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Kosmos
Astronomia Astrofizyka
Inne

Kultura
Sztuka dawna i współczesna, muzea i kolekcje

Metoda
Metodologia nauk, Matematyka, Filozofia, Miary i wagi, Pomiary

Materia
Substancje, reakcje, energia
Fizyka, chemia i inżynieria materiałowa

Człowiek
Antropologia kulturowa Socjologia Psychologia Zdrowie i medycyna

Wizje
Przewidywania Kosmologia Religie Ideologia Polityka

Ziemia
Geologia, geofizyka, geochemia, środowisko przyrodnicze

Życie
Biologia, biologia molekularna i genetyka

Cyberprzestrzeń
Technologia cyberprzestrzeni, cyberkultura, media i komunikacja

Działalność
Wiadomości | Gospodarka, biznes, zarządzanie, ekonomia

Technologie
Budownictwo, energetyka, transport, wytwarzanie, technologie informacyjne

Asian Journal of Scientific Research

Studies on management responsibility for the urban environment have usually focused on structures, institutions and agencies. In terms of structure, urban environmental management is described as administrative and legal structures. From institutions point of view, urban environmental management is based on bureaucracy and the executing department. However, regarding agency, urban environmental management is focused on the responsibility of the residents or community referring to the aspects of their humanitarian acts and social union. Sustainable urban environmental management is often discussed in public and academic discourses concerning structural and institutional roles. The role of the community is usually neglected as it is considered as complicated and subjective. Therefore, this study aims to examine the extent to which the sustainable urban environmental management can be realized, based on the role and responsibility of the city residents. Accordingly, this study intends to uncover the roles of residents and community in managing sustainable urban environment based on the survey, consisting of test and questionnaire, conducted on the residents in the Selayang Municipal Council, in Selangor, Malaysia. The sample of the study involves 167 residents of the Selayang Municipal Council areas which were randomly selected as respondents. The result shows that residents are indeed capable of playing their roles as the agents of managing a sustainable urban environment, due to their abilities and knowledge on the importance of improving the environment. It is recommended that the government and the Selayang Municipal Council authority take approaches which are congruent with the cultural values of the ethnic groups.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.546.560 2014/08/18 - 23:20

This study aims at having a comparative analysis between emotional intelligence and corporate entrepreneurship (entrepreneurial orientation) in the public and private banks. The methodology is descriptive/correlative and the samples include randomly selected 442 bank clerks. The means for gathering the data consists of two standard questionnaires, the reliability of which has been confirmed using the Cronbach’s method. The results show that there is a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and corporate entrepreneurship however, the correlation ratio in the private banks is 11% higher than the public ones.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.561.570 2014/08/18 - 23:20

This study performs novel approach to identify Halmahera Eddy (HE) features using multisensors satellites oceanography, hydrographic data and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) during 2002-2012. The results show that anticyclonic HE has high chl-a concentration in the outer ring of eddies with averaged horizontal diameter of 520 km and shifts along southeast-northwest axis of 392 km. Seasonal and interannual variability have dominant influences in increasing (decreasing) diameter of eddy during the southeast (northwest) monsoon and shifting of eddy during El Nino (La Nina) event, respectively. These HE patterns are also consistent with deepening of subsurface temperature layer and high gradient of salinity front around the HE periphery. Meridional shifting of HE has significant impact of productivity with skipjack tuna catch, which show movement northward (southward) from its center HE at 4N correlate with increasing (decreasing) catch. This implies that during the northwest monsoon and La Nina event, skipjack tuna catch increase in the western tropical Pacific waters.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.571.580 2014/08/18 - 23:20

Spectrum sensing is an important issue for dynamic spectrum sharing in cognitive
radio networks. The physical layer senses the availability of the primary user’s
channels whereas the MAC layer decides how often, at which time duration and
in which order to sense the availability of those channels. In this study, an
adaptive retry time algorithm is proposed for spectrum sensing and a modified
optimal channel sequencing algorithm to reduce average Channel Switching Latency
(CSL) and improve the channel utilization among the Secondary Users (SUs). The
retry time of spectrum sensing is varied in accordance with the number of channels
and sensing time in the physical layer. The modified optimal channel sequencing
algorithm reduces the number of channel switching by arranging the primary user
channels based on the descending order of their idle probability and TOFF
duration. This adaptive retry time and modified channel sequencing algorithm
reduce the number of channel switching, the average channel switching delay
by 43.4-65.11% and improves the secondary user channel utilization from 6.9-28.21%
compared to the existing algorithm. The performance of the MAC layer adaptive
spectrum sensing is verified using MATLAB.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.581.590 2014/08/18 - 23:20

Economic valuation is basically aimed to help decision makers to estimate economic
efficiency of various utilization activities which might be due to the ecosystem
in coastal area like seagrass ecosystem and other marine ecosystems, including
small islands. Information about the economic value of seagrass ecosystem services
is very limited, especially in Eastern Indonesia; therefore, a study which aims
to evaluate seagrass ecosystem services in Kotania Bay Marine Nature Tourism
Park, Western Seram District, Maluku Province, needs to be done. Seagrass meadows
have become a popular topic due to its high productivity in coastal areas and
also because of its substantial ability to store carbon. Economic valuation
of seagrass ecosystem services in this conservation area covers two types of
ecosystem services: Provisioning service (approached by its role as a primary
productivity source through consumer surplus) and regulation services (approached
by seagrass’s ability in storing
carbon through the replacement cost method). Estimation of the economic value
of seagrass ecosystem services in the waters of Kotania Bay as provisioning
service and regulation service are IDR 21,014,755,749. The results are important
input for the decision makers in the region in order to maintain the sustainability
of the seagrass ecosystem found in Kotania Bay Marine Nature Tourism Park.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.591.600 2014/08/18 - 23:20

Wireless sensor network continues to be a resource constrained network with limited energy, computing power, memory and communication capabilities. Among all the mentioned constraints, energy consumption is of paramount importance. The network does not maintain standard topology instead, it has dynamic topology. Hence, it necessitates the development of an energy efficient protocol for supporting dynamic topology to increase the lifetime of the network. This study focuses on the development of a hybrid protocol that integrates an energy aware routing over a topology controlled network. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed protocol, a test bed with a multi hop network is deployed and the network lifetime is analyzed under various scenarios.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.601.608 2014/08/18 - 23:20

Hydroxyapatite (HA)-zirconia composite was prepared by mixing synthesized HA
with Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) nanopowder. Composites with 20, 40, 60
and 80 wt% YSZ were prepared and sintered over the temperature range of 1100-1300°C
for 2 h. The composite with 20 wt% zirconia exhibited the best mechanical property
with a hardness and compression strength of 5.2 and 1.7 GPa, respectively. The
phases of the composites were analyzed by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and
the morphologies of the samples were observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron
Microscopy (FESEM). The decomposition of HA into tricalcium phosphate was increased
by the addition of zirconia, thus increasing the porosity of the sample. The
findings of the XRD coincided with the results of FESEM.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.609.615 2014/08/18 - 23:20

The main objective of this study is to ascertain the level of stress among
the private medical practitioners at Vellore District of Tamilnadu, India. The
primary and secondary data was used. The primary data was collected by the researcher
with the help of structured questionnaire. The Cochran’s
sample size equation and his correction equation (1977) for categorical data
were applied to determine the optimum sample size (335). Multi-stage random
sampling method was used. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) tools
such as: Factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, chi-square
test, analysis of variance and regression analysis were used to analyse the
data. Based on test result. It is found that out of 335 respondents, 119 (35.5%)
respondents had high job stress, 121 (36.1%) respondents had moderate stress
and 95 (28.4%) respondents had low job stress. It is also found that only two
variables i.e., fear of assault during night visits (0.214) and visiting in
extremely adverse weather conditions (0.177) have significant effect on job
stress among private medical practitioners.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.488.500 2014/06/25 - 23:55

The main objective of this study is to ascertain the level of stress among
the private medical practitioners at Vellore District of Tamilnadu, India. The
primary and secondary data was used. The primary data was collected by the researcher
with the help of structured questionnaire. The Cochran’s
sample size equation and his correction equation (1977) for categorical data
were applied to determine the optimum sample size (335). Multi-stage random
sampling method was used. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) tools
such as: Factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, chi-square
test, analysis of variance and regression analysis were used to analyse the
data. Based on test result. It is found that out of 335 respondents, 119 (35.5%)
respondents had high job stress, 121 (36.1%) respondents had moderate stress
and 95 (28.4%) respondents had low job stress. It is also found that only two
variables i.e., fear of assault during night visits (0.214) and visiting in
extremely adverse weather conditions (0.177) have significant effect on job
stress among private medical practitioners.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.488.500 2014/06/25 - 23:55

There are fluctuations of air temperature and relative humidity which make
a cyclic loop every day. These fluctuations are caused by the sunrays radiation
and earth surface energy. Sinusoidal equations are developed in this study to
estimate the effect of both sunrays radiation and earth surface energy to the
daily cycle of air temperature and relative humidity. A dummy variable is applied
to represent the presence of sunrays radiation. The effect of this daily cycle
to wood creep behavior is also studied. The wood samples which tested in this
study are cut from the purlin of a 17 years old low cost house in Cibeureum
Village, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia and identified as Saninten wood. Wood is
more capable in resisting short term loading than long term loading. The deflections
of wood beam under sustained load consist of initial deflection and creep deflection.
Initial deflections immediately happen after load applied, while creep deflections
is time dependent deflection as the result of viscous flow under long term loading
and wood reaction to the surrounding condition (moisture content, temperature
and relative humidity). Creep deflection is highly correlated with the logarithm
of load duration. The creep deflection is increasing in decreasing rate as with
the loading time for all of load level. The daily cycle of air temperature and
relative humidity have opposite effect to the additional creep deflection. Air
temperature has positive correlation with creep deflection, while relative humidity
has negative correlation. Total additional creep deflection is superposition
of both air temperature and relative humidity effects. The multiple regression
analysis with logarithm transformation for load duration and sinusoidal transformation
for daily cycle of air temperature and relative humidity are satisfactory fitted
the empirical creep deflection data (R2 = 82.52-96.00%). This study
succeed determining the daily fluctuation of temperature and relative humidity
effects toward creep deflection by mathematical equation in regular room condition
without controlling the surrounding condition.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.501.512 2014/06/25 - 23:55

There are fluctuations of air temperature and relative humidity which make
a cyclic loop every day. These fluctuations are caused by the sunrays radiation
and earth surface energy. Sinusoidal equations are developed in this study to
estimate the effect of both sunrays radiation and earth surface energy to the
daily cycle of air temperature and relative humidity. A dummy variable is applied
to represent the presence of sunrays radiation. The effect of this daily cycle
to wood creep behavior is also studied. The wood samples which tested in this
study are cut from the purlin of a 17 years old low cost house in Cibeureum
Village, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia and identified as Saninten wood. Wood is
more capable in resisting short term loading than long term loading. The deflections
of wood beam under sustained load consist of initial deflection and creep deflection.
Initial deflections immediately happen after load applied, while creep deflections
is time dependent deflection as the result of viscous flow under long term loading
and wood reaction to the surrounding condition (moisture content, temperature
and relative humidity). Creep deflection is highly correlated with the logarithm
of load duration. The creep deflection is increasing in decreasing rate as with
the loading time for all of load level. The daily cycle of air temperature and
relative humidity have opposite effect to the additional creep deflection. Air
temperature has positive correlation with creep deflection, while relative humidity
has negative correlation. Total additional creep deflection is superposition
of both air temperature and relative humidity effects. The multiple regression
analysis with logarithm transformation for load duration and sinusoidal transformation
for daily cycle of air temperature and relative humidity are satisfactory fitted
the empirical creep deflection data (R2 = 82.52-96.00%). This study
succeed determining the daily fluctuation of temperature and relative humidity
effects toward creep deflection by mathematical equation in regular room condition
without controlling the surrounding condition.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.501.512 2014/06/25 - 23:55

Coastal erosion and sedimentation often occur due to the impact of development
in coastal areas. One of the reason is less or no attention to the function
of mangrove ecosystems. This study was conducted in Indah Kapuk Beach, North
Jakarta, Indonesia with 5.06 km length of coastal, which was divided into two
regions, namely A (West) and B (East). Primary data was collected using transect-squares
and spot-check methods to determine the existing condition of mangrove vegetation.
Condition of mangrove has various densities ranging from 13-509 m. In region
A, mangrove thickness was “small”
in mangrove average of 40 m and the inland activities were aquacultural pond.
Mangroves in region B were “large”
400 m average and many development activities were carried out in this area.
Density of mangroves in the region A was “sparse”
(<1000 trees ha-1) and that in region B was “fair”
(1000-1200 trees ha-1) and “very
dense” (>1,500 trees ha-1).
The mangrove density of each region influenced less significantly on the development
activities. The biggest influence in maintaining the stability of the beach
was the thickness of mangroves growing on the seashore. The correlations were
as; when the mangrove density was “sparse”,
the mangrove thickness was “small”,
otherwise when the mangrove density was “very
dense”, the mangrove thickness
was “large”.
Rehabilitation was done in two areas, namely region A which was planted mangroves
in about 200-300 m thickness and region B which was planted mangroves in about
400-600 m thickness. It is concluded that the conservation of the coast can
be successful when the ecological systems of mangrove work entirely.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.513.524 2014/06/25 - 23:55

Coastal erosion and sedimentation often occur due to the impact of development
in coastal areas. One of the reason is less or no attention to the function
of mangrove ecosystems. This study was conducted in Indah Kapuk Beach, North
Jakarta, Indonesia with 5.06 km length of coastal, which was divided into two
regions, namely A (West) and B (East). Primary data was collected using transect-squares
and spot-check methods to determine the existing condition of mangrove vegetation.
Condition of mangrove has various densities ranging from 13-509 m. In region
A, mangrove thickness was “small”
in mangrove average of 40 m and the inland activities were aquacultural pond.
Mangroves in region B were “large”
400 m average and many development activities were carried out in this area.
Density of mangroves in the region A was “sparse”
(<1000 trees ha-1) and that in region B was “fair”
(1000-1200 trees ha-1) and “very
dense” (>1,500 trees ha-1).
The mangrove density of each region influenced less significantly on the development
activities. The biggest influence in maintaining the stability of the beach
was the thickness of mangroves growing on the seashore. The correlations were
as; when the mangrove density was “sparse”,
the mangrove thickness was “small”,
otherwise when the mangrove density was “very
dense”, the mangrove thickness
was “large”.
Rehabilitation was done in two areas, namely region A which was planted mangroves
in about 200-300 m thickness and region B which was planted mangroves in about
400-600 m thickness. It is concluded that the conservation of the coast can
be successful when the ecological systems of mangrove work entirely.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.513.524 2014/06/25 - 23:55

The assessment of electricity load consumption in Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria
and the prediction of future electricity requirement in the state cannot be
over emphasised. The data of monthly load allocation and utilization of electricity
of the state in the five previous years (2006-2010) were assessed. Various engineering
analysis and applications including calculations, sketches, curves and graphs
were applied to justify the study. According to the annual report (IPCL., 2012),
the electricity load consumption in the state in December 2011 was 130MW. This
study gives the opportunity to address the risk of planning errors that could
arise in the electric power upgrade planning process. The assessment however,
helped in providing efficient and reliable power system management. The assessment
was carried out in the three major towns in Akwa Ibom State (Uyo, Ikot Ekpene
and Eket). The result obtained using the least square method and regression
exponential analysis method has shown that by 2020, the electricity load requirement
in Akwa Ibom state shall increase to 247.84 MW.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.525.535 2014/06/25 - 23:55

Cognitive radio network is a new communication paradigm to address spectrum
under utilization and scarcity problems by sharing the spectrum holes (unused
licensed frequency bands) opportunistically. Spectrum sensing which determines
spectrum holes by detecting the presence of licensed user, also known as primary
user, on the associated spectrum, is a primary function of the cognitive radio.
The performance of spectrum sensing greatly influences the overall performance
of cognitive radio network. In this study, we have analyzed the performance
of cooperative spectrum technique by employing wavelet transform to denoise
the primary user signal to improve SNR value received at the cognitive radio,
the secondary user. This improves the accuracy of the sensing algorithm as reflected
in the simulation results presented here. The performance has been analyzed
for AWGN and rayleigh fading channel models under different SNR conditions and
for varying number of cooperating users for both without and with wavelet transform.
Simulation results show significant improvement in the spectrum sensing performance.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.536.545 2014/06/25 - 23:55

As our dependence on the digital media continues to grow, finding competent
ways of storing and conveying these large amounts of data has become a major
concern. The technique of image compression has then become very essential and
highly applicable. In this regard, the performance of an efficient segmentation-based
image coding method combined with Geometric Wavelets that divides the desired
image using a recursive procedure for image coding is investigated. The objective
of the work is to optimize the performance of geometric wavelet based image
coding scheme and to suggest a method to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm.
We have used the polar coordinate form of the straight line in the BSP scheme
for partitioning the image domain. A novel pruning algorithm is tried to optimize
the rate distortion curve and achieve the desired bit rate. The algorithm is
also implemented with the concept of no tiling and its effect in PSNR and computation
time is explored. The enhanced results show a gain of 2.24 dB over the EZW algorithm
and1.4 dB over the SPIHT algorithm at the bit-rate 0.0625 bpp for the Lena test
image. Image tiling is found to reduce considerably the computational complexity
and in turn the time complexity of the algorithm without affecting its coding
efficiency. The algorithm provides remarkable results in terms of PSNR compared
to existing techniques.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.418.433 2014/05/08 - 22:06

Thailand’s organic food production and consumption have grown considerably in recent years due to increasing awareness of health and environmental issues. To encourage consumption of organic foods, entrepreneurs must understand customers and serve them well. The objective of this research is to analyze the factors that drive consumers to purchase organic foods. The study sample was 400 participants and the statistical methods used were factor analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that factors stimulating the intention to purchase organic food in Thailand include subjective norms, environmental protection, trust in labels, food quality, availability and convenience to access organic foods. The study suggests that increasing organic consumption can be achieved by increasing potential consumers’ knowledge of environmental protection, health benefits and product quality of organic foods through the use of social influence. Knowledge about the labels certifying food as organic should also be provided to consumers to increase trust in such labels.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.434.446 2014/05/08 - 22:06

In this paper, we present a Selective Road Hazard Message Dissemination Protocol (SRHMDP) for delivering road hazard information to vehicles travelling on highways. Road hazards could include information relating to road blocks, tree fall, boulders on road and other obstacles. This paper proposes the use of Road Side Units (RSUs) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication to selectively deliver hazard information to vehicles travelling towards the hazard location. Vehicle encountering the hazard will relay the information directly to the RSU which is within its communication vicinity. Otherwise, if there is no RSU available, it will forward the information to other vehicles to forward to the RSU preceding the hazard location. This would enable hazard information to be sent in a timely manner to vehicles travelling toward the hazard to enable them to take corrective action like re-routing and avoid travel delays and traffic congestion. Selective vehicle forwarders have been proposed to forward hazard information to the nearest Road Side Units which would in turn forward to other RSUs and vehicles that are likely to be affected by the road hazard. The protocol includes procedures for verifying the authenticity of the messages by the RSUs. Sample vehicular traffic scenarios have been generated using SUMO and tested using NS 2.33 network simulator.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.447.459 2014/05/08 - 22:06

Independent Component Analysis (ICA), a statistical signal processing technique,
separates the independent source signals from their observed mixtures by maximizing
the statistical independence of the components. Since the ICA algorithm is so
complex to implement on the FPGA, implementation of this algorithm leads to
excessive area and power consumption. This study presents FPGA implementation
of a novel area and power efficient Fast Confluence Adaptive Independent Component
Analysis (FCAICA) technique with reduced number of recursive iterations. This
method occupies less area, less power and provides the high convergence speed.
The reduction in area is achieved by hardware optimization and high convergence
speed is achieved by a novel optimization scheme that adaptively changes the
weight vector based on the kurtosis value. To increase the number precision
and dynamic range of the signal, the Floating-point (FP) arithmetic units are
used. To validate the performance of the proposed FCAICA, simulation and synthesis
are performed with super-gaussian mixtures and experimental results are compared
with FastICA and SFLO-ICA (Shuffled Frog Leap Optimization ICA). The proposed
FCAICA processor separates the super-Gaussian signals with maximum operating
frequency of 2.91 MHz.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.460.471 2014/05/08 - 22:06

In recent decades, routing in Mobile ad hoc Sensor Network (MASNet)
have become an active research area due to its impact in various science and
engineering applications. The increased demand for energy has become a great
concern in industrial market which in turn has led to the development of various
energy efficient sensor networks. This research study mainly focuses on secure
and energy efficient routing in MASNet. A secure multipath algorithm has been
presented in this study which facilitates the nodes in MASNet to carry out on-demand
discovery and forming set of paths while identifying a disjointness threshold,
denoting the maximal number of nodes shared between any two paths in the set
of the k established paths. The proposed Rectangular Zone based Location Specific
Routing (RZLSR) approach is energy efficient, adaptive, secure and uses labels
to carry the disjointness-threshold between nodes during the route discovery
which improves the quality of services. The broadcasting scheme used in this
approach is based on RECT which forms an efficient framework for routing data
between source and destination. A set of security mechanisms, based on the use
of Watchdog and digital signature, are used to protect the route discovery process.
The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach provides significant
performance with lesser overhead, energy efficient and better network lifetime.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.472.481 2014/05/08 - 22:06

Water contains a certain amount of oxygen dissolved in it and the relative measure of this oxygen is called as Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The dissolved oxygen content in water can be increased by the process of aeration. The efficiency of oxygen transfer depends on many factors including bubble dimension, flow rate and nozzle diameter. Surface and subsurface aerations are two types of aerations. In the former, aeration is done by exposing water in the form of droplets or thin sheets to air and in the latter air in the form of small bubbles is allowed to rise through water. The objective of this study is to study subsurface aeration and the effect of variation in bubble size, superficial velocity, flow rate and nozzle diameter on the dissolved oxygen content in the sample of water taken. This is done by precipitating a small amount of salt in water by dissolving oxygen and measuring the amount of salt in the water before and after aeration. The bubble dimensions are calculated using image processing techniques. The results show that bubbles of smaller size with maximized surface area, take more time to reach the surface, increasing the residence time of each bubble in the water, allowing a better oxygen transfer rate.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.482.487 2014/05/08 - 22:06

The huge amount of wasted Oil Palm Fronds (OPF) produced annually provides a very good opportunity for the oil palm industry in Malaysia to use it for power generation, especially in mill boilers. Recently, gasification technology is receiving more attention as it can be used to convert wasted biomass into gaseous fuel for power generation and thermal applications as well as it can be used as a fuel source for the production of other chemicals. This study addresses the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an updraft fixed-bed-gasifier. A 50 kW updraft gasifier is designed and fabricated for gasification of Malaysian oil palm fronds. The gasifier is designed using the empirical data from literature and derived quantities. The gasifier was modified to be very flexible allowing the gasification air to be fed through several locations. The air gasification results of OPF showed volumetric percentage of 22.61-23.36% of CO, 6.48-6.68% of H2, 1.2-1.5% of CH4, 9.51-9.65% of CO2 and 59.20-58.1% of N2. The heating value of the product gas mixture varied between 4.1-4.4 MJ Nm-3 while the cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency and specific gasification rate of the gasifier was in the range of 57-59 and 95-97% and 103-109 kg m-2 h-1, respectively. The study has demonstrated that the oil palm frond waste is suitable for the designed and fabricated updraft gasifier and the produced gas from the gasification of OPF was successfully used in a domestic cooking stove.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.341.353 2014/04/19 - 07:04

In Thailand, chemical fertilisers provide nutrients that are essential for
increasing agricultural productivity but they are expensive, often representing
25% of the crop production cost. Tailor-made fertiliser technology is a new
fertiliser application technology that is being promoted to help farmers reduce
fertiliser costs. This study aims to investigate and clarify sugarcane farmers’
knowledge and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. This study also attempts
to provide a better understanding of the effect of farm size on farmers’
beliefs and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. Moreover, the findings
suggest that further extension of tailor-made-fertiliser practices should include
training services for smallholders to improve their knowledge of relevant practices.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.354.365 2014/04/19 - 07:04

We discuss a new method for solving unsteady convection–diffusion problems arising high order compact difference approximations. The method can investigate not only the effects of numerical error but also those of uncertainty in a physical model at the same time. In this study, we developed numerical methods by replacing the time and space derivatives by compact finite-difference approximations. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to verify its high accuracy and to compare it in combination preconditioned methods for stability, convergence.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.366.375 2014/04/19 - 07:04

The present study aim to test the hypotheses about equality in means and variance of intelligence between 454 girls and 723 boys (11.8 to 17.7 years) in the middle school of the rural commune Sidi El Kamel (North-Western Morocco). Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) test is used to measure the general intelligence; the Mann-Whitney U test and Levene’s test are used to test the hypotheses; p-value<0.05 is considered statistically significant. No sex differences in means (u = 162070; p = 0.72>0.05) and variance of SPM scores between girls and boys for all age groups (F>2.17; ddl>036; p>0.150>0.05) except the age group 13 years (p<0.05), in which boys show more variance of SPM scores. Girls are slightly greater than males in mean of SPM scores until the age of 15 years, from the age of 16 years boys begin slightly greater than girls. The conclusion is no sex differences in means and variance of general intelligence between girls and boys (11.8-17.7 years) among the rural middle school children.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.376.385 2014/04/19 - 07:04

The Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) is a strong candidate
for the future wireless systems to provide high speed packet data and multimedia
streaming services. The MCCDMA faces the problem from Multiple Access Interference
(MAI) due to failure of orthogonality among the users under the frequency-selective
fading channels and multipath effects. In this study, the MCCDMA system is developed
by joining with Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) scheme and Multi Input Multi
Output (MIMO) scheme for capacity enhancement. Along with STBC and MIMO schemes,
Orthogonal Complete Complementary (OCC) spreading codes with suitable cross-correlation
properties determine the interference-resist capability as well as spectral
efficiency. Further, the mitigation of MAI in MCCDMA systems is approached in
different way to minimize the error rates and to improve the spectral efficiency.
The constellation movement scheme is proposed for Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
(QAM) signal set where the constellation of one of the users is moved relative
to the other by an angle chosen adaptively according to the channel conditions
which causes MAI in order to satisfy minimum distance threshold at the detectors.
The simulation result shows that the developed MCCDMA system achieves significant
performance improvement in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and spectral efficiency
compared to MCCDMA systems with Wash and Gold spreading codes. It also shows
that the proposed constellation movement scheme combats MAI further and achieves
a significant improvement in user capacity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.386.395 2014/04/19 - 07:04

Human fertility has a central importance in demographic analysis as the births are vital component of population growth. The study of fertility provides important information about women’s reproductive behaviour and attitude. Factors which influence fertility are very crucial and provide the idea about the population change. Keeping in view, many studies have been carried out to study the factors which influence fertility. In this regards, Bongaarts (1978) have proposed a model considering four major factors such as marriage, contraception, induced abortion and lactational infecundability to explain overall variation in the total fertility. In the present study one more factor sterility is incorporated which plays an important role to explain total fertility. Estimation of induced abortions has its own complicacy. The major problem in estimation of abortion is the availability of reliable data for the developing country like India. Its study becomes even more complicated due to the variability of cultural and behavioral attitude of the females. Here a simple and modified model has been used to estimate the abortion index and which is further utilized to estimate the number of birth averted due to abortion for the different major states of India.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.396.404 2014/04/19 - 07:04

Greenhouse gases, CO2 Dioxide Carbon; CH4 Methane, Nitrous
Oxide N2O, HFCs Hydro fluorocarbons; Perfluorocabonos and PFCs and
SF6 Sulfur Hexafluoride cause global warming. Since CO2
is the dominant greenhouse gas, these are generally referred to as Carbon gas.
In order to save the world from global warming, United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992 and Kyoto Protocol was signed
in 1997 as a follow up measure, which came into force from 2005. Kyoto Protocol
fixed ceilings on the emission of green house gases (GHGs) by the developed
countries. These countries have set limits to GHG emissions by their own industries
and others. The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EUETS) is the main
pillar of the European Union in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
Three market based mechanisms have been designed to encourage the reduction
of green house emissions, which are (1) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (2)
Joint Implementation (JI), (3) International Emission Trading (IET). The developed
countries which are bound to reduce their emissions can discharge their commitments
by purchasing the Carbon Emission Reduction entitlements (CERs) from the other
countries which have implemented green house gas reduction projects. The CERs
or carbon credits are traded in the international and Indian commodity exchanges
at market determined prices. In India, Multi Commodity Exchange (MCX) has become
the first Asian exchange to trade in carbon credits. It has been reported that
about 300 Indian companies are already trading in carbon credits in MCX. This
study analyses the factors which can affect carbon trading and hence, the future
green house gas emission.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.405.411 2014/04/19 - 07:04

Female sterilization is most widely used contraception globally,
India’s family planning program’s
mainstay. Many times guidelines including counseling are not followed resulting
in litigations, public anger and disrepute many more issues. Study was done
to know satisfaction, dissatisfaction of beneficiaries, providers about sterilization
services so as to try improvisation. One thousand women who had undergone sterilization
were interviewed before discharge by social worker with predesigned questionnaire
in local language. Woman (beneficiary service), one relative who was around,
nurse, junior doctor senior doctor, involved with care were interviewed (Five
thousand) of users 57.6% were satisfied 42.4% dissatisfied with services. There
was no difference in satisfaction dissatisfaction in women from villages townships.
Around 63.4% were satisfied because of counseling done by doctors nurses before
surgery. Other reasons for satisfaction were togetherness in postoperative ward,
good postoperative care, visits by senior doctors. Reasons for dissatisfaction
included rude behavior of paramedical providers, prolonged stay, difficulty-delay
in getting sterilization certificate, financial incentives. Reasons for providers’
satisfaction were self-motivation, receptive women, relatives cooperation, appreciation
of care, husbands taking interest in wives health. Dissatisfaction was due to
relatives not agreeing for sterilization when women agreed, immediate sterilization
certificate demand, pressure for early discharge, financial incentives, request
for waving bill of other services (sterilization used to be free), relatives
absconding creating problems. Sterilization is critical to success of global
health goals, but quality assurance must, be it technical or non-technical issues
if progress is to be made. At end of day, it is satisfied user which matters.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.412.417 2014/04/19 - 07:04

Carbon nanotube composite hydrogels are interesting candidates for applications
like flexible conductors, actuators and artificial muscles owing to their favorable
characteristics such as ease of functionalization, propensity to modulate the
interfacial characteristics of the hydrogels and tunable electrical conductivity.
Here we report the preparation, characterization and electromechanical actuation
properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/polyacrylamide (MWNT/PAM) composite
hydrogels. Various amounts of MWNTs (0.002, 0.005 and 0.01 wt%) have been introduced
into polyarylamide (PAM) gel matrix by in situ polymerization of acrylamide/bisacrylamide
mixture in presence of MWNTs. The effect of various parameters such as nanotube
content, method of drying (vacuum drying and freeze drying) and partial hydrolysis
of the composite hydrogels have been investigated by following water-uptake
and electro-response behavior, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle
measurements.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.262.272 2014/04/11 - 16:51

The polymer based nanocomposites were obtained by merging inorganic Titanium
Dioxide (TiO2) in the polymer system focusing on raising the optical
transparency and to study the photo catalytic activity. The precursor chosen
here is titanium (IV) isopropoxide which is the starting material for sol-gel
synthesis to form a TiO2 sol-gel solution. The choices of the polymers
are acrylates namely methyl metha acrylate and butyl acrylate monomers which
are copolymerized using benzoyl peroxide as initiator for enhanced copolymerization.
This study involves synthesis of TiO2 sol-gel solution and developing
TiO2 thin films coated over glass slides by spin coating technique
to improvise the transmittance efficiency characteristic of glass. The deposited
thin films were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical properties
besides the elemental composition and photo catalytic activity. The prepared
films were highly transparent were hydrophobic. The PMMA-co-PBA-TiO2
nanocomposite films exhibited good photo catalytic activity.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.273.283 2014/04/11 - 16:51

Teak Leaf Powder (TLP) was used as adsorbent for Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption
and its kinetics was investigated. Effects of parameters like solution dye concentration,
pH, solution temperature, amount of adsorbent and particle size on MB adsorption
onto TLP were examined. Methylene blue adsorption onto TLP was favoured at pH
greater than its pHzpc, 7.2. Experimental data were found to follow
the pseudo second order kinetics. Influence of Temperature (T) and the dimensionless
ratio of initial concentration to adsorbent concentration (N) on kinetics of
MB adsorption onto TLP were examined using multivariate regression analysis.
A quadratic model was proposed to express the kinetic rate constant as a function
of these variables. Statistical tools like Student’s
t-test, F-test and ANOVA were used to identify the statistical significance
of coefficients included in the model. It was found that the main effect of
T, main effect of N, the second order effect of T were statistically significant.
The model predicted the rate constant with high R2 value 95.3%. It
was found that the rate constant decreased with increase in N and increased
with increase in T.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.284.293 2014/04/11 - 16:51

Titanium Nitride (TiN) is an interstitial nitride with remarkable hardness,
adhesion and toughness making it ideal for thin film applications. In this work
the effect of substrate bias and substrate temperature on crystallinity, morphology,
hydrophobicity and adhesion of TiN films has been studied. The films were deposited
by dc magnetron sputtering on well-cleaned substrates of glass, silicon (100)
and stainless steel (AISISS304). The deposited films were analysed using X-ray
Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), contact
angle measurement and scratch testing. Grains with globular and columnar morphology
were formed and the films were predominantly hydrophilic in nature. In the absence
of substrate bias amorphous films were formed and (111) and (200) planes appeared
with substrate heating and bias. Improved adhesion was observed at lower bias
and higher temperatures.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.294.302 2014/04/11 - 16:51

Electrophoretic separation of membrane proteins is limited mainly by their intrinsic
hydrophobicity and poor solubility arising from association with membrane lipid components. In
this investigation, polyacrylamide gel matrix is made hydrophobic by introducing one-dimensional
and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials viz., multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. The
nanocomposite matrices were optimized for SDS-PAGE with water-soluble molecular weight marker
proteins. SDS-PAGE in the nanocomposite matrices of a commercial outer membrane porin protein,
OmpA indicated a significant decrease in anomalous migration of the protein with increasing
carbon nanotube loading in the gel matrix. Outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli, were
isolated and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. When the nanocomposite
gels were tested for electrophoretic separation of outer membrane proteins isolated from E. coli, the
resolution of protein bands improved with respect to the pristine polyacrylamide gel. Especially,
graphene/polyacrylamide composite hydrogels yielded far better resolution and faster migration of
the E. coli membrane proteins compared to multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyacrylamide composite
hydrogels. Based on contact angle measurements of the composite hydrogels, the improved
resolution of membrane proteins is attributed to the more hydrophobic environment rendered by
carbon nanotubes and graphene. The present results could be useful to develop more hydrophobic
nanocomposite gels exclusively for electrophoretic separation of membrane proteins isolated from
different sources.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.303.311 2014/04/11 - 16:51

The present work reports on the scale up of synthesis of CuO nanoparticles
from two different precursors: Copper (II) nitrate and copper (II) acetate.
This is in realization of the importance of scale-up procedures for synthesis
of nanoparticles with an ultimate aim to extend the application of nanoparticles
for large-scale industrial applications. Our results show that the reaction
batch volume can be scaled up to 5000 mL at a yield of 42 g per batch, without
loss of morphological and crystallographic features. While using copper (II)
acetate as precursor, higher yield and control of particle size can be achieved
through re-use of spent precursor solution.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.312.319 2014/04/11 - 16:51

Rod-shaped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation
route using ferric chloridehexahydrate (FeCl3•6H2O)
and ferrous chloridetetrahydrate (FeCl2•4H2O)
as precursors. Iron oxide nanofluids were prepared by dispersing rod shaped
α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in water. Experiments were
carried out to study the influence of surfactants on the colloidal stability,
particle size distribution of nanofluids. Nanofluid with Sodium Do-decyl Benzene
Sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant showed increase in thermal conductivity of about
14% when dispersed in water.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.320.327 2014/04/11 - 16:51

Experimental studies on heat transfer in a jacketed vessel were carried out
to test the performance of two nanofluid coolants, viz. Mn0.47Fe2.53O4-propylene
glycol (2 vol%) and CuO-propylene glycol (1 vol%) nanofluids, against pure propylene
glycol. The flow rate of process fluid (Therminol-55®)
flowing through the jacket was varied between 60-500 mL min-1. In
general, these nanofluids were able to reduce the outlet temperature of process
fluid to values lower than that achieved using pure propylene glycol. These
nanofluids are more effective at higher flow rates of process fluid due to their
improved transport properties.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.328.334 2014/04/11 - 16:51

A simple, accurate, specific and reliable colorimetric method was developed
for the quantification of amoxycillin in different salt forms in different formulations.
On treating amoxycillin with acidic formaldehyde, intra molecular aminolysis
occurs. As a result, α-amino benzoyl group present in the side chain of
Amoxycillin attacks the carbonyl group present in β-lactam ring nucleophilically,
resulting in the formation of pyrazine derivative. The λmax
was found to be 341 nm. This helps in the determination of amoxycillin without
any interference from sulbactam. The method was found to be linear from 5.8
to 40.6 μg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.335.340 2014/04/11 - 16:51

Broadcasting or flooding is one of the principal functions in wireless ad-hoc
networks. In broadcasting, a mobile node sends the same message to all nodes
in the network in one-to-all model. Broadcasting based on set of dominating
nodes is remunerative approach, where the broadcasting activity is constrained
to only the nodes in the dominating set. A set is dominating if all nodes in
the network are either in the set or neighbors of nodes in the set. In this
study, the notion of constructing connected-dominating-set is extended to ad-hoc
networks with unidirectional links. An enhanced distributed algorithm is presented
that is based on the marking process which is has been introduced in earlier
work. Our enhanced algorithm features a good locality properties since it need
only 2-hop neighborhood information within each node. The algorithm checks for
the mutual existence of nodes in the neighbor table of their neighbors to guarantee
the symmetric connectivity between neighboring nodes. The proposed algorithm
is integrated with AODV routing protocol to generate a connected dominating
set that will be responsible on flooding activity. The efficiency of our approach
is investigated and verified through simulation whereas the computational complexity
is determined and compared with that of original marking process. All the simulations
run are carried out with QualNet Simulator version 5.02.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.131.146 2014/03/15 - 13:46

Most routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) use flooding to disseminate
routing information and to perform route discovery process. As flooding involves
querying all network nodes, frequent flooding can rapidly deplete the energy
reserved at each node. Therefore, creating competent flooding scheme is a crucial
requirement and a Connected Dominating Set (CDS) can be a useful basis of backbone
construction in MANETs. However, when the size of CDS becomes too small, certain
features in the original network may be lost, as example, the number of broadcasts
for a packet to reach its destination can be drastically increased. In this
study, a multipoint relay scheme has been investigated and appended as an assistant
flooding scheme beside the constructed CDS. The approach used in this concern
is the Dominant Pruning (DP) which creates a dynamic dominating set at each
broadcasting step. This set is a subset from the neighbor set of the broadcasting
node. The incorporation of DP and CDS is made to fill the gaps that may arise
within the backbone established by CDS, such that, the number of elongated paths
through this backbone is efficiently reduced. Simulation results show that the
developed approach outperforms DP and CDS when they are applied individually
in terms of the number of flooded control packets, data delivery ratio and average
end-to-end delay while keeping the same computation complexity of them.

http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajsr.2014.147.161 2014/03/15 - 13:46