuous sensor based surveillance. Whenever there is an accident or an unusual event or activity in the monitored home, the system will transmit alerts directly to the set mobile phones.
The result generated by the research work that lays at the basis of the present paper is the realization of a pervasive system in order to monitor the home of one or more aged people and to transmit alerts to mobile phones when an unusual behavior is detected.
Although this pervasive system supposes the use of a lot of sensors, its advantages for the aged people do recommend its use. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

In a laboratory facility with small orifices (d = 1.15...2.55 mm) there was found a maximum value for the flow coefficient (µ = 0.7) and the Re numbers which were obtained were determined by varying the viscosity of the liquid used, at which these values are reached: Re = 1,200 for alcohol, Re = = 3,700 for water. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

In this paper some aspects concerning the design and the constructive solution for the steel and steel-concrete composite footbridge structures are presented. In the design of the footbridge structure besides the ULS and the SLS verifications, also the comfort criterion has to be verified which is in direct correlation with the structure frequency and acceleration. If the frequencies and accelerations of the structure are situated in the critical domains some measures to modify them have to be taken. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

Many aquatic ecosystems have become more eutrophic at the present. In this context, several models have been already developed for simulate the behavior of eutrophic ecosystems which involve hydrodynamics, food chain and nutrient cycles. Most of the reservoirs have a complex use allowing the flood attenuation, generation of hydroelectricity, household and industrial water supply, and irrigation. Stratification and water movement in those reservoirs is affected by variability in heat fluxes through the lake surface, in addition to chemical and biological processes. The resulting internal hydrodynamics is important in understanding the lake’s physical, chemical, and biological structure.
This paper presents a hydrodynamic model which reproduces water movement in lakes caused by solar radiation and wind kinetic energy. Also, the lake stratification and thermocline variation (temperature gradient and depth) will be studied, correlated with exploitation conditions. The model was calibrated with data from 2008...2011 in the Goleşti Lake, which has a 55 million m³ volume and a maximum depth of 32 m. The developed model is a global one, based on regional climatology and lake morphology. Another aspect of this study is to identify the benefits of durable exploitation of lake on diminishing eutrophication phenomenon which is currently affecting Goleşti Lake. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

In this paper the progressive collapse behavior of a reinforced concrete framed building located in different seismic areas from Romania is investigated. The six-storey structure is designed for low (ag = 0.08 g), moderate (ag = 0.16 g) and high (ag = 0.24 g) seismic zone. Based on the GSA (2003) criteria, a nonlinear static analysis is conducted first in order to estimate the progressive collapse resistance of the models. It was shown that all the structures will collapse when subjected to interior column removal. A nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed to validate these results; it was demonstrated that the capacity curves obtained with the nonlinear static procedure fail to predict the progressive collapse resistance of the analysed models because the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of 2.0 recommended by the GSA (2003) Guidelines seems to be overestimated. A nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis is carried out in order to estimate with maximum accuracy the ultimate load bearing capacity to progressive collapse of the structures under investigation. The variation of DIF with respect to the level of loading is determined. The influence of the seismic design on the progressive collapse resistance of the analysed models is quantified as well. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

Insulating the exterior walls subsequently is one of the most important tasks at energy efficient modernization of old buildings. Depending on their material and structural design, the new layers can increase or decrease the sound reduction ability of the original supporting wall. If due attention is given for the protection against noise during the design, the plastered rock wool (RW) slab façade thermal insulation systems can result better sound insulation performance for the exterior walls in some cases, so they can increase the acoustic comfort in the rooms of buildings exposed to exterior ambient noise (coming usually from road transport). On the basis of the relevant features of the components of the complete outer wall, with the available detailed calculation method, the paper defines how the weighted sound reduction index of the original supporting wall can change, considered also the spectrum adaptation term suitable for road traffic noise. With help of praxis oriented characteristic structural parameters, it examines the options of the acoustic optimization, and the values of Δ(Rw + Ctr,50...5,000) which are available during energy and noise conscious construct.
The first section describes the acoustic model, the calculation method, and the modifying effect under standard conditions. The second part will analyse the acoustic role of each ingredient, and the changes of the sound reduction at characteristic structural solutions.
All formulas presented in this paper were developed by L. Weber in a semiempirical model based on a large number of measurements in building acoustic laboratories (Weber, 2013). The eqs. adopted in the paper lean on this source, however, modify the original relations somewhat. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

The research results presented in this paper was developed in the wind tunnel of the Laboratory of Buildings Aerodynamics of the Civil Engineering and Building Services Faculty from Iaşi and concerns the effects of wind on the snow layer that is deposited on a very large domed roof covering an architectural complex which is situated in an urban complex in Iaşi.
The irregular in plane shape and the small curvature of this roof are reasons for believing that snow will gather in large and heavy deposits but also make the evaluation of the wind and snow loading a very difficult task because of the lack of sufficient design data in the current codes for practice for such a particular case. In cases like theses testing in atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel of the modelled building at reduced scale gives important information.
The model is realized at the reduced scale of 1:400, the wind local pressures on the roof were determined with the miniature pressure transducer ZOC 17 and analysed in parallel with numerical simulations with ANSYS CFX. The simulation of snow transportation uses the erosion technique and the material that replaces the snow consists in glass beads of 200...400 mm.
The results of the study are encouraging because the analysed parameters offer sufficient accuracy of the modelled phenomenon and it may become a handy tool for both research and a safe structural design. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

Ductile structural elements present an important plastic deformation capacity, unlike brittle elements that should be avoided at all times. The plastic deformations occur usually in certain limited areas in a structure, known as plastic joints.
The nonlinear modelling of the composite material know as steel reinforced concrete represents one of this study`s main objectives. Nonlinear modelling solutions for steel as well as for concrete are presented in the second section.
The implied comparisons in the first stage of the study suggest the effect of introducing the steel reinforcements in the analysis (Fig. 1 b).
In the second case study an advanced analysis (time integration) is used, from which one can follow the loads in the concrete as well as in the steel for an accelerogram scaled for the Constanţa area.
In the third case study the degradation of the concrete and flowing of the steel reinforcements, if that is the case, by reaching the maximum load bearing is underlined.
Evidently, the subjects of the case study are the plastic areas at the end of the beams and bottom of the pillars marked in Fig. 1 a.
Besides the comparative analysis through the diversity of the accepted calculation methods, this paper proposes to determine the state of strain in the concrete as well as in the steel reinforcements, analysing the co-operation between these two materials. In this respect, different finite elements shall be used for the concrete, compressed steel, and stretched steel, considering the co-operation between them. 2014/07/23 - 07:16

One of the approaches to reduce excessive oscillation on buildings due to dynamic forces is represented by installing a passive mechanical device called tuned mass damper (TMD). This paper presents a study on the effectiveness of TMD in reducing the response of structures that are subjected to seismic excitation. The earthquake accelerograms of El Centro’40 and Kobe’95 are considered, and a two-dimensional linear-elastic model with TMD on the top is used in performing dynamic analysis. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

Studies concerned with evaluation and rehabilitation of historical masonry structures consider structural analysis in order to better understand the seismic behaviour of these buildings, to define the causes for present damage and to asses the safety level for a large variety of actions. Structural analysis such as linear, plastic or nonlinear analysis contributes to all the stages and activites related to the evaluation and rehabilitation process. This paper follows a description of the modelling methods of masonry structures taking into consideration different modelling strategies in correlation with the complexity of the analysed elements and the expected type of results. Advantages and disavantages of different modelling techniques and the applicability of these methods in the field of old masonry structures assessment are presented. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

In the current context, where the climate changes effects are developing continuously, with a permanent intensification, the energy efficiency of buildings became a starting point in current building design. The energy efficiency of a building is directly influenced by the thermal performances of the envelope. Therefore, desingning of envelope elements whose global thermal resistance exceed the required minimum values, is a mandatory measure. Increasing thermal performances of enclosure mansonry walls; it can be made by thermal insulating or by using masonry blocks with low thermal conductivity. In this category of building materials it can be found also autoclaved aerated concrete blocks.
The paper presents some experimental determination of thermal conductivity for AAC blocks manufactured in our country. The measurements ware made in the Laboratory of Building Physics within Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services from Iaşi. Furthermore, the equivalent thermal conductivity of an AAC masonry was determined by using an FEM software and mathematical calculus. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

A laminated fibre reinforced composite structure is usually tailored, according to the design objectives, by choosing the individual constituents and of their volume fractions, the fiber orientation, the laminae thicknesses and orientation of the plies, their number and stacking sequences, as well as the fabrication procedure. To achieve the best results, optimization techniques have been developed. In recent years, some optimization methods, that are conceptually different from the traditional mathematical programming techniques, have been developed. These methods are labeled as modern or nontraditional methods of optimization. This paper provides a review of modern optimization methods, used for the design of composite structures: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Simulated Annealing Method (SAM), Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The existing published studies emphasize the suitability of these methods, which allows that many design parameters and constraints to be used in the optimization process of composite structures. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) composite plate components fabricated by pultrusion are increasingly being used in civil infrastructure applications.
Structural members made of GFRP composites are often constructed from plate like pultruded shapes. Verification of serviceability limit states requires good knowledge of stiffness properties, in particular along the principal axes of the material. The paper analyses the main stiffness characteristics, the available analytical formulas to evaluate them and experimental verification of the calculated values for a plate composite product fabricated by pultrusion. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

The shear properties of pultruded composite plates are especially needed for the structural design of composite load bearing elements when one considers the shear capacity, the local buckling of plate type elements and some types of joints.
The paper presents experimental results obtained on Iosipescu type samples cut from glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) composite strips fabricated by pultrusion.
It has been found out that the pultrusion process leads to composite products with uniform and controllable properties, and the fibre orientation is decisive in establishing the shear structural response. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

The experimental results obtained from testing three series of specimens consisting of bolted and hybrid single lap joints with two and four steel bolts are presented in this paper. Adherents are manufactured from glass fibre reinforced polyesters (GFRP) having 48 mm, respectively 100 mm width, and 6 mm thickness. By means of this experimental program the failure modes, ultimate strengths and displacements have been evaluated. In the case of joints with bolts tightened by hand, the best results have been obtained for specimens with four diameters edge distance. For specimens with 10 N.m and 20 N.m tightening torque applied to bolts, the values of the ultimate strengths are 16%...31% higher than those tightened by hand. The values of the hybrid connections (bolted/adhesively bonded) have registered an increase of the ultimate strengths of 5%...17% and a reduction of the ultimate displacements of 24%...60% in comparison with bolted joints. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

Available unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite products have a large spectrum of properties, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the constituents and on their proportions. Mechanical properties of FRP composites can be determined experimentally but this manner may become cost prohibitive because of the large number of necessary specimens. Moreover, strength properties should be predicted during the design phase of a FRP product, in order to fulfill the requierments of its end use and to reduce the production costs. One way to calculate these properties is by using micromechanics theory. This paper presents the available micromechanical approaches utilized to determine the strength properties of unidirectional FRP composites in terms of tensile, compressive and shear loads for both longitudinal and transverse direction. The failure mechanisms for each type of loading is presented together with the triggered formulas. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

The flexural behavior of hybrid systems made of wood and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite strips subjected to bending is analysed in this paper. The analysis is completed with an optimization study, based on the percentage of CFRP reinforcement and the strength classes of wood, relating to the hybrid beams.
The results obtained from the analytical study are compared to those determined from numerical modelling, revealing the efficiency of the discussed reinforcing solutions based on CFRP strips.
Finally, the authors highlight the importance of using these hybrid systems to achieve lightweight structures with convenient properties that meet the design requirements imposed by using large spans and resisting additional loads. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

The modern world building scene tends to depend more and more on the economical climate as well as the geographical climate itself, as none of the major players in the construction game can afford to ignore current conditions and dismiss logical solutions that can drastically cut the impact on the environment as well as the exploitation costs. The present paper will provide the information needed to understand the bioclimatic architecture concept, as well as describe a few examples of such approaches noted by modern architecture and inspired by vernacular manifestations that occur in different parts of the world. Different by shape but practically identical in the way they function, these buildings help us to understand the logic and wisdom of the place they were born in. If nothing more, alternatives must be taken into consideration by the power of example, as the erratic and mostly intrusive conventional building rhythm cannot be the one we guide our future by. Taking care of the environment and listening to what it has to say will eventually result in the environment taking care of you and providing a comfortable sustainable and energy efficient living environment. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

The compression modulus of elastomers used in seismic base isolation depends on the dimensions and the composition of those materials.
The paper presents experimental results on the behaviour under compression of four types of elastomers: CR (chloroprene/neoprene rubber) with 64 Shore A hardness; NR (natural rubber) with 65 Shore A hardness; NR/BR (natural rubber/butadiene rubber) with 63 Shore A hardness; NR/BR/SBR+PA/PE Fibres (natural rubber/butadiene rubber/styrene butadiene rubber and polyamide/polyethylene fibres) with 65 Shore A hardness. Elastomeric specimens with a diameter of 28.5 mm and thickness of 13 mm and specimens with a diameter of 28.5 mm and thickness of 13 mm were tested.
The compression test was carried out in four situations: in the first case the elastomeric specimens were bonded with epoxy adhesive to metal plates, in the second case the elastomeric specimens were fixed without adhesive on two metal plates, in the third case the specimens have not been provided with plates and in the fourth case a thin layer of lubricant was applied between the elastomeric layer and the test machine plates. The compression modulus of elastomeric specimens was determinated according to SR EN 1337-2006. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

This paper summarizes some of the result of an eight yearlong continuous measurements and study of atmospheric pollutants and meteorological data for Bucharest, with focus on ozone concentration. Higher ozone levels were recorded outside the city and lower towards the city center. Weekday – weekend studies were conducted, to find concentration variations differences along a week, with no major differences. Meteorological data were recorded in order to study the association of pollutants with meteorological parameters, mainly temperature. Temperature correlation analysis was conducted to understand the variation of ozone concentration along with temperature variation. Ozone concentrations recorded outside Bucharest indicate a decrease tendency for the last four years, with no exposure limit exceeding. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

In this paper, the concrete underneath the base plate together with the base plate is referred to as “component concrete in compression and base plate in bending” or in short “concrete in compression”. The strength of the concrete in compression depends on the concrete base material, the behaviour of the grout layer and the complex phenomena in the contact area between the base plate and the concrete. Models are presented for the determination of the resistance of this component. The models have been validated with tests. In this paper a brief description of literature reviewed is presented along with their various assumptions adopted during modeling. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

In this paper a method of using neural networks for improving the computing method by increasing the accuracy in design of the reinforced concrete slabs from airport infrastructure is presented. The obtained results after the models developed with the method of finite element were used in order to create a neural networks simulating the function HR=f (He , css , K,adm), for dual type of landing gear, for each loading, reaction modulus considered, to design the reinforced layer for existing cement concrete slabs. The use of neural networks for the interpolations of functions to dimension the slabs proved an increase of result accuracy compared to the reading of nomograms, previously carried out, as well as the possibility of computing the variable concrete slab thickness, other than the one considered for the nomograms. 2014/07/14 - 12:17

The sound field perceived within an enclosure is very different from that in an open space, due to the existence of two overlapping fields, direct and reverberant, which cause an increasing of the sound intensity level. A good understanding of the audition rooms design prescriptions and the purpose for which these were designed lead to a proper acoustic comfort in the interior space of the hall. Each audition hall is conceived with a specific purpose, for a certain type of activity. Thus, every room intended for music or speech performances should be treated differently from an acoustical standpoint. Although cinema and chamber music halls are designed for different values of the acoustical parameters, both must ensure sound clarity and quality according to the current design standards requirements. This paper investigates the possibility of using a cinema as a chamber music hall without compromising its acoustical properties. Thus, reverberation time values were determined in order to give a practical solution to this extent. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

The combination of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) and conventional construction methods (the use of Normal Concrete – NC) results in columns with a high load capacity. Compared with columns made only of UHPC or High Performance Concrete (HPC), they provide a better ductility and superior fire resistance because the external layer of NC reduces the penetration of heat in the core made of UHPC. From the total of 16 columns which were tested in the experimental program, 12 columns had a compound and 4 columns had a simple cross section. An analogy is made between the results of the experimental test and the results achieved with the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software TNO “Diana”. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

Due to the fact that time is wasted in the process of stirrups assembling in a concrete beam, urge the researchers to find an alternative method. The most effective solution is eliminating the stirrups by using the dispersed reinforcement. By increasing the concrete strength lightly elements can be obtained. Combining these aspects new structural solutions can be achieved, easily and rapidly. In a modern building, the utility ducts can reduce the free building height with the reason that they need to be hidden. An economical solution is to be placed through the beams. The elements needs to have web-openings and this can cause several problems to the production of the beam. By replacing conventional shear reinforcement with fibres, a sufficient reinforcement can be achieved also for the web-openings. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

Like all activities covered by the law, the procurement process requires the existence of appropriate controls at all stages of its development. Control is performed by bodies authorized by law and in whose sphere of activity lies their responsibility.
In this paper we will present schematically the stages of public procurement as well as the sequence of activities within these phases provided by the legislation in force governing public procurement, namely G.E.O no.34/2006, as amended by Government Emergency Ordinance 77/2012.
We will also investigate the remedies provided by the regulations in force, which will be used by those who have a legitimate interest in a public contract.
Also, we will analyse the functioning efficiency of some solution operations of bodies responsible for remedies in the procurement process, taking into account the time, but also how these complaints have been resolved in recent years. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

The paper presents the calculus of structural masonry walls with average openings to horizontal loads using the equivalent frame method. The equivalent frame has a number of levels equal to the number of floors of the building, the number of columns equal to the number of piers and connecting beams with constant sections. The geometrical characteristics of the equivalent frame are established from the condition of equality between the wall and frame stiffness when they are subjected to horizontal loads. The efforts from the equivalent frame elements are equal to those in the wall members. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that computer software for developing orthogonal frames analysis are used for the statical calculus of the equivalent frame. In the case of 2-D analyis, where every wall is taken individually to simplify the calculus, columns can be chosen as square cross section, while for 3-D analysis the cross section areas of the columns will be rectangular established from the condition of equal stiffness along both building directions. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

The paper presents a design example for the computation of wind forces on lattice towers using a software application designed and implemented by the author. The purpose of the software is to evaluate wind loads on typical structures such as: multistory buildings, industrial buildings and steel lattice towers based on the Romanian wind code CR 1-1-4/2012. The field of application of CR 1-1-4 is limited to buildings and structures with a height less than 200 m and bridges with a length up to 200 m and does not consider lattice towers with non-parallel legs. For such structures, the code states that reference should be made to SR EN 1993-3-1, the software application making use of the therein procedure to evaluate force coefficients for lattice towers. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

This study, presented in two parts, aims to analyse the influence of soil type during earthquake upon piled raft foundations (piles with large diameter - columns) of a high civil building. The analysis is performed on two types of earths indigenous to the area of Iaşi city, Romania. The design takes into consideration a foundation system with friction piles (with lateral friction) placed on a homogeneous soil. The research consists of an infrastructure modelling, highlighting the translation modes and foundation system displacement. The entire structural system is made of reinforced concrete devised at superstructure with frames (columns, beams, plates) and structural walls. The foundation mediums taken into consideration are earths sensitive to moisture and earths with swellings and large contractions. The purpose of this research is to obtain a system that supports loads from the normal service of the building and from seismic forces without any major settlements of any kind. This should be possible by adaptation to the environment of foundation soil and by providing safety against quakes. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

This paper investigates the reliability, durability, and maintainability for heating systems. More precisely, we are talking about sure functioning and security for heating systems. The heating systems are very different with specific problems and with many equipments. The warranty of reliability raises the durability of equipments. The information about reliability require observation and notification to the process. The results about reliability research are post-factum, but can have an important part in determining the real reliability for a product or a process. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

The concept of robustness is relatively new and has emerged as a result of reaching the collapse of some buildings in accidental or exceptional circumstances, collapse incompatible with the initial degradation that represented "ground zero" of the axis of collapse production. Eurocode 1 defines robustness as "the ability of a structure (or portion of the structure) to withstand extreme events (such as fire, explosion, impact or consequences of errors due to human nature) without suffering degradation disproportionate the original cause".
Robust design of a structure should not be seen as an oversizing of all elements, but as an additional sizing of elements to make a structure to have a satisfactory reaction to the emergence of exceptional actions.
This paper presents methods and models to assess the robustness of a wooden building, analysing risk of accidental actions and measures that can ensure structural robustness. 2014/03/21 - 06:32

Modern houses built on the waterfront are interesting examples of how architecture combines constructive and spatial evolution that occurs in the first decades of the twentieth century with the search for a new regionalism, showing special attention to the site and to local building tradition. Different architects choose to give their personal response to the house on the waterfront, from the pioneers of modernism as Le Corbusier or Giuseppe Terragni to generations linked to the modern revision that occurs with the last International Congresses of Modern Architecture. Within these authors, we analyse the work of Portuguese Fernando Tavora and Spanish Xosé Bar Boo, who raised the theme of the house on the waterfront from their early academic projects to develop it later in his professional career. They have become modern conquerors of natural and symbolic boundaries through architecture, making their buildings and the relationship with the place, the root of a new regionalism. 2014/03/21 - 06:32