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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management

Climate change has introduced major uncertainties into the planning and practice of forestry. We recommend seven broad actions that would help to make our forests more climate resilience: avoiding entrapment, emphasizing the future, adopting a policy of no regrets, seeking the right species at the right place, encouraging connectivity, nurturing acceptance and adaptation, and reducing carbon emissions. Some actions are specific to British Columbia; all actions attempt to address the major sources of uncertainty

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/132 2012/08/18 - 20:44

This article outlines British Columbia's forest resource management system and legislative framework in relation to non-timber forest product (NTFP) management. It provides an overview of what NTFPs are and discusses the history related to their use as well as associated rights and regulations. It outlines the BC context in terms of land ownership, the resource management system, management objectives, socio-economic factors, and current trends. The article also describes decision-making as well as planning processes and legal requirements for forest managers, identifies the values forest managers must manage for, and assesses the implications for NTFPs. Finally, the article provides a summary of the current status of management for NTFPs. Opportunities to improve the socio-economic benefits associated with NTFPs are identified and recommendations for future actions are provided.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/165 2012/08/06 - 22:18

Public participation is widely recognized as a critical aspect of natural resource management (NRM), and is a regulatory requirement for a variety of environmental and NRM processes. Research and experience from natural resource management worldwide have proven that public participation leads to better decisions, - by providing local or independent sources of information and by examining alternative management strategies and builds trust. It also reduces uncertainties, delays, conflicts, and legal costs. This article seeks to provide an understanding of basic concepts and best practices of public participation, familiarity with different tools that can be used for effective public participation, and an awareness of which tools are appropriate under different circumstances. It is aimed to address the needs of resource managers who work with communities and First Nations, and whose job requires them to engage the public in resource planning and management. Many practitioners “do” participation every day, but many do not have the opportunity to reflect on their practice or to contemplate ways to do it better. The article offers this opportunity, and provides practitioners with useful knowledge and tools that could help them engage communities and the public to make sound management decisions.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/124 2012/08/02 - 08:44

This discussion paper builds on the synthesis component of the Future Forest Ecosystem Scientific Council (FFESC) project and discusses how current and projected changes in natural disturbance are being linked with existing decision frameworks within government and forest companies in British Columbia. Based on information gathered through an online survey, face-to-face discussion sessions, and a review of the literature, a proposed decision support framework is discussed. This framework is presented in the form of a mental model to provide strategic guidance on one possible way to integrate information related to projected changes in natural disturbance for on-the-ground actions and decisions.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/185 2012/04/13 - 21:42

It is predicted that climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of natural disturbances and weather related natural disasters. Rural forest-based communities are especially vulnerable to changes in natural disturbance regimes influenced by climate change because their economic, social, and cultural aspects of life are closely linked to the local environment and climate. In this article, we discuss the impacts of wildfires on communities as an example of how natural disturbances impact humans. The impacts to humans of wildfire is indicative of the type of effects that other natural disturbances such as widespread insect infestation, landslides, floods, drought, storms, avalanches, permafrost melt, forest diseases, erosion, and gradual ecosystem change can have on communities. First Nations communities may be significantly and uniquely impacted by natural disturbances and climate change due to their remote location, strong connection, and heavy reliance on the environment for subsistence and in preserving their culture and their unique and often vulnerable economic situation. We describe the uncertainty of predicting the frequency and intensity of natural disturbances in a particular location. We suggest that the most effective management response to address this uncertainty is to focus on reducing vulnerability and increasing community resilience. Finally, we list some of the management strategies and tools that communities and those that work with them have been using in British Columbia and elsewhere to increase community resilience to natural disturbances and climate change. 

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/168 2012/04/06 - 08:32

This extension note summarizes the key findings of the chapter entitled "A synthesis of the effects of natural disturbance and post-disturbance management on streamflow, stream temperature, suspended sediment, and aquatic invertebrate populations" of FORREX Series 28, which is an overview of the available research on the effects of climate change, natural disturbance (focused on wildfire and insect infestation), and post-disturbance management actions (primarily clearcut salvage harvesting) on key watershed processes and values. The scope of the synthesis was limited to the magnitude and timing of streamflow, stream temperature, suspended sediment, and aquatic invertebrate population dynamics. In general, the effects on hydrologic processes and watershed functions are greater following post-disturbance activities; climate change is anticipated to further negatively compound these natural disturbances. To maintain the resilience of watersheds(that is, the ability of natural systems to recover from perturbation), management activities should be designed to maintain natural hydrologic and ecosystem function wherever possible. Key considerations to maintain resilience include: planning management activities at the site, watershed and landscape scales, maximizing riparian overstory retention within 10 metres of streams, minimizing the introduction of fine sediments into surface water bodies, and monitoring the effects of disturbances and management interventions to support adaptive management. Using the best available information, along with advice from qualified watershed professionals, is key to ensuring effective management.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/172 2012/03/30 - 23:54

Biodiversity is a key component of forested ecosystems. It should be preserved not only for its own sake, but because biodiverse ecosystems are resilient and better able to respond to changing conditions. This extension note is a condensed version of a full synthesis paper and provides some background on how biodiversity can be managed and enhanced in the wake of natural and man-made disturbances.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/184 2012/03/30 - 23:54

One of the current climate change mitigation strategies is the management of forested ecosystems to ensure that they remain a sink for carbon now and into the future.  With British Columbia’s climate expected to continue to warm into the future, our forests will also change in response.  If a choice is made to manage for carbon as one of the many landscape objectives, forest managers will need to know how best to do so given the likely changes in natural disturbance regimes that may accompany the changing climate.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/169 2012/03/30 - 23:54

Natural and human-induced disturbance such as wildfire, insect and disease outbreak, windthrow, and forest harvesting are important drivers for forest renewal, post-disturbance stand structure, and ecosystem function. Each disturbance or combination of disturbances sets up a forest to proceed down a certain successional pathway in terms of structure and function. Using the context of Ecoprovinces and Ecosystem Types, successional pathways of a variety of ecosystems found in British Columbia are briefly described,and the ways in which forest management practices have affected those pathways are discussed. This Extension Note also describes how projected changes in temperature and precipitation may also affect these natural disturbance drivers. The information contained in this article is based on a larger synthesis report that is available in FORREX Series 28 and is designed to facilitate further conversation around building resistant and resilient forests for the future.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/171 2012/03/30 - 23:54

Projections for forest disturbance and damage under a changing climate in British Columbia are summarized, with the objective of collating regionally specific expectations so that land managers can take pro-active steps to avoid or adapt to the changes expected.  While some projections are based on extrapolations of recent multi-decadal trends, most are based on global climate models (GCMs) that must make assumptions about the range of CO2 emissions and the status of atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions over the next century. Regardless of emission scenarios, it is universally expected that British Columbia will experience warmer air temperatures, coupled with more precipitation in some regions and less in others. Forest fires are expected to be more frequent and more intense in the southern half of the province and in the Taiga Plains, but less important in other portions of the province.  Forest insects and fungal pathogens are expected to more fully occupy the current range of their host tree species and expand ranges northward and to higher elevations along with their hosts.  More frequent and detrimental pest outbreaks are expected in some regions when several years of favourable weather align.  Wind damage, floods, and landslides can be expected to increase on terrain where they are already a risk factor.  For many agents of tree mortality, expected changes in disturbance regime amount to an expansion or shifting of the seasonal window of activity, sometimes with different trends projected for different seasons and different regions of the province.  The prediction of future forest disturbance regimes is in its infancy, requiring a much more concerted effort in compiling both empirical and simulated data, but managers may wish to adjust plans accordingly where there is largely a consensus among current and projected trends.  

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/152 2012/03/29 - 11:47

Projections for forest disturbance and damage under a changing climate in British Columbia are summarized, with the objective of collating regionally specific expectations so that land managers can take pro-active steps to avoid or adapt to the changes expected.  While some projections are based on extrapolations of recent multi-decadal trends, most are based on global climate models (GCMs) that must make assumptions about the range of CO2 emissions and the status of atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions over the next century. Regardless of emission scenarios, it is universally expected that British Columbia will experience warmer air temperatures, coupled with more precipitation in some regions and less in others. Forest fires are expected to be more frequent and more intense in the southern half of the province and in the Taiga Plains, but less important in other portions of the province.  Forest insects and fungal pathogens are expected to more fully occupy the current range of their host tree species and expand ranges northward and to higher elevations along with their hosts.  More frequent and detrimental pest outbreaks are expected in some regions when several years of favourable weather align.  Wind damage, floods, and landslides can be expected to increase on terrain where they are already a risk factor.  For many agents of tree mortality, expected changes in disturbance regime amount to an expansion or shifting of the seasonal window of activity, sometimes with different trends projected for different seasons and different regions of the province.  The prediction of future forest disturbance regimes is in its infancy, requiring a much more concerted effort in compiling both empirical and simulated data, but managers may wish to adjust plans accordingly where there is largely a consensus among current and projected trends.  

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/152 2012/03/29 - 11:47

  

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/189 2012/03/24 - 16:41

In these rather tumultuous social and economic times, Aboriginal groups and natural resource practitioners often express the real need to look more closely at the importance and complexities of cultural ecological knowledge (CEK). To understand these intricacies and apply these principles on the ground, some theoretical constructs and practical examples need to be highlighted. Such constructs and examples can help explain the divergent world views of Indigenous knowledge and Western science within natural resource management. The objective of this article is to synthesize current literature and contemporary thought on the importance and complexities of cultural ecological knowledge (CEK) in natural resource management. In addition, it examines practical examples of the differences and similarities between Indigenous knowledge and Western science. The scope of this article is the breadth of understanding of Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous Western scientists the world over, with the intended audience being natural resource managers, scientists/academics, and traditional knowledge practitioners. The author takes the position that natural resource managers should create social legitimacy processes through collaborative learning and systems-thinking approaches. These processes can often be validated through transfer of oral and written “ways of knowing,” even when there are divergent world views. Success relies on designing clear objectives and outcomes when incorporating cultural/ecological knowledge in resource management as well as implementing systematic and culturally sensitive heritage assessments and characterizing cultural pluralism. Finally, there is a need for managers to incorporate CEK and to facilitate legislative, political, and ethical processes that help create social and cultural legitimacy in natural resource management.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/48 2012/02/15 - 10:35

Forest carbon management is rapidly evolving in British Columbia. The province is perhaps the most active jurisdiction on this front in Canada as it seeks to meet the requirements of its new suite of greenhouse gas legislation, regulations, and policies that influence the management of forest carbon.This report provides an update since 2008 on British Columbia's position on managing for greenhouse gas emissions, with a focus on the role of forests. Essentially, it is an update of Carbon Management in British Columbia's Forests: Opportunities and Challenges, published as FORREX Series No. 24 (Greig and Bull 2008).This report includes

  • a summary of legislative changes since late 2007;
  • a review of the evolving institutional and market rules needed for the further development of a carbon offset market, which would include forests;
  • some recent advances in forest carbon management in the province; and
  • important opportunities and challenges that lay ahead.

Forest carbon management policy and practices will continue to evolve. Forest carbon is now a recognized forest value, at both the carbon offset project level and the sustainable forest management landscape level. Although many pieces of forest carbon management are in place, more work is required to realize the full potential. It is clear that British Columbia's vast forests represent a significant opportunity to manage greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/157 2011/12/30 - 14:05

LINK article summarizing the presentations that the Northern Silviculture Committee's summer field tour in Mackenzie BC.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/155 2011/11/26 - 01:17

Livestock grazing is a dominant land use across North America and although the effects of grazing on birds have been studied in grassland, shrubland, and riparian habitats, studies of the effects in forests are rare. We investigated the effects of cattle grazing in forests on vegetation, the relationships between vegetation characteristics and the abundance of foraging and nesting guilds of birds, and the overall effects of grazing on the bird community in the Interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) biogeoclimatic zone of British Columbia. Cattle grazing was associated with reduction in ground vegetation height and grass cover, and increases in the number of shrubs and saplings. Bark insectivores, foliage insectivores, cavity nesters, and shrub/tree nesters all responded positively to sapling density. However, this translated into few overall effects of cattle grazing on birds, with only bark insectivores exhibiting greater abundance on grazed areas. Grazed areas also had fewer aerial insectivores but the mechanism driving this remains unclear. Current forest grazing practices at our study sites appear to have few negative effects on bird abundance and diversity, with the possible exception of aerial insectivores. Study of additional sites is required to assess if forest grazing exerts similar effects throughout the Interior Douglas-fir forest. Furthermore, study of the effects of forest grazing on productivity and survival of birds is needed.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/82 2011/11/26 - 01:17

Forestry practitioners are increasingly interested in how to adapt practices to accommodate predicted changes in climate. One forest management option involves helping tree species and seed sources (populations) track the movement of their climates through “assisted migration”: the purposeful movement of species to facilitate or mimic natural population or range expansion. In this paper, we discuss assisted migration as a climate change adaptation strategy within forest management. Substantial evidence suggests that most tree species will not be able to adapt through natural selection or migrate naturally at rates sufficient to keep pace with climate change, leaving forests susceptible to forest health risks and reduced productivity. We argue that assisted migration is a prudent, proactive, inexpensive strategy that exploits finely tuned plant-climate adaptations wrought through millennia of natural selection to help maintain forest resilience, health and productivity in a changing climate. Seed migration distances being considered in operational forestry in British Columbia are much shorter than migration distances being contemplated in many conservation biology efforts and are informed by decades of field provenance testing. Further,only migrations between similar biogeoclimatic units are under discussion. These factors reduce considerably the risk of ecological disturbance associated with assisted migration. To facilitate the discussion of assisted migration, we present three forms of assisted migration, and discuss how assisted migration is being considered internationally, nationally, and provincially. Finally, we summarize policy and research needs and provide links to other resources for further reading.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/91 2011/11/26 - 01:17

Interim results of the Healthy Forests-Healthy Communities: A conversation on BC forests initiative and relevant evaluations are summarized and interim conclusions identified.  The input to date includes comments from six (6) Community Dialogue Sessions, Background Briefs from 37 BC leaders in various aspects of forest management and comments from concerned citizens and forest professionals submitted through the HFHC website.  Forest management expectations for a viable and sustainable forest sector are identified along with examples of policy and forest practices which raise the question regarding whether BC forests will be able to deliver in the long-term.  Overall, participants are concerned regarding the direction of BC forest management relative to meeting the long-term needs for communities and families.  A number of challenges are identified that will confront communities, professionals and decision-makers to move towards an identified vision for BC forest lands.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/153 2011/09/20 - 05:51

Partial cutting, including shelterwood systems, is gaining profile after a long silvicultural history of clearcutting with artificial regeneration in British Columbia. The use of silvicultural systems that employ partial cutting requires good knowledge of the principles of silviculture. In particular, fundamentals about stand dynamics (changes in stand structure over time, including the effects of disturbance) and regeneration ecology are essential knowledge when managing stands for specific objectives, for they give us the ability to manipulate stands in predictable ways. This, the second in a series of three extension notes about the shelterwood silvicultural system, reviews the fundamentals necessary for the application of silvicultural systems involving partial cutting.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/140 2011/09/20 - 05:51

The shelterwood silvicultural system can be used to achieve diverse management objectives. Harvest entries made during shelterwood system implementation require careful attention. Each entry can be considered a silvicultural treatment designed to modify the forest environment to accomplish specific regeneration and stand-tending objectives. Protecting the soil, the overstorey, and the regeneration become principal considerations when harvesting. At the same time, harvesting must promote an environment that will favour germination and growth of a new stand according to forest management objectives. This is the last in a three-part series of extension notes addressing the shelterwood silvicultural system in British Columbia.    

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/141 2011/09/20 - 05:51

This review and synthesis of silviculture practices was conducted to identify options that could be used in managing forest stands in and adjacent to ranges designated for the protection and conservation of mountain caribou in British Columbia. The characterization of mountain caribou habitat, silviculture options, and guiding principles are intended to promote silviculture planning and practices to support, and possibly accelerate, the return of suitable habitat conditions needed to assist with mountain caribou habitat and population recovery.   

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/68 2011/09/20 - 05:51

This review and synthesis of silviculture strategies was conducted to clarify options for managing forest stands in areas designated for conservation of habitat for the northern ecotype of woodland caribou in British Columbia. Information about the ecology, distribution, population status, and legal management measures for herds of northern caribou provided the background for assessing risk to forestry operations. A review of current scientific research and operational trials was used to reveal potential impacts of forestry on caribou life requisites. Specific attention was paid to the implications of the recent mountain pine beetle infestation. General guidelines (desired conditions) are provided for operating in areas designated for the conservation of caribou.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/79 2011/09/20 - 05:51

The authors summarize the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates of British Columbia across major habitat types and present empirical and projected effects of global weirding within two particularly vulnerable habitats—alpine and wetland. Global weirding embraces all phenomena associated with climate change: increases in average temperatures, heat waves, cold spells, floods, droughts, hurricanes, blizzards, plant and animal die-offs, population explosions, new animal migration patterns, plus dramatic regional differences. Current data suggest that many alpine species will be lost to changes in habitat wrought by climate, particularly increases in average temperatures. For many wetlands, particularly in the central and southern interior of the province, the basic issue is simple—the incoming water is decreasing and the outgoing water (evaporation) is increasing. The authors illustrate three approaches to projecting trends in wetland habitat, elaborating on the “drying index” approach, in which they have most confidence. For wetland species, they say management will struggle with the concept of a real-world triage—allocating conservation efforts where they are most likely to succeed and have the most benefit. They conclude that several conservation approaches for wetland species will face the difficulty of allocating water between needs of these species and of humans.  

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/74 2011/09/15 - 02:17

The shelterwood silvicultural system is not yet widely applied in British Columbia. However, it can be used to achieve particular forest land-use objectives, grow higher-value products, and incur lower silviculture costs when natural regeneration is secured. The first in a series of three extension notes guiding practitioners in the use of this system, Part 1 presents advantages and risks of the system. As well, it examines considerations related to forest health, natural disturbance, and administration that must be addressed before implementation of the system. Research results and practitioners’ experiences suggest that although there are risks and administrative hurdles associated with partial cutting (including shelterwoods), the risks are manageable and the use of partial cutting results in significant benefits, especially on area-based tenures and private land.

http://jem.forrex.org/index.php/jem/article/view/139 2011/09/14 - 05:59