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Asian Journal of Poultry Science

Digestion is a mediating factor between the animals and their environment,
one of the variables related to the efficiency in extracting energy from nutrients
is rate of hydrolysis. Phylogenetical and functional hypothesis has been proposed
linking dietary flexibility and enzyme lability. Species belong to Parvclass
Galloanserae, studied until now, did not modulate aminopeptidase-N activity
but they did modulate disaccharidases activities. Additionally, peptide hydrolysis
has been demonstrated in avian caeca, but not in chickens. Finally, dietary
proteins are essential for chicken growth in the first stages of development,
but little information is available in chickens beyond 42 days of life. Chickens
beyond that age were fed for 15 days either a high protein (DHP =
49.72% protein and 11.92% carbohydrates) or a high starch diet (DHS
= 52.82% carbohydrates and 10.49% protein). Aminopeptidase-N, maltase and sucrase,
were assessed in chicken’s small
intestines and caeca. Body mass of DHP birds was 37.5% higher than
body mass of DHS birds, at the end of the trial. Aminopeptidase-N
and sucrase did not change, but maltase exhibited higher activity in DHS
than in DHP birds. The lack of aminopeptidase-N modulation and its
relatively high activity in caeca, together with a modulation of maltase,
contribute and give apparent support to the functional hypothesis. Surprisingly,
a high quantity of protein resulted important for growth in chickens after 42
days of life. Also it is important to notice that a casein diet has been demonstrated
as a high digestible meal for chickens, so the last data may be of interest
for poultry industry. 2014/08/22 - 19:01

The natural distribution of two essential fatty acids for animal, namely linoleic
and alpha linolenic acid, is not in same order. While the distribution of linoleic
acid is cosmopolitan, alpha linolenic acid distribution is very much restricted
more confined to marine environment. The seven days old chicks of Gallus
domesticus, broiler strain, were fed a diet supplemented with Staphylococcus,
Streptococcus and Pseudomonas bacterial strains, collected from the
west coast of India, for a period of 30 days. These bacterial strains contained
about 15-20% of alpha linolenic acid (as essential fatty acid) when grown on
sodium acetate medium. Dietary supplementation of these bacteria increases the
net weight of the birds in comparison to the control birds. This net weight
gain of the bird was also reflected in total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol
and phospholipid concentrations of various tissues. Supplementation of these
bacteria as a source of alpha linolenic acid in birds enhanced the tissue level
eciosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids at the cost of palmitic, oleic,
linoleic and arachidonic acid. A reduction in the serum total cholesterol, total
triglycerides along with an increase of HDL cholesterol was noticed in the birds
whose diet was supplemented with Streptococcus strain of bacteria only.
The cardiac and liver function tests confirmed the well being status of the
birds supplemented with Streptococcus strain. The involvement of dietary
alpha linolenic acid towards the metabolism of cholesterol in birds was noticed
in the Gallus. 2014/08/22 - 19:01

This study evaluated the effects of different levels of L-threonine on some productive performances, egg quality and serum metabolic profile of the late laying period. A total of one hundred and twenty Hy-Line Brown laying hens (68-week-old), were assigned to the basal control diet or the basal diet supplemented with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of L-threonine (n = 6 per diet, each replicate consists of 5 birds). Production performance was measured for 8 weeks and egg quality characteristics and blood parameters were determined at 76 weeks of age. Hy-Line Brown laying hens showed significantly linear and quadric (p<0.01) responseon egg production, egg weight and egg mass. Feed intake increased linearly and quadrically (p<0.001) with the increasing levels of L-threonine. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) significantly decreased with the increasing L-threonine in the laying diets. The level of 0.4% L-threonine resulted in overall best performance. No differences were observed for shell percentage, shell thickness and albumin height among the treatments. However there were significant quadratic response (p = 0.028) on Haugh Unit (HU) among treatments. Serum cholesterol decreased linearly (p<0.001) and quadrically (p = 0.032) with supplemental threonine levels. Serum glucose significantly increased (p<0.002) with increased L-threonine, whereas no changes were observed on serum calcium and phosphorus. It could be stated that L-threonine used in this study had beneficial effects on productive and HU as well as to decrease serum cholesterol. The threonine level of 0.4% gives the best result than other levels and this threonine level could be recommendable during late laying period. 2014/08/22 - 19:01

Using natural product as growth promoter in poultry nutrition has lately been
increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding dietary
humate on productive performance of broiler chicks from 1-28 days of age. The
271 days old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 3 treatment groups
with six replicates of 15 chicks each. Chicks were fed a starter broiler diet
containing 0.0, 5.0, or 10.0 g humate kg-1 diet. Body weight at 14th
day of age and body weight gain from 8-14 days of age for chicks fed 5.0 g humate
were lighter than those fed 0.0 and 10.0 g humate. At 21st day of age, body
weight for chicks fed 5.0 g humate were lower than those fed 0.0 g humate. From
22-28 days of age, the body weight gain of chicks fed 5.0 g humate was better
than those fed 0.0 and 10.0 g humate. Final body weight at 28th day of age and
body weight gain from 15-21 and 1- 28 days of age for chicks fed 10.0 g humate
were lower than those fed 0.0 and 5.0 g humate. From 8-14 days of age, feed
consumption of broiler chicks fed diet containing 5.0 g humate kg-1
was significantly lower than those fed diet containing 0.0 and 10.0 g humate
kg-1. Feed consumption of chicks fed 5.0 g humate was higher than
those fed 0.0 and 10.0 g humate from 22-28 days of age. However, feed consumption
from 1-28 days of age for chicks fed 0.0 g humate was the lowest. Feed conversion
ratio from 8-14 days of age for chicks fed 5.0 g humate was worse than those
fed 10.0 g humate. From 15-21, 22-28 and 1-28 days of age, feed conversion ratio
of chicks fed 10.0 g humate was the worst. Performance index from 15-21 and
22-28 days of age for chicks fed 10.0 g humate was significantly less than those
fed 0.0 and 5.0 g humate. Results suggest that adding 5.0 or 10.0 g humate kg-1
into diet negatively affect the productive performance of broiler chicks in
respect to feed conversion ratio and performance index. 2014/05/13 - 21:38

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths
in domestic chickens and ducks slaughtered at the Gombe main market, Gombe State,
Nigeria. Faecal samples from 150 chickens and 150 ducks, comprising of 75 male
and 75 female samples of each host species, were collected from the dressing
unit of the market and examined in the laboratory for helminths, using the intestinal
scrapping method. The overall prevalence of helminths was 81.0% in chickens
and 4.7% in ducks. More infections with cestodes were recorded in both host
species. The helminths identified from chickens comprised Railleitina tetragona
52 (34.7%), R. cesticillus 32 (21.3%), R. echinobothrida 38 (25.3%),
R. magninumida 5 (3.3%), Amoebotaenia cuneata 6 (4.0%), Hymenolepis
carioca 18 (12.0%) and Ascaridia galli 16 (10.7%), while helminths
identified from ducks comprised R. cesticullus 4 (2.7%), R. magninumida
5 (3.3%), Hymenolepis carioca 2 (1.3%) and Ascaridia galli 1 (0.7%).
The males of both host species 67 (89.3%) and 4 (5.3%), respectively were more
infected than the females 55 (73.3%) and 3 (4.0%), respectively. Chi square
test revealed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the infection rates between
the sexes. Eighty (53.3%) of the chickens had single infections, 38 (25.3%)
had double infections and 4 (2.7%) had triple infections while in ducks, 3 (2.0%)
had single infections, 3 (2.0%) had double infections and 1 (0.7%) had triple
infection. The study revealed that helminths are common parasites of chickens
and ducks in Gombe and could be an impediment to their production in the area. 2014/05/13 - 21:38

Using natural product in poultry nutrition has lately been increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding different dietary levels (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0%) of Black Cumin Seed (BCS) on productive performance of layer hens over an 8-week trial period. Two hundred 52 week old Hysex laying hens with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly distributed among 4 treatments with 5 replicates with 10 hens each. Results showed that body weight gain for hens fed a layer diet containing 2.0% BCS was significantly lower than those fed 1.0% BCS. Feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed a layer diet containing 4.0% BCS than those fed both 0.0 and 2.0% BCS. Feed conversion ratio was significantly better for hens fed a layer diet containing 4.0% BCS than those fed both 0.0 and 1.0% BCS. Egg weight per hen increased significantly for hens fed a layer diet containing 4.0% BCS compared to those fed 1.0% BCS. Hens fed a layer diet containing 2.0 and 4.0% BCS showed significantly darker egg yolk color than those fed both 0.0 and 1.0% BCS. It was concluded that adding BCS into layer diets up to 4.0% could improve the productive performance of laying hens in respect to feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and egg weight. 2014/05/13 - 21:38

Salted eggs in the manufacturing process can be fortified mineral content by
utilizing the salting medium containing essential minerals, especially from
wood ash and rice husk ash synthetically by a diffusion process. The purpose
of this research was different and amounts ash in the process of salting effect
on the mineral raw salted egg. This study used a randomized block design with
a 2x3 factorial with 3 replications, where the factor A was a type of ash: Husk
and wood ash while the B factor was the addition of different amounts of ash
that was 1 part, 2 parts and 3 parts. Observations were made on raw salted eggs
to albumen (white) pH, ash content, NaCl, P, Ca, Mg and K. Based on the results
of the study there was an interaction ash type and ash amount differently to
albumen pH, ash content and NaCl, an effect on the type of ash to Ca, Mg and
K, affects the ash amount on the Mg content and no real influence on the P content.
Utilization of wood ash in salting solution the produce raw salted eggs with
a much higher mineral content from of husk ash. The best treatment was the use
of wood ash as much as 1 part has been effective in maintaining the albumen
pH, salted egg was sintered and minerals that have been optimal. 2014/04/19 - 19:54

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of diets containing alkali
treated soyabeans on serum profile and growth indices of broiler chickens using
240 days-old Anak broilers that were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups
of three replicates each. Test soyabeans seeds were treatment by soaking in
water, sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), Potassium carbonate
(K2CO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to incorporation
into the diets; these forms experimental diets D1, D2, D3 and D4. Significant
(p<0.05) variations in the serum and blood parameters measured were observed,
highest mean values recorded were in D1 for urea, creatine and hemoglobin while
cholesterol had the highest value in D3. No significant (p>0.05) difference
was observed in the packed cell volume of the treatment groups. Specific Growth
Rate (SGR), Growth Efficiency (GE) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were significantly
(p<0.05) affected by alkali treatment at both the starter and finisher phases.
Similarly, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)
were significantly affected by dietary treatments (p>0.05) at both the starter
and finisher phases. D3 showed better serum profile and growth indices in this
study. 2014/04/19 - 19:54

A three-week experiment was conducted to investigate the utilisation of a diet
based on Cassava Root Meal (CRM) and copra meal by finishing broiler chickens.
A total of (96) 21-day old Cobb broilers were used for the experiment. The birds
were weighed and allotted to 6 pens containing 16 birds each. A finisher diet
based on cassava and copra meal and a commercial broiler finisher diet were
fed each to 3 randomly selected pens for a period of 21 days. Results showed
poorer (p<0.05) final body weight, daily feed intake, daily gain and feed:
Gain ratio on the test feed compared to the control commercial feed, but feed
cost of meat production (WST$/kg live weight) was reduced (p<0.05) on the
test feed. Birds on the commercial feed had higher (p<0.05) carcass and breast
meat yields, while the yields of thighs and drumsticks were not affected (p>0.05)
by the diet. There were no treatment effects (p>0.05) on the weights of the
liver, heart and ceaca, but birds on the test feed recorded higher (p<0.05)
weights of the pancreas, gizzard and small intestine. Birds fed the control
commercial feed deposited more (p<0.05) fat than those fed the test feed.
It was concluded that cassava copra meal-based finisher diets could be used
to reduce cost of meat production and carcass fat content and thus meat quality
of broiler chickens. Further research into appropriate combinations of these
ingredients for optimum growth and feed utilisation by broilers is recommended. 2014/04/19 - 19:54

An evaluation of Distillers Dried Grains with Soluble (DDGS) as feed ingredients
for broilers have been done. It is valuable source of energy, protein, water
soluble vitamins and minerals in poultry diets. The present study was carried
out during the summer season to study the impact of feeding graded levels of
DDGS on broiler performance, hematological and histological parameters. A total
number of 160-one day old, unsexed cobb broiler chicks were randomly divided
into four groups. Birds of each group were subdivided into four replicates of
ten birds each. The different experimental diets (Starter, grower and finisher)
contain DDGS at levels of (0, 5, 10 and 15%). Diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous.
Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics
were recorded. Values for pH and length of Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT), glucose
concentration, hematological parameters (Hb, Ht% and H/L ratio) and histological
study of small intestine, liver and pancreas were obtained. The result showed
that DDGS insignificantly (p≤0.05) affected productive performance, carcass
characteristic and Ht%, DDGS inclusion in the diet significantly (p≤0.05)
decreased glucose concentration, H/L ratio and pH value and improved the histology
of small intestine, liver and pancreas. This study concluded that the graded
levels of DDGS up to 15% showed no adverse effects when used in broiler starter,
grower and finisher diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics.
The hematological and histological parameters were improved suggesting that
DDGS can be used up to 15% in broiler diets. 2013/07/19 - 08:50

A study was conducted to compare maize and Sweet Potato Meal (SPM) as sources
of energy in grower chickens’ diets while another was conducted to determine
the effect of SPM on the performance of the birds used in the grower study.
A total of 210 pullets aged 10 weeks of Shika Brown breed were used for the
grower study, while a total of 180 chickens aged 23 weeks acquired from the
proceeds of the first study were used for the layer study. Five treatments comprising
of diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels of SPM were applied in both
experiments in a completely randomized manner and performance of birds were
monitored at both phases. Each of the experiments lasted 12 weeks. Result of
grower study showed that the control, 10 and 20% SPM diets produced similar
weight gain, final weight, feed efficiency and feed cost kg-1 weight
gain and were superior (p<0.05) to 30 and 40% SPM diets. Result of the layer
experiment showed that the control, 10 and 20% SPM diets produced similar final
body weight, weight gain, feed intake, hen-day egg production and cumulative
egg production/bird which were significantly better (p<0.05) than those produced
by the 30 and 40% SPM diets. Ages at 1st egg and at 5% production were least
(p<0.05) for the control birds while the age at 50% production was least
for the 10% SPM diets. From the result, it is inferred that grower chicken or
young layers should not be fed with diets containing more than 20% SPM. 2013/07/19 - 08:50

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various commercial feed additives on performance and egg quality of laying hens. These additives included probiotics (Protexin® and Clostat®), symbiotic (Diamond®) and organic acids (Galliacid®). A number of 180 HL Brown hens (27 wks of age) were divided into 5 treatment groups (6 replicates of 6 birds, each). Groups were assigned to 5 experimental diets: a basal diet of no additive (control), the basal diet supplemented with either 0.01% Protexin®, 0.05% Clostat®, 0.06% Diamond® or 0.06% Galliacid®. Data of layer performance and egg quality were obtained during 12 weeks experimental period. Supplementation of probiotics or symbiotic recorded higher (p>0.05) egg production than the control but organic acids supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased egg production by 9.94%. Egg weight slightly improved (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. Supplementation of probiotics, symbiotic and organic acids significantly (p<0.01) increased egg mass. The best egg mass value was recorded for birds fed diet supplemented with organic acids. Feed conversion ratio improved (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. Adding probiotics, symbiotic or organic acids did not significantly affect shape index, yolk index, yolk %, SWUSA, Haugh unit or specific gravity. Addition of probiotics or organic acids showed significant (p<0.05) increase in shell thickness and yolk color. It could be concluded that these additives caused improvement in performance and egg quality of laying hen. More studies are needed to explain the effects of different sources and levels of these additives on performance and egg quality of laying hens. 2013/07/19 - 08:50

Broiler chicken strains differ in genetic make-up and performance characteristics.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cost of production and
gross revenue of three strains of broiler chicken in order to determine their
profitability. Also, the productivities of inputs and cost were determined.
The three strains were Marshall, Hubbard and Arbor Acre. Data on costs of production
and the live weights of 50 birds per strain; at 8 weeks were obtained. Results
show that there were no significant (p>0.05) differences in the production
costs to the three broiler strains. Feed cost took the highest percentage (48%)
of the total cost of production, while cost of medication was the least (4%).
Marshall strain had the highest mean live weight (2.10 kg) at maturity and the
least cost ($2.83 kg-1) of producing 1 kg of meat. It also recorded
the highest gross margin ($51.8). This is followed by Hubbard strain ($30.4),
while Arbor Acre ($26.7) strain have the least gross margin. The highest benefit-cost
ratio, profitability index and rate of return on investment were 1.17, 0.15
and 17.5%, respectively for the Marshall strain. The partial productivities
were highest for the Marshall strain and particularly for labour (3.91). The
results reveal that the level of profitability and productivity of broiler depends
among other factors on the strain. The Marshall broiler strain is the most profitable
and productive to raise for commercial purpose. 2013/07/19 - 08:50

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oils on antioxidative potential of breast muscle from heat stressed broiler chicken. A total of 720 one dayold Arian broiler chicks broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 6 groups (6 replicates of 20 birds each) to evaluate the effects of administration of Satureja khuzestanica essential oils (SKEO) through drinking water on immune postmortem pH and antioxidative potential of breast muscle from heat stressed broiler chicken The birds were continuously received drinking water treated with Tween 80 (Cont+; 500 ppm) and SKEO at 0 (Cont-), 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm as six experimental treatments. Breast muscle early as well as ultimate pH values at 42 days of age were non significantly lower for the birds received SKEO through drinking water at doses greater than 200 ppm. Addition of SKEO to drinking water at doses higher than 200 ppm significantly decreased the amount of TBARS values in breast muscle (p<0.05). Breast muscle catalase activity in SKEO received groups were significantly higher than the control groups (p<0.05). It was concluded that supplementation of drinking water with SKEO at dosed higher 200 ppm enhance the antioxidative potential of breast muscle from heat stressed broiler chicken. 2013/07/19 - 08:50

In a 2x2x3 factorial study, the effect of milling technique (hammer vs. roller) with differing particle sizes (fine or coarse) of maize from three sources (Downs, Emerald or Moree) on growth performance, ileal digestibility and intestinal microbial profiles of broiler chickens (from 1-21 days post-hatch) was investigated. A total of 420 day-old male Cobb chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments of 5 replicates (seven birds per replicate) in brooder cages set up in an environmentally controlled room. The maize grain was finely ground using a hammer mill or roller mill with a 2 mm screen or coarsely ground through a 4 mm screen. Feed intake up to 7 days of age was higher (p<0.003) on the diet containing finely roller-milled grain than on the coarsely milled grain but no effect found on d21. Live weight was affected by the source of maize (p<0.04). The FCR to d21 was improved (p<0.042) on the Moree maize that was finely roller milled. The relative weight of proventriculus plus gizzard (p<0.01) and liver (p<0.01) were higher in diets containing coarsely milled grain than finely milled grain at 7 but not 21 days. Nutrient digestibility was affected due to maize source (p<0.01) and particle size reduction (p<0.01). These results suggest that fine grinding some sources of maize would be beneficial in terms of improvement in FI, LW and weight of proventriculus and gizzard in early ages as well as nutrient digestibility at a later age. 2013/05/31 - 22:33

The objective of this study was to investigate response of laying hens to added levels of sodium formate under heat stress conditions. A total number of 96 laying hen aged 53 weeks were randomly divided into four treatment groups of three replicates, 8 hens each during summer season. The first group was served as control and fed the basal diet. While, the other three groups were received the basal diet supplemented with sodium formate at levels of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% of diet, respectively. The study duration was 8 weeks (from 53 to 61 WOA). Productive performance, egg quality, pH level of some gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) segments and some blood components and plasma enzymes were measured. Results showed that egg production and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved by adding sodium formate (87.97 and 2.13%, respectively) with adding, 2% sodium formate . While no significant differences in feed intake and egg weight. Adding sodium formate significantly increased shell thickness (44.3 mm), shell % (11.55%), Haugh units (87.00) also Shell weight per unit surface area (SWUSA) was 99.91 with 0.2% sodium formate. The pH values in different GI-tract segments were insignificantly decreased with supplemental all doses of sodium formate. Furthermore, dietary acidification elevated significantly the concentration of plasma calcium (ca) and phosphorus (p) than the control. A significant reduction in plasma level of total lipids and cholesterol was achieved due to dietary acidification. The liver enzymes- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) did not significantly changed, in response to addition of acidifiers. The activation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly decreased while Lactate Dehydrogenase (LHD) increased with dietary sodium formate supplementation. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 0.1 or 0.2% sodium formate gave the best result for aged laying hens (53-61 week) in the present study, during the hot summer period (June to Aug.). 2013/05/31 - 22:33

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Dried Tomato Pomace (DTP) in feed intake, body weight gain, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and economic efficiency on Rhode Island Red (RIR) grower chicks. A total of three hundred RIR grower chicks at eight weeks of age were grouped into 20 pens of 15 chicks each and randomly assigned to five treatments (control fed a commercial ration; 5% DTP; 10% DTP; 15% DTP; 20% DTP) according to a completely randomized design(RCD). Birds fed on 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP had the higher Dry Matter (DM) intake(72.93,72.75, 72.98 and 73.15 g/bird/day) than the control group (72.10 g/bird/day). The daily body weight gain of birds ranged from 13.3-15.3 g/day, the highest being on birds fed on 5% DTP; The Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of birds were 5.3, 4.8, 5.0, 5.3 and 5.5 for the control and for birds that consumed 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP, respectively, with significant difference observed between 5 and 20% DTP. The economic efficiency of the experimental diets was 1.35, 1.79, 1.80, 1.78 and 1.82 for a group fed on the control, 5, 10, 15 and 20% DTP, respectively. There was a higher significant (p<0.05) difference on a group fed on DTP and the control diet. DTP which contains 20% brought the highest economic efficiency among the groups. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded that dried tomato pomace could be incorporated in grower chick rations at the level of 20% without any adverse effect on growth performance in order to increase the economic efficiency. 2013/05/31 - 22:33

Using guar meal in poultry nutrition is limited because of its anti-nutritional content. This study was set up to evaluate whether or not anti-nutritional compounds other than residual Guar Gum (GG) contribute to Guar Meal (GM) relatively poor feeding value for poultry. One hundred eighty one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 3 treatments with 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. Three dietary treatments were prepared in which the same dietary concentration of GG was supplemented to growing broilers as pure GG, GM or Guar Bean (GB). All diets were calculated to contain 1.35% GG. Chicks were assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) broiler diet reformulated with 3.85% GB, (2) broiler diet reformulated with 2.5% GM and (3) broiler diet with 1.35% GG. Feed consumption, body weight, b. wt. gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were recorded at weekly intervals from 1-35 d. Total feed consumption recorded from 1-21 was significantly higher in chicks fed 3.85% GB versus those fed 1.35% GG. Total feed consumption from 22-35 and 1-35 day was significantly higher in chicks fed 3.85% GM than those fed 3.85% GB. The final b. wt. at 35 d for chicks fed 1.35% GG were significantly lower than both chicks fed 2.5% GM and 3.85% GB. Significantly higher weight gains in 35-days-old broilers fed both whole (ground) GB and GM versus GG suggest anti-nutritional factors other than GG are not major contributors limiting GM use in poultry feeds. 2013/05/31 - 22:33

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of traditional
sun-dried maize grain, subjected to further heat treatment. The maize grains were
obtained from three different locations, namely Moree in NSW, Emerald in QLD and
Darling-Downs on the NSW-QLD border, Australia. Once received, one batch (sun-dried)
was assessed without further drying. The other two batches from each source were
dried artificially using a forced draught-oven at 105°C for 30 min or 24 h.
The morphological structures (starch granules) of grains were changed due to heat-treatment
for 30 min at 105°C and far-reaching structural changes occurred when samples
were heated for 24 h. Proximate analysis of maize revealed that the DM (897.3-967.4
g kg-1), CP (92.1-108.7 g kg-1), EE (49.0-57.5 g kg-1),
phytate-P (1.2-2.4 g kg-1) and ash (14.1-19.7 g kg-1) contents
of samples varied due to source and heating period. The starch, amylose, available
amino acid and mineral contents increased with increasing heating duration. Variable
anomeric proton peaks (1H-NMR) were found with an increase in the oven
drying period in all maize samples. In vitro digestibility of DM, starch
and CP was improved due to heat-treatment at 105°C for 30 min 24 h. It may
be concluded that the chemical composition, ultra-structural characteristics and
energy values of maize samples varied by source and were changed through heating
of low-moisture maize over varying time periods. These changes could impact on
the nutritive value of the grains and animal performance. 2013/01/23 - 10:44

This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance and energy
utilization of broiler chickens fed on conventional diets, based on soybean
or canola, with fishmeal (SBM50 and Can50, respectively) or on Vegetable Protein
(VP) diets without fishmeal (SBM75 and Can75). Feed intake was highest (p<0.001)
on the SBM50 and Can50 diets and lowest on SBM75 diet. Birds in the SBM50 and
Can50 diet groups were heavier (p<0.001) than the SBM75 and Can75 diet groups.
Birds on SBM50 and Can50 diets achieved superior Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR),
while birds on Can75 diet were the poorest. Mortality of birds was unaffected
(p>0.05) between dietary groups. The Apparent Metabolizable Energy (AME)
intake on the SBM50 and Can50 diets was higher (p<0.001) than in the VP.
Fat intake was highest (p<0.001) on Can50 diet group while protein intake
was unaffected by treatment. Heat Production (HP) was identical, but net energy
of production (NEp) was improved (p<0.05) in the birds on SBM50 and Can50.
Whole body energy as well as fat (p<0.05) and protein contents were also
increased (p<0.01) in the SBM50 and Can50 dietary groups. Birds on SBM50
and Can50 diet groups retained higher energy as fat (REf) (p<0.05) and as
protein (REp) (p<0.01). The efficiencies of utilization of ME for energy
(kRE), protein (kREp) and fat (kREf) retentions
were unaffected. The results demonstrated that birds on the conventional diets
(SBM50; Can 50) utilized energy better and as such grew faster than the birds
on VP (SBM75; Can75) diets. 2013/01/23 - 10:44

A broiler growth experiment was conducted using 360 one-day old Ross 308 chicks to study the effect of reducing dietary phosphorus and adding phytase enzyme. Two diets were formulated in starting period (1-20 days): a control diet contained 0.50% Available Phosphorus (AP) and a low P diet contained 0.40% AP. Such low P diet was fed without or with phytase supplementation (500 IU kg-1). At the growing period (21-35 days) every group of birds of the first period was divided into two sub-groups. Two grower diets were formulated, a control diet contained 0.40% AP and a low P diet contained 0.30% AP. The low AP diet was offered with phytase supplementation (500 IU kg-1). Growth performance, bone parameters and P excretion were measured at 20 and 35 day of age. No significant differences on chick performance among dietary treatments during the starting and growing periods were observed. The best FCR value was recorded for birds fed 0.50% AP diet in the first period then grown on 0.30% AP diet+phytase. Reducing dietary AP content did significantly (p<0.05) affect bone parameters at 20 and 35 day of age. Addition of phytase did alleviate such effect. Tibia Ca and P content significantly (p<0.001) increased by phytase supplementation. Phosphorus excretion decreased more than 20% at staring period and more than 30% at growing period when broilers were fed low P diets supplemented with phytase. The results showed pronounced beneficial effect regarding the excreted P. Supplementing phytase enzyme to broiler diets renders the dietary phosphorus contents more available to the birds. Therefore, the amount of supplemental phosphorus could be remarkably reduced. It could be concluded that reducing dietary P level and using phytase enzyme could limit quantity of excreted P from broilers without adverse effect on performance. This reduces such impact in environmental pollution. 2013/01/23 - 10:44

The uses of hematological and biochemical parameters in disease diagnosis are
well documented. However, sex, age and nutrition are the major factors affecting
avian hematology. The measurement of these parameters in relation to age and
sexes in local Saudi chickens are limited. Therefore, a total of 80 local Saudi
chickens of different age and sexes in summer season were divided into 4 groups.
First and second groups constitute male chicks of one and three months old (n
= 20 for each). Chicks of the third and fourth groups were females of one and
three months old (n = 20 for each). The collected blood and separated plasma
were used for determination of hematological and some biochemical parameters,
respectively. Total Erythrocyte Counts (TEC), Total Leucocytes Counts (TLC)
and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in male than
female chicks and were not age dependant. Hemoglobin and blood indices were
not significantly (p>0.05) differed in all birds. They were ranged as 9.5-11.7
g dL-1, 97-108 m3, 30.7-34.1 pg and 28.6-34.3%, respectively.
The percentage of heterophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophile
were age and sex independent in addition, their values are ranged as 41.8-46.2,
43.2-48.8, 3.9-4.9 and 3.1-4.4%, respectively. The examined biochemical parameters
were comparable in all birds. In conclusion, sex in local Saudi chickens in
summer season influenced on TEC, TLC and PCV. These results can be a guide for
scientists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on changes of hematological and some
biochemical value during hot the summer season. 2013/01/23 - 10:44

The purpose of this study was to assess whether the Thai crossbred chickens
can be raised at a higher stocking density than that recommended in Thailand.
A total 900 day-old mixed sex Thai crossbred chickens (crossbred between Thai
native males and the ISA Brown commercial layer type females) were assigned
as 3 replicates of 100 birds per pen, to stocking densities of 8, 12 and 16
birds m-2, respectively. Body Weight (BW), Body Weight Gain (BWG),
Feed Intake (FI), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and mortality rate of birds were
recorded at weekly intervals. Data on welfare indicators (leg condition, feather
damage scores, tonic immobility) were obtained at the 13 weeks of age. The results
showed that in this study stocking density had no significant effects on BW,
BWG, FI, FCR and mortality rate of chickens at 12 weeks of age. No leg problems
of chickens were found in any treatment at 13 weeks of age. Although, no perfect
feather of primaries and tail were found, the total body feather damage scores
were similar in all treatments. Stocking density did not significantly affect
tonic immobility duration of the chickens when stocking density was increased
from 8 to 16 birds m-2. It is thus concluded that Thai crossbred
chickens could be raised up to 12 weeks of age in as high density as 16 birds
m-2 without any adverse effects. 2013/01/23 - 10:44

The economic significance of infectious bursal disease is well known to worldwide
poultry farmers. Reported cases of concern in chickens by researchers have primarily
been targeted at direct mortality, secondary bacterial infections, immuno-suppression
with major impacts on production efficiency and decrease responses to vaccination.
This study evaluates economic losses of 3 successive recurrent outbreaks of
IBD in a commercial poultry farm in Kano, Nigeria and also projected 3 year
(2009-2011) economic losses. Contrary to many research findings, increased age
dependence and high mortality rates were observed during the study. Spreadsheet
method of disease analysis (2003) was used to project economic loss of over
three billion naira during these years under study. Due to high prevalence of
IBD in Nigeria, it has become necessary to attempt to quantify the economic
impact of IBD so that its economic losses could be appreciated, quick decisions
are made on how best to prevent, control and design research priorities. The
negative impacts of IBDV can be strategically minimised by good planning, effective
vaccination and sound biosecurity principles. 2013/01/23 - 10:44

For rabbits, minimum space allowances and stocking densities should always
refer to the final weight that rabbits would reach. To investigate the effects
of cage density on growth performance and some blood parameters of rabbits,
ninety California rabbits (27-day old) were housed in wire cages (50x50x30 cm
for each) in groups of 1, 2, 3 and 4 rabbits/cage; corresponding to stocking
densities of 4, 8, 12 and 16 rabbits m-2 for G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively.
From weaning up to 12 week of age, G1 showed the highest (p<0.05) weight
and gain with the best feed conversion. At 12 week of age, values of hemoglobin
(g dL-1), red blood cell count, lymphocytes (%), packed cell volume
(%) and mean corpuscular volume (fl) were highest (p<0.05) in G2. Mean corpuscular
hemoglobin (pg cell-1) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
(g dL-1) were highest (p<0.05) in G1, while G4 showed the highest
(p<0.05) white blood cell count. Concentration of total protein, globulin
and creatinine was highest (p<0.05) in G1. Aspartate transaminase and alkaline
phosphatase activities were higher (p<0.05) in G4 and G3 than in G1 and G2.
Albumin concentration and activity of alanine transaminase were not affected.
Concentration of ACTH and corticosterone was highest (p<0.05) in G4, while
cortisol was highest (p<0.05) in G4. In conclusion, 4 rabbits per cage (16
animals m-2; 32 kg m-2) could be an acceptable threshold
in terms of good growth performance without any adverse effects on welfare of
California rabbits under the intensive production in Egypt. 2012/10/11 - 23:32

This study is aimed to report the prevalence of coccidia infection and preponderance
Eimeria species of free range indigenous and intensively managed exotic
chickens in Zaria, Nigeria. Seventy whole intestines each from slaughtered market
age broilers, layers and indigenous chickens were collected from live bird market
in Zaria from March through July, 2011. Contents of each intestinal tract were
examined microscopically in the laboratory for the presence of coccidia oocysts
using simple floatation technique and graded based on number of oocysts per
field as, in apparent infection, low grade infection, severe infection for oocysts
counts of 1-10, 11-20 and >20 per field, respectively. To identify the likely
Eimeria species contained in each sample, oocysts shape index of twenty
randomly selected oocysts were determined by measuring their lengths and widths
using a calibrated ocular micrometer at 400x magnification. The 33.3% of all
the collected samples had coccidia infection, with specific prevalence rates
of 44.3% in layers, 37.1% in broilers and 18.6% in indigenous chickens. The
80.7% of the infected layers had unapparent coccidia infection, while 12.9 and
6.5% had low and severe grades infections, respectively. Similarly, 69.2% of
the infected broilers were unapparently infected while 26.9 and 3.9% were moderately
and severely infected with coccidia, respectively. More so, 84.6% of the infected
indigenous chickens had in apparent infection, while only 7.69% each had low
grade and severe infections. All the seven Eimeria species of chickens
were identified with overall prevalences of: E. maxima (58.6%), E.
acervulina (47.1%), E. mitis (30.0%), E. brunetti (28.6%),
E. tenella (22.9%) and E. praecox (8.6%). Mixed Eimeria
species infections were common among the sampled chickens with overall prevalence
61.4%. 2012/10/11 - 23:32

The study was carried out to estimate phenotypic response in body weight for
three generations using mass selection and additive genetic heritability of
body weight at 12, 16, 20 and 39 weeks of age (WOA) in males of the Nigerian
indigenous chicken. The study took place at the Department of Animal Science,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Body weight at 39 WOA was the selection criterion.
Results showed that body weight increased from 1372.66±16.46 g in G0
generation to 1656.58±27.45 and 1768.75±33.15 g in G1
and G2 generations, respectively. These implied phenotypic responses
of 321.09, 373.42 and 231.25 g and cumulative responses of 321.09, 694.51 and
925.76 g for G0, G1 and G2 generations, respectively.
There was moderate to high additive genetic heritability for body weight up
to 20 WOA (range, 0.24±0.27 to 0.59±0.45) and low to moderate
heritability for body weight at 39 WOA (range, 0.13±0.49 to 0.25±0.31).
Selection intensity was 2.11 in G0, 1.75 in G1 and 1.16
in G2 generation. Total variance was 198.87 in the last generation
indicating the presence of usable variation for further selection. From the
results, it was concluded that growth performance in the indigenous chicken
can be improved through mass selection especially within the growing period
of 12 to 20 WOA. 2012/10/11 - 23:32

With the advancement of science, there is a rising interest in poultry biotechnology
for changing the composition of egg by nutritional as well as genetic manipulations
for the human well beings. These alterations are in change in cholesterol level,
fatty acids and adding therapeutic pharmaceutical compounds etc. For acceptance
of this designer egg we have to address some of the legal, ethical and social
aspects along with its economic production. 2012/10/11 - 23:32

This study reviews all attributes of feed-food competition and enforced-demands of foods of animal origin with the aim of delivering synthesized information for beneficiaries. Population, urbanization and rising incomes are expected to double the demands for livestock products in the developing countries. Based on the demands, there has been a rise in the production of livestock products in the world; however, this overall increase isn’t occurring in the poorer African countries, rather declining. With increased production of animal products, there will be also increased demands for feeds. Moreover, increased mono-gastric populations and intensive feeding systems with improved genotypes resulted in a greater demand for concentrate feeds. Since, most production cost of poultry is based on concentrated feeds; this sector has been facing a problem of feed-food competition for those non grain self-sufficient countries. Thus, major poultry feed ingredients have been facing market competition with human food demands of poor countries like Ethiopia. To cope up with this feed-food competition, those poor feeds needs to be technically treated to improving nutritional values and moreover, institutional collaborations and support is demanding in order to facilitate for alternative feed utilizations. Use of biotechnology in animal production also improves feed utilization and productivity. Moreover, advanced concept of biotechnology is still to making edible products from outside the animals. It is conclude that responsible institutions should gear their program and responsibility towards to solving a problem of feed-food competition and dependency for importing improved chicken breeds. 2012/05/16 - 19:13

The introduction of commercial poultry in Nigeria has rapidly revolutionarised the poultry industry over the years. This has increasingly raised concern in poultry waste disposal. About 932.5 metric tonnes of commercial poultry manure are annually produced in Nigeria. Ammonia gas is majorly a product of poultry manure and to some extent green house gases. Pathogenic microorganisms can thrive in poultry wastes. These constitute environmental and health hazards to livestock and the teeming population. The concern on how to manage poultry wastes under intensive production systems led to the discovery of suitable poultry droppings and moist absorbents referred to as litter materials. Caging birds may soon become unethical, wood shavings and saw dust are most popular but are increasingly used to manufacture other wood products, alternative litter materials are seasonally available, poultry litter is effectively utilized as nitrogen based fertilizer and livestock feed supplement, therefore, the demand and price for litter materials is magnified. Thus, farmers cannot secure enough good quality litter material for their birds. Economic losses due to poor litter are significantly high. In view of these therefore, careful selection, adequate management and proper storage and utilization of poultry litter are of paramount importance to reduce environmental pollution, disease spread and economic losses associated with poultry litter. 2012/05/16 - 19:13

This study reviews related research results and facts of indigenous chicken production and their innate characteristics with the aim of delivering synthesized and summarized information to the beneficiaries. Poultry contributes the largest parts of animal-source foods. Chicken is the most constituents of poultry species in Africa and the locals are the most commonly distributed across every corner of the tropical countries. Relatively, indigenous chickens have a capacity to resist disease, able to utilize low quality feeds and their products are preferred by consumers. In Ethiopia, indigenous chicken production system is a traditional type which is characterized by small flock size and is usually affected by disease outbreaks. Sharing the house of a family is the farmers’ sheltering method of chickens at night and scavenging is the main source of feeds with unplanned breeding practices. Over the years, poultry populations and per capita consumption of eggs and poultry meat has been declining in Ethiopia. Indigenous chickens have a large morphological variation. Overtimes, social cultures and beliefs of most of the community have been influenced by these morphological variations. Those, indigenous birds which have got red or white plumage colors combined with pea shaped comb-types always fetches higher price than their counterparts. The result showed that micro-satellites of indigenous chicken population were highly polymorphic. Generally, the huge gene pool resources should be protected from genetic erosion and be used for improvement through traditional selections together with genomic technology. It is concluded that any indigenous chicken improving program should incorporate the production objectives and traits preferences of the society. 2012/05/16 - 19:13

Sweet Potato Meal (SPM) was used to substitute maize on weight for weight basis as a dietary source of energy for starter and finisher chickens. The SPM was incorporated at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% levels in both studies without adjustments for energy and protein. Ross broiler chicks obtained from a local hatchery were used for the studies. Three replicates of 15 chicks each were randomly allocated to each of the 7 treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for the starter phase while the number of birds was reduced to 14 per group for the finisher phase. Parameters measured or calculated include feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, feed cost, feed cost/kg wt. gain, mortality and carcass characteristics. The starter phase study was on 1 to 5 week-old chicks while the finisher study was on 6 to 9 week-old chickens. The trend of results in the two phases were similar and showed that weight gain, feed intake and total cost of raising birds decreased significantly (p<0.5) while the feed cost/kg wt. gain and feed: gain ratio increased (p<0.05). The control, 10 and 20% SPM diets gave similar feed efficiency. The control gave the best performance, though its performance was not different (p>0.05) from those of the 10 and 20% SPM diets. Dietary SPM levels had no adverse effects on mortality and carcass characteristics. It is concluded that SPM should not be included beyond 20% level when substituted for maize on a weight for weight basis without adjusting the dietary protein and energy. 2012/05/13 - 12:21

The objective of this study was to investigate response of growing rabbits to added levels of zinc, magnesium or iron. Three growth experiments were carried out using 150 NZW rabbits of 5 weeks old to study the effect of different supplemental levels of zinc, magnesium or iron on growth performance and some carcass traits. Concentrations of these elements in blood plasma, urine and/or hair or bone were measured. In each experiment, 50 rabbits were allocated individually up to the 13th week of age to one of five experimental groups. In the 1st experiment five levels of zinc (as zinc oxide) being 0, 50, 100, 200 or 400 Zn mg kg-1 diet were examined. In the 2nd experiment Mg (as magnesium oxide) was used by levels of 0, 400, 600, 800 or 1000 Mg mg kg-1 diet. Iron (as ferrous sulphate) was used in to provide levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 Fe mg kg-1 diet in the 3rd experiment. The results showed that supplementing Zn by levels of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 diet significantly (p<0.05) improved live weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared to the higher level of 400 mg kg-1 diet. Dietary Zn level had no significant effect upon feed intake, carcass traits or Zn concentration in plasma, hair or urine. Supplementing 400 up to 1000 Mg mg kg-1 diet significantly (p<0.05) improved feed conversion ratio of the diet and enhanced (p>0.05) live weight gain of the rabbits. It did significantly (p<0.05) affect feed intake and liver weight (% of body weight). Mg supplementation showed no significant effect on kidney weight and concentrations of Mg in plasma, bone or urine. Supplementing Fe had no further effect on rabbit studied criteria, except for the plasma total iron binding capacity that significantly decreased with supplementing 75 Fe mg kg-1 diet compared with the other treatments. It could be conclude that growing rabbit is tolerable to excessive dietary doses of the Zn, Mg or Fe. Also, it is quite clear that the growing rabbit responded positively to 100 mg supplemental Zn kg-1 diet, in terms of significant improvement in live body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Also, a supplemental Mg in the rate of 400 mg kg-1 diet tended to improve live body weight gain and significantly improved feed conversion ratio of the rabbit. While, supplementing Fe above the recommended level (25 mg kg-1 diet) had no added value for growing rabbits. 2012/05/13 - 12:21

The use of boiled pigeon seeds as a replacement for groundnut cake in the diets of broiler chickens was evaluated in growth performance, carcass and haematological studies. Five each of broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated to contain, 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% of pigeon pea meal protein as replacement for soyabean meal protein, respectively. One hundred and twenty (120), 1 week old broilers were divided into five groups of 24 birds each and were randomly assigned to the five dietary treatments in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). Each group had 3 replicates of chicks each. Water and feeds were offered Ad libitum. The results obtained indicated that pigeon pea meal protein replacement for soyabean meal protein up to 50% level in the finisher diet supported growth or total weight gain without any significant (p<0.05) depression. Total weight gain deceased significantly (p<0.05) with higher levels of pigeon pea meal protein replacement for soyabean meal. Feed utilization viz., feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratios were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary treatments. Carcass and organ weights decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of pigeon pea meal in the diets. Haematological values were also significantly (p<0.05) affected. Haemoglobin, white blood cells, packed cell volume, leutrophils and the differential white blood cell counts were observed higher among chickens fed control diets and generally decreased with increasing levels of pigeon pea meal in the diets. Total serum protein, albumin and globulin value recorded among the chickens fed control diets can be considered low when compared with values obtained for the test diets. It is important to add that the negative effects of decrease or increase in some blood parameters had no observed serious negative impact on chickens fed diets 2 and 3 containing up to 50% pigeon pea meal protein replacement for soyabean meal protein since they were not inferior to chickens fed the control diet with regard to growth performance. 2012/03/21 - 21:09

An experiment was carried out with laying hens to investigate the effect of feeding garlic at low dietary concentrations on cholesterol metabolism and productivity of laying hens. Sixty, 57 weeks old laying hens belonging to Shaver 579 strain was fed garlic at different dietary levels for 10 weeks. Five dietary treatments, each of four replications, containing either 0, 5, 15, 25 or 35 g garlic per kg were compared. The birds were reared in a pyramid-type laying cage during the experimental period. Blood and eggs were collected three times for the determination of cholesterol concentration in serum and yolk. Laying performance in terms of body weight gain, egg weight, total egg mass and FCR were recorded. Use of garlic at increasing concentration showed negative linear effects (p<0.01) on total lipids, yolk cholesterol and serum cholesterol. Analysis of performance data showed no significance differences from the control group except a linear increase in total egg mass and hen day egg production (p<0.01). It may be concluded that garlic can be considered as a hypocholesterolemic dietary feed additive in older hens but further feeding trials with dietary inclusion levels between 25 and 35 g kg-1 would be useful to establish these results. 2012/03/21 - 21:09

Related research results and facts of climate change scenarios and the preferences of animal species that reared for animal protein productions were reviewed with the aim of delivering synthesized information for the beneficiaries. Both of the climate change and animal productions have always negative impacts one over the other. Livestock is responsible for 18% of GHG emissions measured in CO2-eq. Upcoming animal protein supply and demands will pose a challenge to the environment. However, due to its low global warming potential, poultry has advantages over other livestock industries. Chicken is the cheapest, without taboos and nutritious of all livestock meats but the red meat industry is a pro-active for environmental concerns. Birds, however, tolerates a narrow temperature ranges and are vulnerable to climate changes. There is a positive relationship between the level of income and the consumption of animal proteins. As a result, animal protein production is projected to double by 2050. Consequently, poultry consumption is expected to grow at 2-3% per year and its share is also around 33% of the total meat produced in the world. The average per capita consumption of poultry is around 11 kg. Technology favors the intensification of poultry production in developing countries but environment and health issues will be the concern. A grain yield is adversely affected by warming that leads to food-feed competitions. This competition gives rise to looking for alternative feeds and other utilizing techniques to improving the nutritive values of poor ingredients. It needs 2 and 4 kg of cereals, to produce 1 kg of chicken meat and pork, respectively. This shows that chicken is relatively efficient in feed conversion ratio than other livestock. It is therefore, concluded that to coping up with climate changes, poultry is the preferred species of farm animals that allowed for protein food productions. Moreover, it is also the preferred species of farm animal that will satisfy the demands of protein foods of the people. 2011/12/13 - 08:54

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of African porridge fruit (Tetrapleura tetraptera) pod on broiler chicken in Animal Science Department, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria. The aim was to determine the growth performance, gut microbes and some haematological indices of finishing broiler chickens under three Tetrapleura tetraptera feeding regimes. The three feeding regimes were cold water extract, boiled water extract and feed inclusion of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Feed intake, weight gain, carcass traits and faecal microbial loads were determined. Economic analyses were also conducted at the end of the four weeks experiment. There were no significant differences (p>.0.05) in the feed intake as well as weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The dressed weights of the broilers in the Tetrapleura tetraptera feeding regimes diets were better than those birds on the diets without Tetrapleura tetraptera regime. Also there was significant differences (p<0.05) in blood components of broiler chickens under the feeding regimes. The Pack Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cells (RBC) and White Blood Cells (WBC) in improved with cold water. The gross margin and benefit-cost ratio were higher with Tetrapleura tetraptera feeding regimes than that without the Tetrapleura tetraptera. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the microbial load of the feacal samples. However, there was marginal higher load of E. coli in the diets without Tetrapeura tetraptera. The diets fed with cold water Tetrapleura tetraptera had the least microbial load. 2011/12/13 - 08:54

Feed is one of factors that determines quality attributes of duck meat. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different forms of feed (mash, paste and crumble) on fat and cholesterol contents of blood and meat of male local ducks reared for 9 weeks. The experiment used 54 day old male local ducks of Indonesia and complete feed (BR II). Treatment applied was the form of the feed which were mash, paste and crumbe. Each treatment has 6 replicates and each experimental unit consisted of 3 ducks. Variables observed were fat and cholesterol contents of meat and cholesterol content of blood. Feeding ducks with different forms of feed significantly affected fat and cholesterol contents of the meat. However, it has no significant effects of blood cholesterol. Locals ducks fed paste feed produce meat with higher cholesterol and fat contents than those fed mash or crumble feeds. 2011/12/13 - 08:54

Identification and characterization of Indonesia local ducks are needed since the information is so important for the Indonesia germ plasm data bank as well as for assisting the genetic improvement program of the species. The identification can be based on qualitative or quantitative phenotype or based on biological molecular through DNA polymorphisms. The research aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity based on the phenotype and genetic relationship using 7 microsatellite primers between Bali and Alabio ducks of Bali and South Borneo region, respectively. A survey has been conducted on farmers of Mengwi (Denpasar, Bali) and Amuntai (Hulu Sungai Utara, South Borneo). Two farmers were chosen randomly on each region and 10 animals were sampled on each farmer making all 40 animals included in the study. The results showed that: the two local ducks differ phenotypically, Bali ducks produced less eggs than did the Alabio and only 5 microsatellite primers were polymorphic. The highest PIC value was of ADL-29 (0.588) with the mean PIC of the Bali and Alabio population of 0.446 and 0.5, respectively. The estimated heterozygosity value on that locus showed a big variation between the two local ducks, i.e. Bali ducks (0.683) and Alabio (0.813). The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium test showed that the Bali duck population was a result of random mating while the Alabio was not. The genetic distance evaluation showed that the Bali and Alabio ducks had a genetic relationship of 0.06. The study concluded that the genetic variability of the two local ducks based on phenotype and microsatellite marker was quite high. Bali ducks and Alabio ducks were found to be distantly genetically related. 2011/09/23 - 09:21

Rapid growth rate in the poultry industry poses the problem of huge production of poultry excreta. Hence, utilization of this vast organic waste might be a critical issue in near future. One of the potential uses of poultry excreta could be its utilization as a source of protein in poultry ration. With this objective the study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Dried Poultry Excreta (DPE) supplementation on the performance of broilers, in terms of growth, conformation traits and carcass characteristics. Analysis of variance revealed that the difference between replicates were none significant for the different traits. In the study, maximum shank length was found in the feed containing 5% DPE in both male and female. The keel bone length was increased when DPE increased in diet. The breast angle measurements of males were higher than the females. The males had the widest breast angle with 5% DPE level at 4th week of age and 10% DPE level at 6th week of age. The% leg yield on combined sex basis ranged from 31.7 to 32.3%, breast yield 26.3 to 26.6%, back with neck yield 24.4 to 25.0% and wing yield 16.9 to 17.3% within three DPE levels of diet. All DPE levels of the study in broilers diet can be implemented and was very well accepted but for better results it is recommended that DPE should be replaced in broilers diet between 5 to 10%. 2011/09/23 - 09:21