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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Asian Journal of Rural Development

The study was undertaken with the objective of assessing factors affecting milk market participation and volume of supply in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia. Out of the total 32,972 households, 398 households were selected using simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using discussions, rapid market appraisal, observation and formal survey. The data generated were analyzed using both descriptive and Heckman two-stage selection econometric models. The results revealed that out of an average 8 L of milk produced per day, 4 L were supplied to markets. The probit model results indicated that age of household head, dairy farming experience, milk yield per day, milking cow ownership and landholdings size played a significant role in milk market participation. Second-stage Heckman selection estimation pointed out that milk yield per day, dairy farming experiences and number of members in a household significantly affected volume of milk supply. Age of a household positively and significantly affected the probability of milk market participation. Dairy farming experiences of a household negatively and significantly affected milk market participation and volume of supply. The number of milking cows owned by a household positively and significantly affected probability of milk market participation. Milk yield per day impacted positively and significantly milk market participation and volume of supply. The policy implication is that old aged household heads should be educated through extension services to enhance milk market participation. Moreover, integration of crossbred cow, upgrading milk production potential of local cows, among others should be used to increase milk yield per day per household and hence milk market participation.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2014.1.15 2014/04/10 - 11:20

The study examined the effects of some socio-economic factors on small-scale rice farmers’ output in Abuja, Nigeria. The population for the study included all small-scale rice farmers. A simple random technique was adopted for sample selection while semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 88 rice farmers drawn from all the agricultural zones (eastern, central, western and northern zones) were used for the study. Descriptive and multiple regression statistics were used to analyze the data. The results of a semi-log function (lead equation) indicated that fertilizer application, cost of chemicals (other than organic fertilizers) and farm size were the significant factors influencing rice output at 5% alpha level while the quantity of seed planted was significant at 10%. The R2 indicated that the socio-economic factors accounted for 37.60% variation in rice output. The average farm size was 1.84 ha with mean rice output per farmer and per hectare as 1349.50 and 730.367 kg, respectively. The fertilizer application rate was 107.32 kg ha-1 while the seed rate was 62.66 kg ha-1. The socio-economic characteristics showed that majority (90.91%) of the farmers were married with mean household size, age, education, years of farming experience as 8, 44, 7 and 14 years, respectively. Majority of the farmers indicated that their main reasons for cultivating rice were to get income and for household consumption. Although not all the variables were significant but based on the value of R2 (0.376), the paper concluded that the farmers’ socio-economic variables contributed significantly to the output of rice in the study area.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2014.16.24 2014/04/10 - 11:20

The study was conducted to identify the role of Farmer Field School (FFS) and
Farmer Research Group (FRG) in bringing attitudinal and knowledge change among
farmers who hosted integrated potato disease and nutrient management practices.
Attitude and knowledge of institutions, organizations, groups and farmers on
the practices was assessed before and after the project. Data from these sources
were collected using Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Knowledge System (RAAKS),
case study, focus groups discussions and observation. A workshop was organized
to gather information from institutions and organizations who were engaged in
potato promotion. Experienced rapporteurs inputted information generated on
the workshop into computer database. Checklist was developed and used to collect
information from farmers of both FFS and FRG. Likert scale was used to analyze
data using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Microsoft Excel. Findings
indicated that active participation of farmers in potato promotion is very mandatory
to empower them as its production is knowledge intensive and input based. Findings
also pointed out that the role FFS and FRG played in bringing attitudinal and
knowledge change depended on the issues handled and the way the approaches were
used and treated by facilitators. Therefore, the two approaches should be used
in combination to fill each other’s weakness in bringing attitudinal and
knowledge change. Since the costs of investment on knowledge are higher at initial
years and attitudinal and knowledge change is expected in subsequent years,
development practitioners should take the long term impacts of the approaches
while evaluating their feasibility.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2013.1.13 2013/07/01 - 12:28

The arrival of computers and Internet access in the second half of the twentieth
century has revolutionized the field of information and communication technology
(ICT) and macro-economic variables such as income distribution index within
developing economies. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of
information and communication technology development on income distribution
index of rural communities in Iran. For this purpose and in order to test the
Kuznet's inverted U theory, regarding the relationship between economic growth
and distribution of income, econometric method and panel data regression were
designed to analyze the effect of information and communication technology on
income distribution of 30 provinces in Iran during the period of 2001-2010.
The results show that information and communication technology development had
a positive effect on income distribution of country's rural communities, resulting
in more equitable and justified distribution of income among the rural societies.
Moreover, the study approves the validity of Kuznet's inverted U theory regarding
the relationship between the economic growth and income distribution of rural
areas for the time period of study.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2013.14.21 2013/07/01 - 12:28

The study was conducted to investigate the alternative livelihood opportunities
available and accessible to the fishermen community of Nijhum Dwip under Hatiya
Upazila of Noakhali district in Bangladesh. Primary data were collected through
household survey using PRA tools such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and Crosscheck
Interviews (CI) with key informants. The fishers were classified as boat owner-fisher
(8%), laborer fisher (60%), fishers engaged in fish drying (18%) and others
involved in fishing related occupations (14%). In recent time, fishers’
household income was limited as the highest number (46%) of the fishers’
annual income ranged between 50,000 and 75,000 BDT and the fish resources was
decreasing for that supplementary income from other than fishery was of great
importance. The most common Alternative Livelihood Generating Activities (ALGAs)
identified by the fishers were: poultry (22%), livestock (21%), crop farming
(19%), boatman (13%), non-farm day laborer (9%), small business (6%), handicraft/swing
(5%), crab catching and fish farming (1%) and others (3%). Depending on high
potential to increase income and high potential to increase market demand, a
matrix of relative attractiveness of existing livelihood activities and alternative
livelihood activities was developed.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2012.24.31 2012/06/28 - 15:57

The study investigated the contribution of gender to rural household food security
in South West, Nigeria as food insecurity is a major social problem with far
reaching economic and development consequences. Multistage sampling technique
was used to select respondents for this study. Oyo and Osun State were randomly
selected out of the six states in South West, Nigeria. Structured interview
schedule was administered to 120 respondents in selected communities in the
two states out of which 112 were found useful. The data was analysed using both
descriptive (frequencies and tables) and inferential statistics (Chi-square).
Results of the study reveal that 41.7% of the respondents were between 41 and
50 years of age and 56.2% have household size of 4-6 people. Men contribute
more to economic access of food than women while women contribute more to sustainability
of access to food than men. However, the respondents faced some constraints
in achieving food security like lack of capital, land and employment. Chi-square
analysis revealed that sex and primary occupation influence gender contribution
to household food security. It is pertinent for government to assist rural people
through the provision of credit, loans and agricultural inputs which will definitely
improve household food security.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2012.32.39 2012/06/28 - 15:57

The importance of family planning in combating population explosion and consequently,
poverty in Nigeria as well as other developing countries in Africa, cannot be
overemphasized. This study assessed the use of Family Planning Information (FPI)
among farming households in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun state.
Purposive sampling was used to select 100 farming households and the logit regression
model was used to analyze the determinants of farmers’ use of FPI. The
majority (58%) of the respondents was female and 55% were below 41 years of
age. Mean household size is 8. Income and literacy level are low with 70% earning
between N 10, 000 and N 50, 000 and 58% having below secondary education. The
majorities (82%) of the respondents are aware of FPI especially through the
health care centres but only 40% used FPI. The regression showed that the coefficients
of educational level of the respondents, educational level of the spouse, farm
size, spouse’s perception of use of FPI, income level and exposure to mass
media were positively significant which implied that an increase in these factors
will increase the probability of use of FPI among respondents. Number of children
was significant with a negative sign which implied that an increase in number
of children will decrease the probability of use of FPI among respondents. The
study recommends that family planning education and campaign should be intensified
in the study area, especially via mass media and special efforts should be made
in incorporating men to facilitate use.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2012.40.46 2012/06/28 - 15:57

A study was conducted to evaluate the family poultry status with reference to all management practices, marketing and the socio-economic on some villages of transhumant people who settled in Gezira Scheme in cut-out areas. Results revealed that women constitute the highest chickens’ care takers (70%), all the flocks are from local breeds. The average flock size (including chicks) was 40. The housing and feeding system is scavenging; small backyard house (25%) is used. Chickens were offered waste household and some grains. Proper feeders and drinkers rarely used and were not usually cleaned. No proper safe place for egg laying and hatching. Hatchability was around 71-80% and the best hatchability was during winter (70% of chicks were hatched during winter). The sitting hens very rarely offered feed and water. Newly hatched chicks were not confined in a proper house neither provided with and water (70%), but left scavenging with their mothers. Chicks’ mortality was 50% in early ages which is mainly due to predators and diseases (35 and 15% for predators and diseases, respectively). Vaccination against Newcastle Disease (ND) and other infectious diseases was not undertaken. Seventy percent of farmers are willing to have their flocks vaccinated. The villages were not visited by extension officer, 77.5% of farmers agree to have extension programmes. In spite of this poor management and production, these farmers feel happy, because they gain some money that help in covering some expenses of important life’s needs.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2012.1.12 2012/03/01 - 19:41

Nigeria produces a wide range of agricultural produces which are lost at one level or the other at post harvest stage leading to wastage in human effort, farm inputs and investments. The survey was aimed at investigating the level and cause(s) of post harvest losses of some selected produce in eight (8) local government areas which were zoned into three namely A (Degema, Bonny and Port Harcourt), B (Omuma and Oyigbo) and C (Ahoada West and Emohua). A total of four hundred and fifty (450) farmers were randomly selected. Investigative survey research Approach method by means of structured questionnaire was used to collect vital information. The crop production Pattern reveals that Zone A is noted for fish production; Zone B is into more of cassava production while in Zone C, 92% of them farm cassava and 10% are into vegetable farming. Results show that all farmers in Zone C, 65% in A and 11.75% in Zone B do not consult any body on problems associated with food storage. It was also observed generally that the percentage sold is more than processed, stored and consumed at post harvest stage. It reveals that all farmers in all zones use the traditional method of storage for all produce. The mean value of postharvest losses in the zones were 35% for fish, 37.33% for yam, 27.67% for cassava, 20.33% for maize, 27% for plantain and 33% for vegetable. It was therefore, concluded that losses experienced are generally on the high side and needs to be minimized.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2012.13.23 2012/03/01 - 19:41

Poverty is a challenge to development. Its presence anywhere is a threat to development everywhere. It manifests in household lack and denial, unemployment, illiteracy, water and sanitation crises, inadequate medical services, poor child welfare and health and gender issues. There is the need for Community Corporate Involvement (CCI) to enhance response to poverty and development challenges afflicting the host community. Peripheral CCI practices border on unsustainable donations or philanthropy and are mere poverty panaceas that need to be de-emphasized for those that address sustainable community development and truly reduce poverty. Using the critical research method of analyzing available secondary data and information, this study examined the crippling poverty situation existing side-by-side with Corporate Social Actions (CSAs) of oil and gas corporations in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The findings show that poverty indicators are worse in South-South zone of Nigeria (the heart of the Niger Delta region), where petroleum oil corporations claim to embark on CSAs, than in other geo-political zones of the country, where there is no oil exploration. This points to peripheral CSAs that do not reduce poverty, hence the attendant restiveness in the Niger Delta region. The study recommends, among others, concentrating efforts on CSAs that address sustainable community development, sustainable livelihood and poverty reduction.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2011.1.20 2011/02/06 - 03:12

Amidst various reforms agenda, policies, development plans and programmes, Vision 2010, Seven-Point Agenda and a host of others, Nigerian leaders have articulated the Vision 20:2020, which targets to catapult Nigeria into the league of the first global 20 economies by the year 2020. This study used the critical research method to analyze and compare recent development indicators for Nigeria with those of advanced countries, the first 20 of which Nigeria aspires to join in 10 years’ time. In contrast to the situation in high-income OECD nations, the vast majority of Nigerians are ill-fed, ill-clothed, ill-housed and ill-educated. They live in the rural areas characterized by massive underdevelopment. Poverty is the basic malady of Nigeria which is involved in misery-go-round, as part of the slum of the world economy. Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020 is, therefore, too ambitious. And, against the backdrop of the antecedents of policy reversals, summersaults and failures in Nigeria, the Vision is utopian. Recommendations include commitment of the leadership to sufficient discipline and political will to enforce development policies and programmes.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2011.21.40 2011/02/06 - 03:12

Gender concerns militate against the extension of equal opportunities to women and children and therefore, lead to frustration, apathy, violence and lop-sided development and underdevelopment. Considering the unsung role women and children play in development and the need to operationalise equal opportunities for the enhancement of sustainable human development, this paper examines the various practices of marginalization of women and children in Nigeria. Based on interview conducted among women and children and evidence from key informant sources, the study identifies unemployment, inadequate health facilities, rights and disinheritance issues, suppressed status, child trafficking/labour/prostitution, poor representation in governance, underdevelopment and inadequate access to microcredit as some areas of marginalization against women and children. Recommendations on addressing the situation were made.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2011.41.53 2011/02/06 - 03:12

This study attempts at reviewing the economics of women soap making agri-business enterprises and family sustenance in Dekina Local Government Area, Kogi State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study include the determination of the socio-economic attributes, the profitability of the enterprise and identify the constraints encountered by sampled entrepreneurs in the study area. Primary data were collected using a well structured questionnaire administered on 200 women soap makers in the study area. Descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and averages were used to analyze and interpret the data. Net income analysis was also used to determine the profitability of the women soap makers. The results showed that the women soap makers in the study areas used 83 and 17% of palm oil and kernel, respectively. On the average, annual net income of N160, 614.90 was recorded implying that one naira invested in the enterprise returned N1:56k, that is, 156 or 56% above the investment and operating cost. The net income contribution to family sustainability was realized through provision of food (28%), paying children school fees (17%), changing children’s cloth (13%) and leisure (2%). In conclusion, the sampled women make substantial contributions to their family through the profits of their enterprises, which enabled them to play roles hitherto played by men. The study recommended that small-scale agric-business women entrepreneurs should be involved in development planning and policies at both the design and implementation stages.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2011.54.62 2011/02/06 - 03:12

Nigeria’s underdevelopment is more of poor implementation than lack of development visions and programmes. Policy summersault and development projects abandonment are common. Political leaders need to be sensitized on putting society interest first and committing to development visions and programmes. Nigerians need to be sensitized on holding political leaders accountable to campaign promises and development programmes. Using the critical research method of analyzing available secondary information, this study reviews continual ineffective implementation of development visions and projects. Individual and corporate commitment to the banishment of corruption is recommended for way forward in the country’s development.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2011.63.69 2011/02/06 - 03:12

In this research, some algorithms have developed the
name of in lighten and given rise level of land consolidation software’s
for TRGM (General Directorate of Agriculture Reform) applications. Some
information has been given about the concept of land consolidation, extension,
possibilities of automation. A program is developed for determining ownerships
in land distribution by Delphi 5 programming language to test of applicability
of developed algorithms. According to research results, algorithms have
easiness in planning software. Obtained data calculated with developed
program have been compared with TRGM Konya Department data. It has been
seen same results. Thus, accuracy of programming algorithms has been tested.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajrd.2011.70.86 2011/02/06 - 03:12