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Asian Journal of Crop Science

This study was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the efficiency dipping of Le Conte pear fruits in sodium bicarbonate (SBC) and/or potassium sorbate (KS) either alone or in combination to maintain fruit quality and control postharvest diseases at cold storage or during marketing at room temperature. Pear fruits were kept at 0°C±1 with 90-95% R.H. for 90 days at cold storage and 5 days as marketing at room temperature. The reduction in linear growth and dry weight were correlated to the increase in SBC and/or KS concentrations. The SBC 2.0% +KS 2.0% treatment gave complete inhibition of the linear growth and dry weight while, gave the maximum reduction in disease infection of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea (0.0%) in both seasons. Also, application of both SBC+KS showed the best results in reducing loss weight (%) and decay (%), since kept chlorophyll A and carotenoids content to a long time after cold storage and 5 days during marketing. Dipping fruits, in SBC alone, was more effective to progress fruit firmness. Furthermore, dipping fruits with KS alone decreased juice acidity (%) while increasing chlorophyll B, SSC (%) and total sugar (%) either after cold storage or through marketing. 2014/08/26 - 22:42

This study was carried out to establish a simple, efficient and reproducible protocol for plant regeneration in four rice genotypes which are Pokkali, RD6, Sakon Nakhon and Niaw Ubon 2. Two protocols were proposed and compared in this study, including (1) Multiple shoots induction and rooting and (2) Callus induction and regeneration. Single seeds of each cultivar were sown and germinated seed and shoot segments were used as explant source for the experiments. The results showed that a great number of multiple shoots induced from germinated seed could be achieved on MS solid medium supplemented with 50 μM 6-BAP alone, whereas rooting of the obtained shoots was easily induced on hormone-free MS solid medium. Compact callus formation could be induced from shoot segments on MS solid medium amended with 2 mg L-1 2,4-D alone, whilst a combination of 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 2.0 mg L-1 6-BAP was most effective in promoting shoot regeneration from compact calli. Our study suggests that the regeneration frequency obtained via callus induction was inferior to that yielded through multiple shoots induction. The procedure reported here is expected to be useful in micropropagation and in vitro breeding and selection for drought and/or salt tolerance in rice for increasing the yield potential of this vital crop. 2014/08/26 - 22:42

Le Conte pear fruits were dipped in 200 ppm aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and 5 mM oxalic acid (OA) solution either alone or in combination for 5 min to investigate their effects on delay ripening and prolong storability during cold storage and marketing conditions in 2012 and 2013 seasons. Pear fruits were kept at 0±1°C with 90-95% R.H for 90 days and 5 days after each storage period as marketing at room temperature. The results showed that the physiological effects of AVG and/or OA treatments in decreasing ethylene production were an important contributor to delaying the ripening process and reduced fruit decay incidence compared to the control. Besides, AVG+OA treatment was more effective in reduced respiration rate, showed slight browning and produced a lower fruit sugar. Weight loss percentage was significantly decreased with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) treatment alone, since, it was more effective to maintain fruit firmness at the end of the storage and preserve a higher green color. Furthermore, dipping fruits with oxalic acid (OA) alone decreased decay and total loss percentage after cold storage and 5 days during marketing. Since, hue angle values decreased in all treatments during cold storage. 2014/08/26 - 22:42

The combination effect of tillage and soil conditioner on the alleviation of
soil compaction problem for growing cassava on a Typic Paleustult was conducted
from May 2009 to March 2011. Deep tillage with soil conditioner applied had
no effect on increased cassava yield in both years. Deep tillage practice together
with the application of chicken manure gave the highest yield in the first year
(19.88 t ha-1) and with gypsum (23.13 t ha-1) in the second
year but with no statistical difference in both years. Both soil conditioners
significantly induced the plant to have the lowest starch percentage of 21.7
and 24.6%, respectively. Ground limestone, gypsum and no amendments with and
without deep tillage significantly gave the highest starch percentage in the
first year while in the second year ground limestone, chicken manure and no
amendment with conventional tillage had the same effect. Chicken manure highly
significantly gave the highest above ground biomass by increasing stem, leaves
and branches weight in the second year. There was no change of soil properties
as the soil still containing very low amounts of organic matter and plant nutrient
even though soil conditioner had been applied for two consecutive years. Chicken
manure was the most efficient soil conditioner in increasing soil pH and enhancing
plant nutrients availability while gypsum was the most effective source for
alleviating soil compaction problem particularly more evidently at the depth
between 20-30 cm. Nevertheless, soil compaction still remained after two-year
application as shown by soil physical properties measured. 2014/08/26 - 22:42

A greenhouse trial was carried out with the aim of assessing the Se concentration
and Se uptake in different plant parts especially in rice grains and also the
effect of Selenium on rice plant yield and some yield components. The experiment
was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.
Three rice varieties (MR232, MR219 and MR253) and five rates of sodium selenite
(Na2SeO3) including 0, 100, 300, 500 and 700 g ha-1
were selected. It was observed that leaf, culm and the grain of rice varieties
as well as total Se uptake and grain uptake were affected by used Se rates.
All the Se levels used in this study have been able to increase Se level in
rice grains to be acceptable for human consumption but among the different Se
levels supplied, the level of 500 g ha-1 of Se is recommended rate
in order to increase Se concentration in grain. Plant dry matter yield, grain
yield and yield components were not affected by the different supplied Se concentrations. 2014/08/26 - 22:42

Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the inhibitor of
gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa
L.) grown by no tillage cultivation with single basal fertilization of Controlled-Availability
Fertilizer (CAF) to the nursery box. Inabenfide (4'-chloro-2'-(α-hydroxybenzyl)-isonicotinanilide:
IBF) was used as an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. There was no difference in the
plant age between the control and IBF treatment. However, the length of IBF-treated
plants is significantly longer than the control plants during the growth period.
The number of tillers was similar between both treatments until the maximum tiller
number stage, after that, it significantly increased in IBF-treated plants. The
IBF treatments increased the number of panicles by 24.5% compared with the control
but decreased the number of grains per panicle. The IBF treatment did not affect
the total number of grains, the reduction in grain number per panicle was compensated
by the increased number of panicles. The percentage of ripened grains and the
one-thousand-grain weight in IBF-treated plants were similar to those of the control.
When all yield components were taken into consideration, no difference in grain
yield was found between the IBF treatment and control groups. The present report
indicates that IBF works well for promoting tillering in no-tillage rice cultivation
with a single basal fertilization of CAF to the nursery box. 2014/08/26 - 22:42

Climate is the primary important factor for agricultural production. The objectives of this research were to studied the temperature and rainfall under past climate (1981-1996) and recent climate (1997-2012) in Northeast Thailand and examine the existing rice-based cropping systems under past climate on the trend of climate changes, as well as examine farmers’ coping with adaptation strategies to the related climate changes. The result showed that the areas where peanut grown after rice in post-rainy season with non-irrigation in Surin province, the mean maximum and minimum temperature increased about 0.53 and 0.84°C, respectively during the growing period under recent climate. This enhances potential evaporation and reduces the availability of soil moisture, thus causing peanut failure of production. Farmer’s coping adaptation strategies including changes in crop species, changes in land allocation and supplement irrigation. The areas where sesame and kenaf grown before rice in Buriram and Chaiyaphum province, respectively as pre-rice crop with initial growth using soil moisture by summer rain. Sesame and kenaf fail of production under recent climate, due to shifts in the monthly distribution of rainfall within the summer season one to two months. This caused delay planting and consequently interferes with normal rice planting. Farmers’ coping adaptation strategies including use of irrigation and changes land allocation. For overall climate changes in Northeast Thailand, the annual mean maximum temperature increased by 0.21°C, while mean minimum temperature increased by 0.51°C. The annual mean rainfall intensity increased by 67 mm with the number of rainy day in recent climate greater than the past climate about 2 days. 2014/05/16 - 00:03

In Ethiopia, rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yield is low party due to low nitrogen fertility status of the soil. An experiment was conducted from August to November, during main rainy season of 2010, in Gambella, Ethiopia, to determine grain yield and yield components and N efficiency responses of rice to five N rates (0, 3.5, 7, 10.5, 14 g m-2) in factorial combinations with three sowing methods (drilling, dibbling and broadcast) in a randomized complete block design with three replications using commonly grown rice variety, nerica-4. Grain yield increased from 302-469 g m-2, total biomass 786-1268 g m-2, tillers 477-661 m-2, panicles 456-612 m-2 and filled grains/panicle 80-100 when N rate increased from 0-14 g m-2. Maximum values for panicles (621 m-2) and filled grains/panicle (110) and that for grain yield (510 g m-2) were obtained at 7 and 10.5 g m-2 N rate, respectively. With the increase in N rate from 0-14 g m-2, grain N concentration increased from 1.44-1.53%, straw N concentration 0.79-0.93%, total grain N 4.36-7.18 g m-2, total straw N 3.82-7.45 g m-2 and total plant N 8.18-14.63 g m-2. Maximum values for grain N concentration (1.58%) and total grain N (8.04 g m-2) and total plant N (14.81 g m-2) were obtained at 10.5 g m-2 N rate. Agronomic efficiency decreased from 29 -12, apparent recovery 0.76-0.46 and physiological efficiency 38-26 when N rate increased from 3.5-14 g m-2. The present experiment suggests that soil nitrogen content should be considered in N fertilization recommendations. 2014/05/16 - 00:03

Biological control and host plant resistance are key components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Little studies have however been done on their potential for integration in the management of cereal aphids in wheat. The impact of host plant resistance and coccinellid predators on cereal aphid population and wheat yield was therefore studied in outdoor cages. Two wheat varieties and two coccinellids predators Adonia variegeta and Chelomenes lunata were compared against a control. A mixed population of three cereal aphid species was inoculated onto wheat plants and newly emerged coccinellids were introduced in all plots except controls. Aphid counts were taken at five wheat growth stages. Repeated measure analysis indicated that there were significant differences in aphid counts between the cages with coccinellids and the control (F = 7.20; df 2, 12; MSE = 28; p<0.09) in 2008 and (F = 9.4; df 2, 12; MSE = 19; p<0.09) in 2009. The aphid numbers in the control (13.7) were approximately twice those in cages with beetles (7). Coccinellids and the resistant wheat variety showed a positive interaction at flowering stage (F = 25.3; df 60, 89; MSE = 3.9; p<0.01). Cages with coccinellids recorded more than 50% increase in wheat yield (F = 44; df 10, 17; MSE = 0.00004; p<0.001) in 2008 and (F = 57; df 10, 17; MSE = 0.000036; p<0.0001) in 2009 compared to the control. Wheat plant resistance and biological control could therefore be complementary strategies in IPM against cereal aphids. 2014/05/16 - 00:03

Productivity of potato is constrained primarily by use of low
quality seeds in Ethiopia. Many field multiplication generations of vegetatively
propagated basic seed result in build-up of seed-borne diseases and subsequent
dissemination to new fields. Use of soil-less media is an alternative to reduce
soil borne disease infections in production of vegetatively propagated planting
materials. The main bottleneck in potato seed tubers is slow multiplication
rate on the field and contamination of the seed with viral and bacterial diseases.
This has therefore, called for use of Rapid Multiplication Techniques (RMTs)
such as in vitro propagation of potato to eliminate viral and bacterial
infections. The production of potato seed under conventional system has not
been effective in avoiding or reducing the build-up of pathogens and has consequently
led to reduced quality seed and low crop yields. Holetta Agricultural Research
Center (HARC) aims to improve production and productivity of potato in Ethiopia
through promotion of the use of quality seed tuber. RMTs have been used at the
research center to improve the multiplication ratio of disease free potato seed
in short period of time. Using RMTs, large quantities and quality minitubers
have been produced at HARC starting from Tissue Culture (TC) in vitro
plantlets in the laboratory followed by screen house pot multiplication. Recently,
aeroponics unit were introduced and under use to produce high quality minitubers
for released potato varieties and clones as one of the RMTs tools. Thus, the
existing potato seed multiplication using conventional methods alone cannot
cope up with the current national seed demand for improved quality seed tubers.
Therefore, the use of TC mass propagation of in vitro plantlets and further
multiplication using RMTs such as screen houses and aeroponics techniques are
an efficient way of assisting the process of multiplying large quantity clean
seed tuber production. It also aims to contribute to the growing national seed
demand as well as to produce disease free planting materials that will be helpful
to eradicate the dissemination of potato viruses and bacterial wilt. Thus, this
review paper outlines the progress and achievements in RMTs for production of
high quality seed potato at HARC. The challenges and the need to develop certification
standards to increase capacity for potato minitubers production by RMTs in Ethiopia
were also explicitly discussed. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

The present study was carried out in open private commercial field in El-Behira
Governorate, Egypt (30"54'34, 87"N and 30" 42' 33, 78" E) during the period
from 15 February 2013 to 26 April 2013. The study deals with the effect of seven
different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (control zero, 500,
1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 ppm) for 12 h and three types of planting media
(sand, sand: peat moss 1:1(v/v) and peat moss) on root performance of Jatropha
curcas L. and Euphorbia tirucalli cuttings. Data were collected ten
weeks after planting the cuttings. Three experiments were conducted where in
Experiment 1: Cuttings were taken from two years old of Jatropha curcas
L. terminal branches 6-8 cm length treated with IBA at different concentration
showed the rooting behavior in the order: 1500 ppm>1000 ppm>3000 ppm>2500
ppm >2000 ppm>500 ppm> control. In case of propagation 1500 ppm IBA
treatment was found to be the best (6.8 roots/cutting, 1.32 cm root length,
71.1 rooting percentage, 3.1 g fresh weight, 1.5 leaves/cutting, 2.4 cm length
of the longest leaf and 38 days to sprout). In Experiment 2: Cuttings were taken
from four years old of Jatropha curcas L. terminal branches 15-17 cm
length treated with IBA at different concentration showed the rooting behavior
in the order: 2500 ppm >3000 ppm >2000 ppm>1500 ppm>500 ppm>1000
ppm>control. In case of propagation 2500 ppm IBA treatment was found to be
the best for (8.3 roots/cutting, 5.6 cm root length, 68.8 rooting percentage,
14.8 g fresh weight, 3.1 leaves/cutting, 4.6 cm length of the longest leaf and
50 days to sprout). In Experiment 3: Cuttings were taken from terminal branches
of Euphorbia tirucalli 20-22 cm length treated with IBA at different
concentration showed the rooting behavior in the order: 2500 ppm>1500 ppm>2000
ppm>3000 ppm>1000 ppm>500 ppm>control. In case of propagation 2500
ppm IBA treatment was found to be the best for (8.2 roots/cutting, 11.8 cm root
length, 73.3 rooting percentage, 5.2 g fresh weight, 7.7 leaves/cutting and
46 days to sprout). The types of planting media treatment showed the rooting
behavior in order: Sand>sand: Peat moss 1:1 (v/v)>peat moss for both cuttings
of Jatropha curcas and Euphorbia tirucalli in all three experiment. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

The experiment was conducted to evaluate ten hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare
L.) genotypes (line-1 to line-7, Giza 129, Giza 130 and Giza 131) for high yield
potential and stable performance under two irrigation treatments (normal and
stress). Plant height, spike length, spikes No. m-2, grains
number/spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield/plot and grain yield/plot
were evaluated during two successive seasons 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 at Sakha
Agricultural Research Station (ARC), Egypt. Results revealed that negative significant
effects observed for water stress in both growing seasons. Line-3, line-4 and
Giza 130 which had the highest biological yield and grain yield especially under
stress condiotion. Drought Susceptibility Index (DSI) over both conditions indicated
that line-2, line-7, Giza 130 and Giza 131 were tolerant for most traits, indicating
the importance of these parents in this regard. The correlation analysis showed
that highly significant positive correlations between yield components and grain
yield under the two conditions were detected. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

During 2012 and 2013 seasons soil mulching with black polyethylene sheets and
sawdust, chemical control with Round up, hand hoeing as well as application
of humic acid and Effective Microorganisms (EM1) were examined for their positive
action on killing weeds and improving yield and quality of Red Globe grapes.
Results revealed that soil mulching with black polyethylene sheets or sawdust,
chemical control and hand hoeing either applied alone or in combined with application
of humic acid and EM1 was very effective in reducing dry weight of annual weeds
and enhancing growth characters, nutrients in the leaves, yield as well as physical
and chemical characteristics of the grapes in relative to control. The best
means for controlling weeds and improving productivity of the vines was soil
mulching with black polyethylene sheets followed by sawdust, hand hoeing and
chemical control, in descending order. Controlling weeds by weeds control treatments
along with application of humic acid and EM1 was superior than using weed control
treatments alone in this respect. Soil mulching with black polyethylene sheets
as well as application of humic acid and EM1 each at 5 mL per vine is suggested
for controlling weeds and improving productivity of Red Globe vineyards. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

For studying the effect of intercropping system of onion plants on sugar beet
plants, a field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of
Agriculture, Assiut University which carried out during two winter growing seasons
of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. In the study, we focused on the relative advantage
of intercropping systems of sugar beet with onion on the growth, yield and yield
components of the two crops intercropping parameters which also considered.
The effects of the associated cropping patterns of onion with sugar beet on
yield and its components of onion crop were significantly decreased by intercropping.
Nevertheless the yield of sugar grown in monoculture was slightly high than
obtained from any intercrop combination under study. These results may be due
to competition between sugar beet and onion plants for nutrient, water and solar
radiation. The highest values of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) and gross return
were observed when sugar beet intercropping with onion as compared to mono crops
of either species. This investigation showed that grown sugar beet intercropping
with onion gave the highest economic return for the farmers. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

A hydroponic trial was carried out to determine the effect of molybdenum (Mo)
on utilization and uptake of macro and micronutrients in different rice cultivars.
The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with
a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of
Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L-1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI,
MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. The results
showed that the enhancement of Mo levels (from 0.01 to 0.1 and 0.1 to 1mg L-1)
led to increase of root Mo uptake by 81.7 and 61.6% and shoot Mo uptake by 43
and 87%, respectively. Also, Mo application significantly affected shoot Phosphorus
uptake so that highest shoot Phosphorus (P) uptake (0.43% plant-1)
was achieved at 1mg Mo L-1 but there was no significant influence
on root P uptake. Shoot Iron (Fe) uptake was inversely proportional to increment
of Mo rates therefore, the highest rate of shoot Fe (59.05 μg plant-1)
was obtained in treatments with least amount of applied Mo. Also, increase in
Mo application enhanced manganese (Mn) uptake of shoot but there was no significant
effect on Mn root uptake. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

A field experiment was conducted at 2 locations (Bolosso Sore and Damot Sore)
in Wolaita Zone of SNNPRS to evaluate the response of 2 varieties of haricot
bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to phosphorus fertilizer rates and liming
on acidic soils. Combinations of 4 levels of P (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1)
with 2 rates of lime (0 and 0.4 t ha-1) were used on 2 varieties.
The treatments were arranged in factorial RCBD with 3 replications. Analysis
result of soil samples showed that OC, Av.P, TN and soil pH values were very
low. Application of lime with P resulted significant changes on these chemical
properties of the soils in the 2 locations. Availability of P and soil pH was
improved due to the application of lime and maximum values of these parameters
were recorded at 30 kg P ha-1. Growth parameters, yield and yield
components were significantly increased with increasing rates of P, both with
liming and no liming at the 2 locations (year 1 and 2). Maximum grain yields
(1488.40 and 1523.7 kg ha-1 for Hawasa Dume at Gununo and Dolla,
respectively and 1242.12 and 1352.01 kg ha-1 for Omo-95 at Gununo
and Dolla, respectively) were recorded at rates of 30 kg P ha-1 with
lime of 0.4 t ha-1 at both locations. From the result of this study,
it could be conclude that liming improve soil pH, Av.P and performance of haricot
bean varieties but till now there is some gap on correcting acidity of the soils
and also grain yield of the varieties. So, application of lime should be repeated
in the coming season until soil comes to neutral and increased the production
of the crops. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

Two field experiments were conducted during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons in sandy soil under drip irrigation system at the Regional Agricultural Research Station, New Valley, El-Kharga Governorate, Egypt. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) Whether the yield and its components of tomato are reduced when they are interplant with different plant population density of common bean. (2) The appropriate planting ratio that would give high yields of tomato and common bean and (3) Ascertain monetary returns from tomato/common bean intercrops. The efficiency of diffirent cropping systems can be evaluated by land equivalent ratio which was determined as an index of intercropping advantage and economic net income. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Super Strain B) as a main cop was intercropped with different plant population density of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bronco) as intercrop. All crops were grown also in pure stands. Treatments consisted of combinations of three densities of common bean for each tomato plant (1 tomato plant: 1 or 2 or 3 common bean plants) in a randomized complete block design. Results of this study showed that yield response of tomato due to different intercropping systems was insignificant. Also, results showed that different intercropping system compared to sole did not affected yield and some component of tomato. This indicated also that tomato plant can be tolerating common bean plants without adverse effect on yield. Common bean yield of intercropping systems increased as number of plants associated with tomato increased. Data showed a high additional increase in profits over the each cost for one plant tomato: three common bean plants. The highest LER (Land Equivalent Ratios) was found 1 tomato plant: 3 common bean plants as 1.26 and 1.25 in 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively. It is recommended to use this pattern to improve farmer's income and LER under New Valley conditions. 2014/04/16 - 18:45

Demand on Solidago has been rising dramatically over the past few years.
Solidago canadensis “Tara” belongs to family Asteraceae and grows
as wild flower in North America, Asia and Europe. It is widely used as a landscaping
flowering plant, as an excellent cut flower arrangements and bouquets with high
post harvest durability and as a dried flower. This study was carried out to
determine the response of S. canadensis "Tara" to five Gibberellic
Acid (GA3) concentrations (control zero, 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm)
as foliar spray and two planting densities (16 and 32 plants m-2)
and interactions between them in an attempt to increase its landscape value,
its quality as a cut flower production for reaching to maximum export value
and increase its offsets production value as a vegetative propagation method
under Egyptian conditions. The results revealed that stem height, stem circumference,
fresh and dry weight, total leaves area plant-1, inflorescence length,
percentage inflorescence length stem-1, number of flowering branches
inflorescencestem plant-1, flowering branches length inflorescence-1,
vase life, total chlorophyll and carotene contents of leaves increased significantly
by reducing planting density. While, significant delay from (120 to 125 days)
in flowering occurred due to increasing planting density. Application of 200
ppm GA3 significantly increased stem height, inflorescence length,
percentage inflorescence length stem-1 and flowering branches length
inflorescence-1, while GA3 had no effect on flowering
date. Application of 400 ppm GA3 significantly decreased stem circumference,
fresh and dry weight, number of leaves plant-1, total leaves area
plant-1, number of flowering branches inflorescencestem plant-1
and total chlorophyll. The plants treated by combination of GA3 at
100 ppm with 16 plants m-2 density recorded the best in terms of
almost all characters studied. With respect to almost all characteristics, we
can recommend that the best results were recorded in plants treated by combination
GA3 at 100 ppm with 16 plants m-2. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

A diallel cross among inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) with medium maturity and an evaluation to estimate heterosis and genetic parameters for ear length (cm), ear diameter (cm), No. of rows ear-1, No. of kernels row-1, weight of 100-kernels and grain yield (ardab feddan-1) were carried out. Hybrids mean squares were highly significant for the six traits under both planting dates and combined analysis, except ear diameter. Indicating that the hybrids performance are differed from planting date to another. Results indicating that the parental inbred P5 gave high grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from crosses (P4xP1) and (P5xP4) in combined, these crosses were significantly out yielded the two checks SC 155. SC 162 at 5%. Moreover, crosses (P1xP4), (P1xP5),(P6xP1), (P4xP2), (P2xP3) and (P3x P6) were insignificantly better than the checks. For ear length, P1xP4 (56.67 and 67.65%) showed maximum positive heterosis over better-parent and mid-parent, respectively. For ear diameter P2xP1 gave maximum positive heterosis over better-parent and over mid-parent, for No. of Kernels row-1 26 crosses had highly significant and positive heterosis over mid-parents, for No. of Kernels row-1 six crosses (P1x P2),(P2x P1), (P4 x P1), (P1 x P5), (P5xP1) and (P2xP6) had highly positively significant heterosis over better-parent. The highest positive significant heterosis over mid-parents for 100-kernel weight were recorded by 14 crosses. Cross P1xP2 showed maximum positive and significant heterosis over better-parent and mid-parents and only one cross P1xP4 gave positive and significant over check varieties for 100-kernel weight. For grain yield, cross P2xP4 (289.55%) and (295.73%) showed maximum positive and significant heterosis followed by P4xP2 (267.22 and 273.04%). Heritability in the narrow sense was the highest in No. of rows ear-1, while heritability in the broad sense was the highest in ear diameter. Heritability estimates in broad sense were medium (33-66%) of all studied traits except for ear diameter was high estimate (71%). Hence it could be concluded that these crosses may be useful for improving maize grain yield program. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

Grafting is considered to be an environmentally friendly technique for reducing
the yield losses caused by salinity and/or drought. Therefore, the present study
aims to employ grafting for improvement the tolerance of tomato (Solanum
lycopersicon L.) to salt and drought stresses. Two greenhouse experiments
were conducted during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. Each experiment included
12 treatments, representing all combinations of 2 grafting treatments (Farida
cv grafted onto Unifort rootstock and ungrafted Farida cv) and 6 abiotic stress
treatments (salt stress and/or water stress). The stress treatments consisted
of two levels of salinity (non-saline water with an average Electrical Conductivity
(EC) of 1.2 dS m-1 and saline water with an EC of 4.5 dS m-1)
applied at three irrigation rates (100, 75 and 50% of crop Evapotranspiration
(ETc)). The results demonstrated that the grafted plants had significantly higher
values for vegetative growth, yield and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) in comparison
with the un-grafted plants. Conversely, grafted plants had significantly lower
values for fruit quality traits vitamin C and Total Soluble Solid (TSS) and
leaf concentrations of Na+, Cl¯ and proline. The interaction
effects indicated that under the water stress and the salt stress treatments,
grafting alleviated the negative effects of these stresses on most of the studied
traits. The positive effects of grafting on plant growth and productivity support
the feasibility of the technique as a method for improving salt and drought
tolerance in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

Genetic variability is a prerequisite for any effective selection programme.
This investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of different doses
of gamma radiation to induce new genetic variability in some agronomic traits
of canola to improve the yielding ability via., selection of useful mutants
under saline conditions. Homogeneous dry seeds of two canola cultivars, i.e.,
serw 4 and 6 were treated with 0, 5, 10 and 15 Kr of gamma rays and the resultant
M2 generation was studied under saline field conditions. Results
indicated significant mean square due to radiation doses, cultivars and their
interaction for most studied traits, indicating the differential response of
cultivars to radiation treatments. Higher variation in the treated populations
than the control was detected for all studied traits, except for plant height
in serw 4 cultivar. The highest variation induced was observed due to the treatment
of 15 Kr of gamma rays in most studied traits in serw 4 while in 6, 5 Kr dose
came in the first rank for most traits. High positive correlation was obtained
between seed yield plant-1 and each of No. of branches plant-1,
No. of pods plant-1 and seed oil% of both cultivars treated by gamma
rays. Some promising mutants were isolated in the M2 generation.
These mutants included (a) Mutants for high yielding ability and (b) Early flowering
mutants. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

The presented study was conducted to study the effects of BAP and its combinations
with 2, 4-D and sucrose concentrations on androgenesis of broccoli cv. ‘Arcadia’.
The MS Basel media supplemented with AC (0.5 g L-1) and 3% sucrose
was used. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD)
using 3 replicates. The effects of BAP in combination with 2, 4-D and sucrose
concentrations on androgenesis of broccoli (cv Arcadia) anther cultures were
investigated. The MS basal media supplemented with activated charcoal (AC) (0.5
g L-1) was used. The medium complemented with BAP (1 mg L-1)
plus 2, 4-D (0.5 mg L-1) significantly increased the percentage of
anthers developing embryos (90%). Increasing 2, 4-D concentration (1 mg L-1)
significantly decreased the percentage of anthers formed embryos (10%). Regarding
the regeneration of the formed embryos, the culture medium containing BAP (1
mg L-1)+2, 4-D (0.5 mg L-1) or BAP (1 mg L-1)+2,
4-D (1 mg L-1) produced the high percentages of embryos induced callus.
The maximum percentage of embryos developed into plantlets were obtained with
culture medium with BAP (1 mg L-1)+2, 4-D (0.5 mg L-1)
followed by BAP (1 mg L-1) and 2, 4-D (1 mg L-1). Concerning
sucrose concentration, the culture medium with low sucrose concentration (20
g L-1) enhanced the percentage of anthers developed embryos. The
higher sucrose concentrations (50 and 60 g L-1) increased percentages
of dead anthers and anthers formed callus and decreased the percentage of embryos
developing plantlets. BAP in combinations with 2, 4-D and low concentrations
of sucrose can be successfully used to perform embryos and/or callus from the
callus induction and embryos development either to callus or plants. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

A half diallel cross among 5 inbred lines of maize was evaluated under two
different nitrogen rates for yield and yield components characters i.e., ears
No. plant-1, ear length, ear diameter, 100-kernel weight, grain yield
plant-1 and shelling percentage to evaluate the role of GCA and SCA
of inbred lines in hybrids performance under normal and stress of nitrogen levels
and to establish the magnitude of heterosis. Mean squares of genotypes were
highly significant for all studied traits under both nitrogen levels, except
shelling percentage under normal nitrogen level. General and specific combining
ability (GCA and SCA) mean squares were significant or highly significant for
all studied traits, except shelling percentage under normal nitrogen level at
GCA and SCA. GCA/SCA ratios revealed that the non-additive gene action for all
studied traits under both nitrogen levels was detected. The best combiners were
P4 (Inb.204) and P5 (Inb.213) for most of studied traits
under normal and stress nitrogen levels. This result indicated that these inbred
lines could be considered as good combiners for improving these traits. The
best crosses for ears No. plant-1 were P1 (Inb.84) xP3
(Inb.144) and P3 (Inb.144) xP4 (Inb.204), for ear length
was P2 (Inb.95) xP4 (Inb.204), for ear diameter was P1
(Inb.84) xP5 (Inb.213), for 100-kernel weight was P2 (Inb.95)
xP4 (Inb.204) and for grain yield plant-1 was P1
(Inb.84) xP3 (Inb.144) under both nitrogen levels. These crosses
could be selected and used in breeding programs for improving these traits.
Results showed significant or highly significant heterosis over mid or better
parents for all studied traits, except shelling percentage under normal nitrogen
level. The best crosses over both their mid-parents and better-parent for ears
No. plant-1 was P3 (Inb.144) xP4 (Inb.204),
for ear length was P2 (Inb.95) xP4 (Inb.204), for ear
diameter was P1 (Inb.84) xP5 (Inb.213), for 100-kernel
weight was P2 (Inb.95) xP4 (Inb.204), for grain yield
plant-1 was P1 (Inb.84) xP3 (Inb.144) under
both nitrogen levels and for shelling percentage was P1 (Inb.84)
xP3 (Inb.144) under stress nitrogen level. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

The principle aim of this study was to investigate the response of the bread
wheat cultivars to sowing dates. This study reveals one of the methods to handle
the climate changes in Egypt. Two field experiments were carried out in Agric.
Expt. Farm at Shalakan, Kaleobia Governorate, Egypt during 2010/2011 and 2011/2012
growing seasons. Each experiment included 15 treatments which were the combination
between three wheat cultivars (Giza 168, Sakha 93 and Gemmiza 9) and five sowing
dates (October 1, October 16, November 1, November 16 and December 1). The experimental
design used was split plot design in 6 replications. The obtained results reveal
that both sowing dates and wheat cultivars significantly affected dry weight
of blades, tillers (stems and sheaths) and spikes of wheat cultivars at different
growth stages. The percentages of blades and stems+sheaths were at the highest
values at booting stage and in favor of wheat Gemmiza 9 cultivar followed by
Giza 168 and Sakha 93. As the plants advanced towards maturity the percentage
distribution of blades and stems+sheaths were markedly reduced. These reductions
were accompanied with increase of spikes percentage of total plant dry weight
ranging from 44.1 for Giza 168-45.4% for Sakha 93. The percentages distribution
of plant organs of wheat cultivars was significantly varied. Under the conditions
of this work sowing wheat plants at 1st November exhibited statistically maximum
dry weight and percent distribution of blades, tillers and spikes in early.
Sowing wheat plants cultivar Gemmiza 9 in 1st November exhibited maximum Nitrogen
Use Efficiency (NUE), N Recovery Efficiency (NRE) and Nitrogen Harvest Index
(NHI). 2014/03/09 - 00:03

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown in both sole and maize/bean intercrop systems in Ethiopia. Increasing bean yield partly requires developing cultivars that are adapted to both cropping systems. An experiment was carried out using 20 common bean genotypes in sole and maize/bean intercrop during 2012 main cropping season in Dilla, Ethiopia, to investigate genetic variances and broad-sense heritabilities and to estimate correlation coefficients for grain yield and yield related traits of bean in sole and maize/bean intercrop. Genetic variances for grain yield (g m-2) and pods plant-1 in sole crop were greater than that of intercrop. Broad-sense heritability for grain yield, pods plant-1, seeds pod-1 and 100-seed weight (g) was 0.91, 0.82, 0.71 and 0.90, respectively, for sole crop and its respective value for the intercrop was 0.79, 0.66, 0.67 and 0.91. Grain yield was positively correlated (p<0.05) with pods plant-1 (rp = 0.50, rg = 0.59) and 100-seed weight (rp = 0.47, rg = 0.52) in sole crop and pods plant-1 (rp = 0.64, rg = 0.80; p<0.01) in intercrop. This experiment suggests that grain yield per se or pods plant-1 would be used as a selection criterion to improve grain yield under both sole and intercropping systems. Moreover, genotypes DAB243 and DAB245 may be incorporated in the future breeding programs to develop high yielding cultivars in sole and intercropping systems. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

This study was convened because of low levels of tomato produced in soils of
Tanzania with poor fertility status. It compared effects of poultry manure and
NPK (23:10:5) fertilizer to the performance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum
Mill). Poultry manure was applied at 2, 4 and 8 t ha-1 and NPK
fertilizer at 20, 40 and 80 kg ha-1. Results showed that the highest
number of leaves (70) and shoot length (93 cm) were recorded at 8 t ha-1
and lowest (46 and 57 cm, respectively) at 2 t ha-1 of poultry manure.
These variables were far small (18 and 55 cm, respectively) for absolute control.
In addition, 40 kg NPK ha-1 recorded the highest shoot length (91
cm) and 20 kg NPK ha-1 lowest (60 cm). Many tomato fruits (31) were
produced at 8 t ha-1 poultry manure compared with 22 in 40 kg NPK
ha-1 and differed significantly (p<0.001) with absolute control
(5) and among treatments. The smallest (823 g) and highest (2338 g) weights
of fruits recorded per plant at 2 and 8 t ha-1 poultry manure, respectively,
differed significantly (p<0.01) among treatments and absolute control (341
g). The smallest (676 g) and highest (1668 g) weights recorded at 20 and 40
kg NPK ha-1, respectively, also differed significantly (p<0.01).
It was concluded that poultry manure at 8 t ha-1 and NPK (23:10:5)
fertilizer at 40 kg ha-1 are sufficient for tomato plants but the
former outweighs the latter. 2014/03/09 - 00:03

Berseem or Egyptian clover is a winter annual legume of major importance to Egyptian agriculture as a principle source of forage and for conserving soil fertility under intensive cropping. In this review, the published work by authors on breeding Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) for productivity in Egypt has been summarized since 1980. The variability of the genotypes, genotypic and phenotypic correlation, Path coefficient, the breeding strategies, pollination and seed setting for Egyptian clover are presented. The genetics and productivity of Egyptian clover are recorded. The objectives of this review are enrichment the background for the investigators working in Egyptian clover breeding. Finally the achievements and the needed cooperation on the national level are also outlined. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Most of promising lands in El-Arish are situated near the Mediterranean Sea,
as insufficient available water irrigation with high concentration of salinity
from wells water is generally used for irrigation. Production of medicinal and
aromatic plants using microorganisms in biofertilization to reduce or replace
the chemical fertilizers became an essential process to ensure safety for human
and environment. The effect of three irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days)
and half or full dose of recommended rate inorganic NPK fertilizer as compared
with control ones (recommended rate of inorganic NPK fertilizer without microbial
inoculation) on vegetative growth, chemical composition and essential oil productivity
of Achillea santolina L. Plants was studies at the Experimental Farm
of the Faculty of Environmental Agriculture Science, El-Arish, during two seasons
(2010/2011 and 2011/2012). Results showed that the moderate irrigation interval
every 14-days was the prior for producing higher percentage and yield of volatile
than the intervals every 7 and 21 days. The growth and yield parameters of the
plants increased as a result of inoculation of symbiotic N2-fixers+phosphobacteria
with inorganic fertilizer followed by the same mixture given half dose NPK fertilizer
and then control. The interaction between the two factors of study, it could
be noticed that growth and yield parameters considerably improved as a result
of watering interval at 14 days and inoculation with biofertilizeres and supplemented
with half or full dose of inorganic NPK-fertilizer in the two seasons. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Farmers of Mediterranean countries are more confronted to water scarcity to
Productivity of ornamental plants under the conditions of sandy soil. Irrigation
systems and choosing the suitable method of fertilizer application is one of
likely decisions to optimizing their irrigation and fertilizers strategies.
The effect of irrigation water quantity (400, 600 and 800 m3/fed.)
and different rates (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of complete fertilizer on the growth
rate, flowering characters and plant nutritional for Xerochrysum bracteatum
Vent., Acroclinium roseum Hook. and Statice sinuate Mix. Plants
was studies at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Environmental Agriculture
Science, El-Arish, during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012). Results
showed in most cases that application of irrigation water at level of (800 m3/fed.)
being the most effective and favorable treatment on increasing plant growth
rate and flowering characters per plant and unit area. Application of complete
fertilizer at the rates (1.0%) through irrigation water recorded the maximum
values of plant growth rate, total carbohydrates, plant nutritional status and
flowering characters. The interaction between the two factors of study in general,
reflect significant effect on most studied parameters except few characters
which were fluctuated in the two seasons. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

An investigation was carried out at the Technical Centre of Potato situated in the low valley of Medjerda River at Saida to determine whether intercropping increased production for small-scale farming in a semi-arid region (Tunisia). Crop productivity of potato and sulla intercropping systems was evaluated in terms of Total Dry Matter production (TDM). The effect of radiation interception and Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) by these systems was measured to determine their productivity. Field trials were carried out during two crop growing seasons (2006-2007) and (2008-2009). Intercropping had no significant effect on the total dry matter production of potato and sulla. However, it increased the dry biomass of the intercropping system. This increase occurred during the two campaigns (2006-2007) and (2008-2009), respectively from 12.5 to 14.8% compared to the potato in sole cropping. Intercropping potato with sulla reduced the radiation interception by both crops. This reduction was in the two experiments, respectively (from 12.6 to 16.2%) and (from 3.5 to 17.4%) for both crops. Radiation Use Efficiency of potato in sole intercropping was improved from 11.2 to 11.4%. For sulla in sole intercropping, RUE has been improved only during the first experiment by 19.4%. From these results, it has been concluded that potato-sulla intercropping can be recommended to small-scale farmers in this semi-arid region. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Mycorrhizal fungi, a symbiotic relationship between plant roots and beneficial fungi are supposed to impart the stress tolerance in the host plants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of AM fungi with three grapevines rootstocks under salt stress. Three grapevines rootstocks (Dogridge, 1103 Paulsen and Harmony) were irrigated at three different NaCl concentrations measured by electrical conductivity (0.65, 1.56 and 4.68 dS m-1). Salinity decreased Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) colonization. In both the AM and non AM, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, total leaves number/plant and total dry weight were decreased under salinity. The plants inoculated with the AM fungus had significantly higher growth parameters compared to the non-inoculated plants. Increasing the salinity level tended to increase the proline accumulation and the concentrations of leaf N, Na and Cl while the chlorophyll content, leaf total carbohydrates, leaf P and K decreased. On the contrary, Inoculated the seedlings with AM tended to increase the levels of chlorophyll content, proline, total carbohydrates and the concentrations of leaf P and K. Whereas leaf N, Cl in the second season and Na of inoculated seedlings was significantly lower than that of un-inoculated ones. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Synthesis and accumulation of small organic osmolytes is a mechanism which protects plants from damaging effects of abiotic stresses including salinity. The effects of three different osmoprotectants; trehalose (Tre), proline (Pro), and sorbitol (Sor) on growth and physiology of rice seedlings subjected to salt stress were compared in this study. Four-day-old seedlings of rice cvs. Pokkali (PK; salt-tolerant) and Patumthani 60 (PT60; salt-sensitive) were treated with 5 mM and 10 mM Tre, Pro or Sor without and with 170 mM NaCl for 10 days. NaCl inhibited growth, caused a reduction in chlorophyll and K+ and increase Na+ and Na+: K+ ratio and the adverse effects of salt were more pronounced in PT60. Under salt stress, exogenous Tre was capable of alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl by enhancing growth, maintaining chlorophyll content and reducing Na+: K+ ratio. In contrast, Pro exacerbated the effects of NaCl by further reducing plant height, fresh and dry weights, although, it did not have any effects on chlorophyll content and ion accumulation. Exogenous Sor neither alleviated nor exacerbated the effects of NaCl. These results indicated that Tre was the most effective osmoprotectant which offered protective roles for rice seedlings subjected to salt stress and presented a practical implication for rice cultivation in salt-affected soils. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

The present study was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse of Range and Forestry
Applied Research Unit in experimental station of Food and Agriculture Collage,
King Saud University, at Dirab Valley, South of Riyadh City, during two successive
seasons. The objective was to investigate the impact of two nitrogen sources
(Ammonium sulphate and Calcium nitrate) on growth of two economical trees (Zizyphus
spaina-chrsity (L.)) Desf. and Acacia tortilis subsp tortilis
(Forssk.) under saline stress by using the mixed salts of Sodium and Calcium
chloride (1:1 v/v) at concentrations of 1000-5000 ppm. The results indicated
that, Acacia tortillis subsp. tortillis was the most response
to the nitrogen source and more tolerant to salinity stress than the Zizyphus
spina-christi under the field condition. The two nitrogen sources significantly
increased the growth properties of the tree species growing under the salinity
stress as compared to control treatment (water only). The fertilizers effect
has the same effect on the growth of the tree species. The salt concentrations
were affecting significantly of the growth of the trees and the most harmed
concentration was 5000 ppm as compared with the other concentrations and the
control treatment. So, the present study suggested using either the Ammonium
sulphate or Calcium nitrate as the nitrogen source can improve the growth and
the biomass of Acacia tortillis subsp. tortillis and Zizyphus
spina-christi seedlings moreover, increased the salinity tolerant found
in the nursery soil at Riyadh City as well as the hazed conditions in the field. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Two field experiments were carried out at Etay El-Baroud Agricultural Research Station, El-Behera Governorate during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons to study the effects of foliar application with micronutrients on yield and yield components of faba bean (c.v. Misr 1). A randomized complete blocks design with 3 replications was used. Results showed that, spraying with Fe+Zn+Mn increased yield and yield components, while, the highest no. of branches/plant were found with Fe+Zn, in the combined data. Also, chemical constituent, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, reducing sugars and the non-reducing sugars significantly increased in all treatments spray with micronutrients compared with non-treated (control). Meanwhile, Alternaria leaf spot incidence on treated plants significantly decreased 18.2-60.5% compared with non-treated control plants. The results concluded that, spraying Fe, Zn and Mn alone or combination could be recommend to control leaf spots and to enhance yield and quality of faba bean under the environmental conditions. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Linseed is among the most important oilseeds in the highlands of Ethiopia, for which yield enhancement is among the breeding objectives. Variability of the genotypes is paramount importance for selection in any breeding programs. This study was carried out in 2012/13 cropping season to determine the genetic variability of 25 linseed genotypes derived from various crosses including checks. The experiment was laid out using a 5x5 simple lattice design with two replications. The analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes showed significant differences for most of the traits measured. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for number of seeds/plant and number of capsules/plant. High heritability along with high genetic advance was observed for number of seeds/plant which indicates selection of this trait at early generation would be effective. Number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, number of capsules and number of seeds/plant showed highly significant positive correlation with seed yield/plant. But, 1000 seed weight had highly significant negative correlation. In cluster analysis it has been shown that the genotypes were placed into six groups, for which further effective selection/hybridization could be done. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Rice is the staple food for over half of the Indian population, main emphasis
has to be laid on ways and means to fortify seeds organically for better seed
vigour. Seed fortification is one of the important seed invigouration treatment.
Germinated grains are good sources of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, choline, thiamine,
tocopherols and pantothenic acid which increases the nutritional quality. Extract
has prepared from the sprouted pulses. With these background, an experiment
was conducted during 2008 to study the effect of seed fortification with pulse
sprout extract on crop growth and seed yield in rice seeds. Field experiment
was conducted with the treatments include fortification of rice seeds with 2
and 3% of horse gram sprout extract and 4 and 5% of cowpea sprout extract and
dried back to original moisture content and untreated seeds served as control.
The observations made on crop growth and yield factors such as field emergence
(%), plant height (cm) at vegetative and maturity stages, dry matter production
(g plant-1), No. of tillers plant-1, No. of productive
tillers plant-1, chlorophyll content, panicle length (cm), No. of
seeds panicle-1, 1000 seed weight (g) and seed yield. Among these
treatments 2% horse gram sprout extract recorded the highest yield of 3951 kg
ha-1. The yield enhancement may be due to the presence of bioactive
substances in sprouted horse gram and cowpea extracts were found effective towards
yield maximization in rice seeds. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

Bael identified as endangered medicinal tree is propagated through seeds. Use
of quality seed enhance the seedling quality characters and is highly valid
in developing nursery management techniques. In perennial crops, quality seeds
are obtained by proper selection of fruits. Tree crops produce fruits with physical
polymorphism due to developmental and environmental variation. Hence studies
were formulated to evaluate the influence of fruit polymorphism on seed quality
characters. Fresh bael fruits were collected from five different locations of
Coimbatore. The fruits were categorized based on the width into three different
groups as large (10-12 cm), medium (8-10 cm) and small (6-8 cm). The large and
medium fruits recovered to 32 and 39%, respectively from bulk. Then seeds were
extracted and evaluated for seed quality characters along with seeds of bulk
fruits. The physiological quality characters measured in germination room revealed
that seed germination observed with seeds of large fruits were higher (82%)
and were followed by seeds of medium (74%), bulk (68%) and small (60%) fruits.
The seedling vigour measured through root (12.5 cm) and shoot length (13.9 cm),
drymatter production (613 mg) and vigour index (2164) also exposed the superiority
of seeds of large fruits. The measurement of biochemical characters as oil content
was more with seeds of medium fruits (42.8%) than other size distributions,
while the differences were non significant for seed protein and electrical conductivity.
The seeds sown in polybag nursery also expressed that seeds of large fruits
produced vigourous seedlings. 2013/09/12 - 15:08

The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Pendimethalin (PM) on growth and anatomical characteristics of Cucumis sativus and Echinochloa crus-galli plants. Moreover, Psudomonas putida and compost were evaluated for detoxification of PM in soil. Seeds were sown in pots containing either PM treated soil or PM and P. putida or compost treated soil. Twenty eight days later, the phytotoxicity bioassay was performed on the growing plants. PM significantly decreased germination and increased seedling mortality percentages. Cotyledonary leaf and hypocotyls and true leaves of C. sativus seedling treated with PM seemed to be dark green colors, swelling and brittleness. In addition, reduction in fresh and dry weights of the treated plants was observed. In contrary, chlorophyll contents were significantly increased. Reducing in number of xylem vessels was found not only in hypocotyl but also in the first true leaf of C. sativus plants. Insignificant differences were observed in the most growth and anatomical parameters between P. putida or compost applying in PM contaminated soil comparing with PM treated plants. P. putida and compost were effective in PM degradation in soil with half-life of 4.67 and 5 days, respectively. PM half-life was 51.9 days in untreated clay soil. The results suggested that bioremediation by P. putida and compost was proved as an effective method for detoxification of pendimethalin in soil. 2013/05/24 - 15:27

The effect of two soil moisture potential 40 and 60% of the available water depletion with spraying three types of antitranspirants at 2% each on water consumptive, water use efficiency, growth, nutritional status, yield and fruit quality were studied . Results indicated that, varying soil moisture contents had no effect on leaf nutrient content, yield and fruit quality. However, using 60% of the available water depletion effectively reduced water consumption use and enhanced water use efficiency rather than using 40%. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters as well as water use efficiency were improved significantly influenced by spraying antitranspirants which were responsible for reducing water consumptive use. Only, the number of green leaves they had no effect comparing with the check treatments. The effectiveness clearly showed with using calcium carbonate, Green miracle and kaolin in descending order in the previously studies. Under these conditions ,using calcium carbonate weekly at 2 and 60% of the available water depletion that improved productivity as well as saving irrigation water amounts of Grand Naine banana plants. 2013/05/24 - 15:27

Planting date and density have great effect on growth, cycling time and yield of banana. The objectives of this study were to select the optimum planting date and plant density, that determining growth, flowering, yield and fruit quality under Aswan conditions. During 2008 to 2009 and 2009 to 2010 seasons, Williams banana Suckers were planted at the middle of Feb., Mar. and April at plant population 1000, 444 and 250 mother plants and 1000, 888 and 750 first ratoon. March planted Banana was a gradual promotion and significant on all growth characters, as well as the heavier bunches (8.4 and 15.5 kg) with maximum hand weight (1.92 and 2.15 kg). While April planted Banana gave the lowest ones in this respect in both seasons. The earliest shooting, minimum days for harvesting and cropping cycle (303.97 and 522.84 days) were observed with February planted during mother plants and first ratoon. For the optimum crop timing (316.34 and 536.7 days), first ratoon selection and the best fruit quality were noticed with March planting only. Increasing density reduced individual plant growth, chemical characteristics and productivity per plant, however gave the higher yield per area as well as delaying cropping cycle about (8-10 days). At low densities the highest values of chemical characteristics were observed, however planting date failed to show significant effect of all chemical characteristics. In regard to best fruit quality, yield and selection ratoon were obtained with planting Williams’s suckers at March with plant density 444 mother plants with two suckers per hole. 2013/05/24 - 15:27