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Asian Journal of Plant Sciences

Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer accounting for about half of the global mango production. This research attempts to study about the production, area, productivity, disease associated with mango, management and factor which are responsible for the low production of Mango. Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably, less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits and postharvest behaviour. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. Recent advances are also discussed in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) interact with each other and this interaction can affect the yield of corn plants. This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of P and Zn on the ultrastructure of chloroplast and physiological characteristics of corn plants. Sweet corn was grown in nutrient culture containing all combinations of P at levels of 0.0 and 80.0 mg L-1 as KH2PO4 and Zn at levels of 0.0 and 20.0 mg L-1 as ZnSO4.7H2O and harvested at 14 and 28 days after transplanting. Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in leaves increased with increasing P and Zn concentration in nutrient solution. Zinc supply did not affect P concentration but Zn concentration reduced with increasing P supply in nutrient solution at both harvests. The lowest amount of chlorophyll content was recorded in Zn20P0 treatment due to the interaction of Zn with iron in the growth medium. Carbonic anhydrase activity in leaves was enhanced with increasing Zn levels and decreased with increasing P levels at both harvest times. Carbonic anhydrase activity is a better indicator of Zn nutritional status than Zn concentration alone. The ultrastructure of chloroplast was affected with P and Zn supply. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

Preventing the reinvasion and spread of invasive alien plants
after chemical herbicide applications is a common challenge. A set of field
experiments to examine the combined effect of competition with a local crop,
sweet potato and the herbicide bentazon were conducted in Longchuan County of
Yunnan Province, China. The results showed that the preferred plant ratio of
sweet potato to mile-a-minute for effective control of mile-a-minute was at
2.5:1. The control rates were ranged from 77.35-90.59% when bentazon applied
at 720-1080 g ai hm-2 and the selectivity index was 1.39. Compared
to the application of bentazon alone at 1080 g ai hm-2, inhibition
rates for sweet potato and bentazon combined were higher, for a ratio of sweet
potato to mile-a-minute of 2.5:1 with bentazon applied at 720 g ai hm-2,
beyond 30 days after the herbicide treatment. Compared with either sweet potato
competition or bentazon application alone, the combined impact of sweet potato
competition and bentazon application was significantly higher. The suppression
rates of the two methods combined were higher than 90% for a ratio of sweet
potato to mile-a-minute of 2.5:1 plus bentazon applied at 1080 g ai hm-2
from 30-120 days. All results suggested that sweet potato competition and bentazon
combined could achieve more secure, sustainable and long term control of mile-a-minute. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

The study aimed at developing a suitable and reproducible
protocol of in vitro micropropagation of Aloe percrassa Tod.,
locally known as ere meraat using explants from offsets. Mother plants were
collected from some rural localities in southeastern Adigrat, northern Ethiopia.
Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with different concentrations and
combinations of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) were used. The best shooting
responses with regard to number of days to shooting (14.10 days), mean shoot
number (8.60) and mean shoot length (5.20 cm) were recorded on MS media enriched
with 1.0 mg L-1 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5 mg L-1
α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) after a month of culture. Similarly, rooting
response in terms of number of days to root (14.40 days), mean root number (8.40)
and mean root length (6.60 cm) were achieved in half strength MS media enriched
with no hormones after four weeks of culture. Regenerated plantlets were transferred
into different substrates for hardening and those planted to coco peat alone
showed 100% of survival. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

Eight malt barley genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete
block design using three replications at six locations in Tigray region during
2013/2014 main cropping season. The objective of this study was to quantify
the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction and yield stability of
malt barley genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction
effect model (AMMI) analysis revealed significant difference (p<0.01) for
genotypes, locations and genotype by location interaction. The magnitude of
the testing location was greater than the genotype by location interaction and
the genotype. This indicates that the testing locations were diversified in
discriminating the genotypes. The AMMI model clearly demonstrates the genotype
by location interaction by partitioning into two significant interaction principal
components that capture 83.84% of the genotype by location interaction. According
to the stability analysis of the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction
effect Stability Value (ASV) and the AMMI 1 biplot analysis the genotype Bekoji
and Fire-Gebs were the most stable coupled with higher grain yield greater than
the grand mean where as the genotypes Sabini and HB-1533 were unstable. Using
the AMMI 1 biplot analysis, the testing locations, korem, Hashange, Mekhan and
Emba-hasti were favorable testing locations whereas Hagara-Selam was unfavorable
testing location. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

Groundwater salinity varies with time and space which affects the soil and plant mineral composition upon irrigation. In Al-Ahsa Oasis, groundwater is the main source of irrigated agriculture. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of groundwater composition on the mineral composition of plants from the agricultural farms in the vicinity of main drainage canals. Plants and water samples were collected from 20 agricultural farms located around 500 m distance from the main drainage canals for mineral composition. The concentration of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Na and K ranged between 0.616-3.346, 0.153-1.258, 0.153-1.319 and 0.485-20.019, respectively. The concentration of trace and heavy metal ions was within the permissible limits. The inter ion relationship between well waters and plants was very poor. The mineral concentrations of well waters did not show any appreciable effect on the mineral concentration of plants. Overall, the study findings suggest a long term monitoring for determining the influence of groundwater composition on plant composition under a given set of soil, water and plant growth conditions in Al-Ahsa Oasis. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an evergreen tree grown throughout subtropical and tropical regions. The mango fruit is one of the highly consumed and popular fruits throughout the world. As a fruit, it is liable to postharvest losses as a result of physiological deterioration and pathogen infection. In order to minimize the postharvest losses and extend shelf life, postharvest treatments are given to the fruit after harvest. Among the postharvest treatments, hot water treatment is the one and should be applied at the beginning of the packing or packing process for improved quality and shelf life of mango. Mango anthracnose, a major postharvest disease, induces huge losses in mangoes and threatens mango export and consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water treatment on the quality and control of postharvest fungal disease. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of postharvest physiology, Jimma University from April to May 2014, using CRD factorial arrangement of treatments replicated three times. Two factors were considered as a treatment; temperature and time (duration) of treatment. There were three levels of temperature (48, 50 and 52°C) and two levels of time (5 and 10 min). Accordingly, the experiment had six factorial and one control treatments with three replications making a total of 21 experimental units. Mango fruits of local variety were used for the study that was brought from Sarboo district, Jimma zone. The result of the study showed that hot water treatment highly significantly (p<0.001) affected weight loss and disease incidence (anthracnose) during storage time. In addition, hot water treatment significantly (p<0.05) affected the pH and TA value of mango fruit but had no significant effect on the total soluble solids and sugar acidity ratio of the fruits. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

In this study, selective biosorption of Cu ions by micro-organism
from industrial wastewater were investigated. Micro-organism was isolated and
in the study a micro-organism which was identified as A. lentulus was
used. In this study, the effects of dilution and nutrient supplementation for
efficient Cu(II) removal from effluents and initial concentration of metal ion
on the biosorption capacity were investigated. Under supplementations, comparatively
faster Cu(II) removal by Aspergillus lentulus was observed resulting
in 97-99.8% removal in 120 h. 2014/09/20 - 20:01

The present study was undertaken to investigate the allelopathic potential
of three mango (Mangifera indica) cultivars: Khirshapat, Himsagor and
Sinduri. The aqueous methanol extracts of leaves at four different concentrations
were examined against germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidum sativum),
lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian rye
grass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)
and timothy (Phleum pratense). The germination and seedling growth of
all test plant species were inhibited significantly by selected mango leaf extracts
at concentrations greater than 0.01 g dry weight (DW) equivalent extract mL-1.
The inhibitory activities of the extracts were proportional to the extract concentrations.
At 0.1 g DW equivalent extract mL-1, a significant delay or complete
inhibition of germination were observed on all test plant species except for
Sinduri extracts on barnyard grass. Alternatively, all extracts showed more
than 70% hypocotyl/coleoptile and root growth inhibition of all test plant species
except barnyard grass at the same concentration. The concentration required
for 50% growth inhibition (I50) on the hypocotyls/coleoptiles
and roots of the test plants ranged from 0.003-0.103 g DW equivalent extract
mL-1. These results suggest that all three mango cultivars have allelopathic
properties and thus allelopathic substances. As no prominent differences in
the inhibitory activity were found among the three mango cultivars, all of them
might be useful candidates for isolation and identification of allelopathic
substances which may lead the basis for new natural herbicides development. 2014/05/16 - 18:01

Brassica carinata A. Braun is an amphi-diploid species that originated
from interspecific hybridization between B. nigra and B. oleracea
in the highlands of Ethiopia. The crop has many desirable agronomic traits.
Conventional propagation alone was not successful enough in Brassica
due to high degree of segregation upon cross-pollination. Size and type of explants
affect in vitro response and are limiting factors. Hence, the objective
of this study was to establish an in vitro regeneration and propagation
protocol. The explants were tested for callus induction, shoot and root regeneration
in MS medium with 3% sucrose and 6% agar under different concentrations of PGRs
including NAA, 2, 4-D, BAP. Cotyledon was the most responsive for callus induction
at a higher rate in short period of time. The highest frequencies of callus
growth were observed 80.7% from hypocotyl, 95% from cotyledon with 0.5 mg L-1
2, 4-D. Two types of calli were obtained: White and friable callus with large
cells; green and compact callus with smaller cells. For shoot induction, successful
shoot regeneration from white/friable callus was achieved at 2 mg L-1
of BAP. Maximum shoot induction was recorded in the hypocotyl (90%) with 2 mg
L-1 of BAP. Highest percentage of shoot with root (98.7%) and highest
mean number of roots per shoot (9 cm) occurred on medium with 0.3 mg IBA while
the maximum root length (4.7 cm) was attained on the free hormone. Plantlets
were successfully acclimatized in potting medium containing a mixture of 25%
sand: 50% red soil: 25% compost on acclimatization pots (1:2:1). 2014/05/16 - 18:01

The unambiguous identification of plant varieties is important in many areas of plant biology research. Eremophila (E) is a genus of plant characterized by a great economic aspects and distribution throughout the dry and warm climates. Saudi Arabia was succeeded to cultivate seven species of Eremophila (E. bignoniiflora, E. divaricata, E. glabra, E. laanii, E. maculata, E. oppositifolia and E. pterocarpa). This study employed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to investigate the genetic variation in the selected Eremophila species introduced to Saudi Arabia. Eremophila DNA was isolated, purified and restricted using EcoRI and MseI enzymes. Restricted DNA fragments were amplified using different sets of primer combination in order to illustrated differences between the amplified DNA fragments of each species. Our results verified 195 polymorphic DNA fragments including 14 unique markers between the seven cultivars. Phylogenetic tree was showed highest genetic interrelation (81%) between E. bignoniiflora and E. oppositifolia while the lowest interrelation (15%) was illustrated between E. glabra and E. pterocarpa in comparing to the other selected species. This study succeeded to verify unique DNA markers that can easily use to distinguish between the seven species of Eremophila genus cultivated in Makah Al-Mukaramah region and identified the interrelation between them. 2014/05/16 - 18:01

The improvement of Garcinia mangostana L. through biotechnology approach needed an efficient plant regeneration system. The objective of this research was development of indirect organogenesis protocol for mangosteen such as effect of plant growth regulator for induction of nodular calli, plant regeneration and histological analysis of nodular calli and shoot bud. The treatments for induction nodular calli were concentration of BAP 2.2 and 4.4 μM while concentration of TDZ (thidiazuron) 1.14, 2.27 and 4.54 μM. Combination of BAP and TDZ concentration used as treatments. The medium of shoot proliferation was Woody Plant Medium (WPM) with concentration of BAP (0.0; 1.1; 2.2; 3.3; 4.4) μM as treatments. All experiments were arranged completely randomized design and analyzed data using F-test and the means among each treatment was separately by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). A result showed that combination of 2.22 and 2.27 μM TDZ on MS medium produce nodular calli basal medium WPM with 2.2 μM BAP concentration indicated the highest percentage of nodular callus formed shoot was 34.7%, average of numbers shoot per nodular calli was 7.8 shoots, average of time formed shoot was 94.5 days and number of shoot length 1-5 mm was 11.06, shoot length 6-10 mm was 2.61 and shoot length >10 mm was 0.61. The highly efficient protocol of indirect organogenesis suggested in this study can be used to mutation breeding methods and propagation of Garcinia mangostana L. 2014/05/16 - 18:01

A field experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine research field from October 2011 to March 2012 under irrigation to assess the response of onion to farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer rates. The study consisted of four levels of FYM (0, 15, 30 and 45 ton FYM ha-1) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1). The experiment was arranged in 4x4 factorial arrangements in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on growth, yield and quality parameters were recorded and analysed using SAS Computer Software version 9.2. Results revealed that interaction of FYM and N fertilizer significantly (p<0.05) influenced Plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, maturity, average bulb weight, total yield, marketable yield; harvest index and bulb dry matter. However, leaf diameter, bulb length, bulb diameter and unmarketable yield were not affected by the combined application of FYM and N fertilizer. The findings highlighted that the performance of onion at Jimma area can be enhanced through application of FYM and N fertilizers. The highest bulb yield of onion (36.85 ton ha-1) was obtained when the plots received combined application of 100 kg ha-1of N and 45 ton ha-1 of FYM which significantly increased the total bulb yield by about 53% as compared to the unfertilized plot (17.45 ton ha-1). This however, was statistically similar with the combined application of 150 kg ha-1of N and 30 ton ha-1of FYM and also150 kg ha-1 of N and 45 ton ha-1 of FYM. In this study, maximum dry bulb yield of onion (33.30 ton ha-1) was obtained when the plots received combined application of 150 kg ha-1 of N and 30 ton ha-1 of FYM. Therefore, from statistical point of view and labour requirements to prepare and apply FYM, a combined application of FYM at 30 ton ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer at 150 kg ha-1 rates can be considered optimum for obtaining high onion bulb yield at Jimma area. 2014/04/18 - 21:54

This study evaluates the effect of different drying temperature and duration on biochemical composition and quality of black tea. In black tea processing drying is the last step and it gives quality to the brew. In Wush Wush regardless of clones, tea leaves conditions and quality of the final product; a drying temperature of 110°C for 25 min was used to dry tea leaves. Furthermore, there was little research done so far to optimize drying temperature and duration and only subjective judgment had been used by factory cup tasters to determine the optimum drying temperature and duration. Therefore, this research was conducted at Wush Wush tea plantation and JUCAVM post-harvest laboratory in the year 2012/2013 on clone 11/4 to identify the optimum combination of drying temperature and duration using five drying temperature and three drying durations. The experiment was laid out using factorial design arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replicates. Analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the treatment combinations (interaction effect) for all the traits (Total brightness, Total liquid color, Thearubigin, Aroma, Flavor, Moisture content and Leaf infusion) considered except Theaflavine whose main effect was observed to be significant. Generally it was observed that as temperature increased with duration the biochemical composition and quality of black tea were decreased. From this research to produce good quality of black tea a treatment combination of 100°C with 25 min was identified as the optimum treatment combination to be used in this production and other sites who are engaged in tea production in Ethiopia. 2014/04/18 - 21:54

Alternate bearing is one of the major cultural problems and economic drawbacks
particularly in olive groves which is the main fruit tree crop in the Mediterranean
area as well as southern Europe. Changes in hormone concentrations might be
attributed to alternate bearing habit. Therefore, concentrations of Abscisic
Acid (ABA), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Gibberellic Acid-like substances (GA)
and Kinetin-like Cytokinin were determined and their relationship to flower
bud formation was examined during “on” and “off” years.
Results showed significant differences in IAA, ABA, GA3-like and
Kinetin-like-Cytokinin between “on” and “off” cropping years
in various tissues of olive trees. Relative balances between GA3-like
and an ABA concentration in tissues might be a key regulator of floral development
and alternate bearing. Olive growers are advised to do fruit thinning during
“on” year crop to reduce the occurrence of this phenomena. 2014/04/18 - 21:54

Salinity responses to salinity stress in Thai indigenous rice and an improved
variety (PTT1) were investigated. Pokkali (salt-tolerant) and IR29 (salt-sensitive)
were used as standards. Sodium chloride at a concentration of 103 mM added into
the Yoshida’s nutrient solution was used for the salinity treatment and
the responses were detected on day ten after salinity stress application. The
classification of young rice seedlings for Na and K accumulation as well as
physiological response based on salinity tolerances were then investigated.
The results showed that all twelve varieties were classified into three main
groups including tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible. Pokkali, PTT1
and the indigenous rice cultivars ULR198 and KKU-ULR076 were identified as salt
tolerant. The salt-tolerant exhibited low Na content but accumulated high K
resulting in a lower Na/K ratio, a higher survival rate and a lower salt injury
score than the other varieties. These findings may be further employed for gene
bank management on rice breeding programs. 2014/04/18 - 21:54

Pollen morphology of 13 species of genus’
Astragalus distributed in Saudi Arabia was studied with light and electron
microscopes. Pollen is generally 3-zonocolporate, perprolate, prolate, subprolate
or prolate-spheroidal. Polar axis is ranged from 12.80 to 21.73 μm, while
the equatorial axis varies between 24.52 to 37.22 μm. Pollen is trilobulate
or triangular in polar outline, elliptic or compressed ovate in equatorial outline.
Sculpturing is micro-reticulate, reticulate or rarely perforate in equatorial
view (with irregular muri) and psilate, perforate or seldom scabrate (with irregular
or circular perforations) in polar view. Six pollen types were recognized: Astragalus
asterias pollen type, A. schimperi pollen type, A. palaestinus
pollen type, A. spinosus pollen type, A. corrugatus pollen type
and A. sieberi pollen type. Description of each type, a key to investigated
species as well as SEM micrographs of pollen types is provided. On the other
hand, numerical analysis based on UPGMA clustering, factor analysis and factor
loading to pollen data has led to recognize two major clads. The second major
clad separated into two branches: the first branch includes two subclads and
the second branch comprises three species. 2014/03/18 - 22:55

In Saudi Arabia, groundwater resources are not only limited but also non-renewable. As such, the available water resources need intelligent planning for efficient conservation and management to avoid unwarranted losses. The main objective of this study is to present a simple mathematical model for the management of water wells in an aquifer. The required conditions included the interaction of cone of depression between adjacent wells under a critical and specific of water level and the safe velocity of groundwater which depends mainly on the hydraulic conductivity for flow of water in wells. The variables studied for the confined aquifer were maximum permissible flow rate, velocity and water level. Mean Maximum Permissible Flow Velocity (MMPFV) for different locations came to 5.06, 4.65, 3.48, 4.70, 4.56, 3.92, 5.23, 4.38 and 5.06 m day-1 for J, H, G, F, E, D, C, B and A fields, respectively. Mean value of permeability (T, M2/tor) was 1862.5 and 3475.9 for wells located in G5 and G7, respectively . Mean hydraulic conductivity (K, m day-1) was 5.39 and 4.05 for wells in G5 and G7 locations, respectively. Local variables (maximum permissible flow rate, actual flow rate, residual flow rate) presented in the form of contour maps were used to identify areas with poor management and suggested appropriate preventive measures. In conclusion, implementation of simple administrative water management model was proposed based on the actual field data from Saq sand aquifer in the south-western part of the Baq’a quadrangle in Hail province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2014/03/18 - 22:55

Fragaria×ananassa, is consumed fresh or used
in making deserts and in food processing due to its high nutritive value. Thus,
production practices for this crop have to be improved to meet the increasing
demand for its fruits. A field study was carried out during 2010-2011 at Farah
Private Farm, 25 km from Ma'am city in the southern part of Jordan to evaluate
the growth of strawberries cv. Albion in response to 25 and 45 cm intra-row
spacing. Small plants were transplanted early of March in rows or on raised-beds
in a completely randomized block design and harvested in May. The results revealed
that increasing intra-row spacing from 25-45 cm had favorable influence on biomass
and growth characters of strawberries. Plants grown using 45 cm intra-row spacing
recorded higher plant fresh weight (14.9 g), No. of leaves plant-1
(5.6) and leaves dry weight plant-1 (2.2 g) compared to plants grown
using 25 cm intra-row spacing. Plants spaced 45 cm apart were also taller (14.7
cm) and had higher recent petiole length (8.7 cm). Strawberries spaced wide
had higher total leaf area and thus are supposed to receive more light by their
canopy than plants in close spacing. Flower and fruit characteristics of strawberries
grown at 45 cm intra-row spacing were also enhanced compared to plants spaced
25 cm apart. The use of wide spacing had significantly increased fruits yield
up to 17.4 g plant-1. The study concluded that 45 cm intra-row spacing
enhanced growth, plant biomass and fruit yield plant-1 of strawberries
compared to 25 cm intra-row spacing. 2014/03/18 - 22:55

Palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a plant
species which belong to monocotyledons. The Oil Palm Trunk (OPT) is composed
of vascular bundles and parenchyma as ground tissue which determine the properties
of the wood. This study was conducted to find out the effect of the vascular
bundles toward the density and mechanical properties of OPT in vertical and
horizontal direction. The results showed that in horizontal position (outer
to the center zone of OPT), the greater number of the vascular bundles contained
in trunk made the density value and the mechanical properties greater but in
vertical position showed otherwise. The number of vascular bundles is not the
only factor that determines the density and mechanical properties of OPT. The
top section of OPT has a lower density and mechanical properties than the bottom
even though the number of vascular bundles can be greater. This happens because
the vascular bundles in the top are composed by the younger cells than the bottom. 2014/03/18 - 22:55

The study aimed at developing a suitable and reproducible protocol of in vitro regeneration of haploid sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plantlets using anther culture. Anthers of four Ethiopian varieties, namely: Hirhir, Humera-1, Setit-1 and Non-Shatter were cultured in vitro to study their regenerating ability. Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used. The highest callusing (56.20%) and callus weight (8.33 g) were observed in Hirhir cultured in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) at 2.0 mg L-1 + BAP (benzylaminopurine) at 1.0 mg L-1. Shooting response was studied using green/friable calli of the varieties cultured in MS medium supplemented with BAP at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 + NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) at 1.0 mg L-1. Calli of Hirhir cultured in MS medium supplemented with BAP at 2.0 mg L-1 + NAA at 1.0 mg L-1 were the best in terms of percentage shooting and number of days to shooting. Non-Shatter showed the weakest response to the same treatment. Rooting of shoots was studied with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of IBA + 0.5 mg L-1 of NAA. In this case too, whereas Hirhir cultured in MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) +0.5 mg L-1 NAA showed the best response –87.15% in mean rooting, 11.66 mm in mean root length and 17.80 in mean days to rooting; Non-Shatter cultured in the same medium yield weakest response. Acclimatization responses of rooted in vitro seedlings were studied in coco peat and soil medium (comprising sand, cow dung and garden soil at a ratio of 2:1:1). Seedlings of Hirhir planted in both media gave better survival rate than that of the other varieties. The survival rates of Hirhir planted in coco peat and soil media were 66.7 and 50.0%, respectively. 2014/03/18 - 22:55

Plumbagin, a 1, 4-Naphthalenedione isolated from the Plumbago
indica, exhibited growth regulating activity in the larvae of Pericallai
ricini. The fourth instar and fifth instar larvae were topically treated
with 10, 20, 25, 35, 50, 75 and 100 mg mL-1 concentrations of Plumbagin,
in solvent acetone. Interference in moulting process, ecdysial failure and blockage
of adult emergence were the important morphogenetic abnormalities observed which
resulted in the formation of larval-pupal intermediates, abnormal pupae and
deformed non-viable adults. Results suggest that Plumbagin shows an effective
insect growth regulating activity and exhibits great promise in suppressing
the population of P. ricini. 2014/03/18 - 22:55

Present study was aimed to screen the effect of phytochemical compounds against various medically important pathogens from Sansevieria roxburghiana and Sansevieria trifasiata majorly known as Indian herb. Sansevierias are the most popular ornamental plants with long rhizomes and fibrous roots possessing traditional healing properties. The acetone and methanol extracts were performed for the leaves of S. roxburghiana and S. trifasiata against bacterial strains. The obtained extracts were further analyzed for antimicrobial effect against Gram Positive as well as Gram negative bacteria and combined effect of extract and antibiotics was also studied. The phytochemical compounds were analyzed through thin layer chromatography and were screened for isolation of bioactive compound. 2014/03/18 - 22:55

Evaluation of jute genotypes for salt tolerance is highly
important because of salt affected areas are constantly increasing worldwide
especially in Bangladesh where salt tolerant jute variety is unavailable. A
hydroponics experiment was conducted in the glasshouse to evaluate the salt
tolerance of various jute (Corchorus spp.) genotypes. Sixty jute genotypes
were evaluated in a factorial experiment under Hoagland’s nutrient solution
with three levels of salinity (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) in a randomized complete
block design with three replications. Root length, shoot length, root dry matter,
shoot dry matter, total dry matter and leaf Relative Water Content (RWC) decreased
significantly with increasing salinity. However, the chlorophyll content of
jute leaves was higher at 100 mM NaCl (42.89) than in control plants (37.76).
The C. capsularis genotypes demonstrated higher levels of salt tolerance
than did C. olitorius genotypes. The physiological traits shoot length
(R2 = 0.95), RWC (R2 = 0.80) and chlorophyll content (R2
= 0.91) was strongly correlated with total dry matter production and was exhibited
good potential for evaluation of salt tolerance in jute. The C. capsularis
accessions 4965 and 4955 were the most salt tolerant in terms of their high
index of salt tolerance (85.20 and 84.10% at 100 mM NaCl) and lowest reduction
in shoot length, RWC and chlorophyll content under salt stress. These accessions
could be useful for agriculture in saline areas, particularly at 100 mM NaCl
(EC = 10 dS m-1) salinity. 2014/02/08 - 21:37

The “Mora herb” is an herbaceous plant that is frequently
employed in the periphery of the “Santa Catarina” mountains, Mexico.
In the present research, the “Mora herb” was typified as two different
species that belong to the same gender, Solanum nigrescens Mart. and
Gal. and Solanum cervantesii Lag. Extracts from the aerial part of the
species were obtained by direct maceration using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol.
Phytochemical and pharmacologic studies were carried out afterwards. These studies
found that the species have different pharmacological and chemical patterns
in the studied experimental models and therefore, determined that they might
possess different medical properties, thus explaining the wide variety of therapeutic
qualities that had been attributed to the “Mora herb”. This indicates
the need to carry out a study that revises the pharmacological properties of
this plant, placing an emphasis on identifying the specie. 2014/02/08 - 21:37

Potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum) differed in their
susceptibility to stem canker and black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia
solani (teleomorph Thanatephorus cucumeris [Frank] Donk).
Disease reactions were determined for nine commercial potato cultivars under
greenhouse conditions. The nine tested cultivars were divided to three groups.
Lady Rosetta was the most susceptible cultivar followed by Monalisa and Mondial
cvs. Spunta, Nicola and Hermes cultivars showed moderate susceptibility, While
Draga followed by Cara and Diamont were the most resistant. The two potato cultivars
Draga, the resistant cv. and lady Rosetta, the highly susceptible were selected
to study the nature of disease resistance among potato cultivars. Fraction of
phenolic compounds by HPLC, oxidative enzymes and thio-amino acid contents were
determined in leaves and roots of these potato cultivars. The resistant Draga
cultivar showed the highest amounts of free, conjugated and total phenols, fraction
of phenolic compound (Coumarin, Caffic acid, p-Coumaric acid, Benzoic acid,
Resorcinol and Apigenin), oxidative enzymes (peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase)
and thio amino acids (Cysteine, Cystine and Methionine) compared with the highly
susceptible lady Rosetta. 2014/02/08 - 21:37

The proximate composition and mineral contents of six wild edible leaves of the plant e.g., Allium porrum, Carpesium cernuum, Tricyrtis pillosa, Spilanthes acmella, Leea sambucina and Neptunia olearacea, collected from Meghalaya state in India were evaluated. These plants are used by the local people of Meghalaya state in India as their food. The present study revealed that for different plant species, the crude fat content ranged between 0.57±0.03-2.84±0.03%. The crude protein content was determined high in the leaves of Neptunia olearacea (46.24±0.02%), Allium porrum (29.53±0.03%), Spilanthes acmella (27.00±0.03%) and Leea sambucina (22.53±0.02%) while the available carbohydrate content was highest in the leaves of Leea sambucina (63.32±0.04%). The nutritive value ranged from 284.26±0.12-350.66±0.19 kcal 100 g-1 in the various wild edible plants. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples of different wild edible plants potassium was present in the highest quantity (20.19±0.14-52.11±1.35 mg g-1) followed by calcium (5.42±0.11-8.90±0.12 mg g-1) and sodium (0.15±0.004-0.38±0.005 mg g-1). Micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese and magnesium were analyzed in the different plant specimens. The result indicates that nutritional values and mineral contents of these leaves under investigation were richer than that of the commercial vegetables and could be used for nutritional purpose. The present study also gives an account of ethnobotanical importance of the wild plants under investigation. 2014/02/08 - 21:37

A new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for pearl millet using shoot apex explants, conferring resistance to leaf blast disease by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene. Transgenic pearl millet lines (Pennisetum typhoides (L.) R.Br.) expressing rice chitinase gene with high levels of resistance to rust pathogen, Puccinia penniseti, were developed using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. The emryogenic calli derived from shoot apex of CO9 cultivar were transformed with LBA4404 (pSB1/pKAN-Rchit1.1) that harboured rice chitinase gene (chit11) under the control of maize ubiquitin (Ubi 1) promoter intron. Transgene (chit 11) in the middle of the T-DNA as used as probe in southern analysis. Out of six independent T0 plants tested for southern, three had single copy T-DNA insertions and three had two copies T-DNA insertions. All the six T0 plants carried complete T-DNA with the chitinase transgene. A segregation ratio of 3:1, reflecting T-DNA insertion at a single locus, was observed in the progeny of all the T0 plants which showed normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Western blot analysis of T1 plants revealed constitutive expression of chitinase at high levels. Bioassays of T1 plants indicated enhanced resistance to the rust pathogen, P. penniseti, in comparison to control plants. This is the first report on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of pearl millet and first transgenic pearl millet with fungal resistance. This study underpins the introduction of numerous agronomically important genes into the genome of pearl millet in the future. 2013/09/19 - 15:53

Drought stress and water quality are the main causes of alteration
in plant physiological processes and reduction of plant growth. The aim of this
study is to evaluate the response of Tamarix aphylla seedlings to two
types of irrigation and three periods of water regime under greenhouse condition.
The effect of Primary Treated Wastewater (PTW) compared with Well Water (WW)
at drought stress using three intervals irrigation on growth, biomass production
and its allocation, physical properties and chemical constituents of wood is
studied. The experiment was carried out during the successive season of 2010/2011.
The results indicate that fresh weight of stem and foliage are increased without
any significant for the seedlings irrigated by PTW compared to WW. However,
fresh weight of roots and oven-dry weight of foliage are significantly increased.
No significant differences are observed for the specific gravity and fiber length
of wood produced from seedlings irrigated by either WW or PTW. The results indicated
that irrigation with PTW influenced the chemical composition of T. aphylla
wood. Under drought stress, all growth parameters and biomass production
are decreased by increasing the irrigation periods from one to five weeks. Chemically,
the contents of lignin and ash are significantly increased under drought stress;
however, the cellulose, extractive and hemicellulose contents express inverse
trends. The study conclude that the use of PTW significantly increase the produced
biomass and some of wood quality. Planting seedlings under drought stress have
significant effects on the properties of one year-old Tamarix seedling. 2013/09/19 - 15:53

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the major fruit crop in the Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia. Presently, date palm is facing problem in the production of healthy
in vitro callus tissues. The main objective of this study was to determine
the influence of nutrient medium on antioxidants production of callus tissues
from date palm cultivars in vitro. Four strengths of Murashige and Skoog
(MS) culture medium (full, half, one quarter and three quarter strength) were
used in the study. The MS strength significantly affected the vitality of the
explants and its browning and ability for callus formation. The analysis of variance
the cultivars and medium strength showed that they have a clear significantly
effect on callus and browning formation of the explants. The highest total phenolic
compounds (mg g-1) expressed as gallic acid equivalents induced per
explant were 4.274 and 3.262 in Khalas and Shishi cultivars, respectively. The
strength of the culture medium was inversely correlated with the antioxidant activity
of plant extracts. In conclusion, for callus tissues from date palm cultivars,
quarter strength MS medium offered a compromise between optimum growth in vitro
and antioxidant phenolic accumulation. 2013/09/19 - 15:53

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production
is one of the most important plant defense responses to pathogen infection.
In the present study, the endogenous H2O2 level of tobacco
(Nicotiana tabaccum L. cv. ‘SR1’) plants were enhanced by constitutively
expressing a Glucose Oxidase (GO) gene isolated from the fungus Aspergillus
niger and the level of disease resistance was observed. An elevated level
of H2O2 was confirmed in the GO-transformed tobacco plant
leaf tissue. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited resistance to leaf spot fungal
disease and bacterial wilt disease due to increased levels of H2O2
accumulation (ranging from 159±16.78 to 355±13.89 μmol g-1
leaf tissue) when compared to wild tobacco plants (27.37±3.91 μmol
g-1 leaf tissue). The increased accumulation of H2O2
in transgenic plants significantly delayed the infection of fungal target
spot disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The artificial inoculation
of R. solani to tobacco plant leaves completely covered the leaf surface
(100%) of control wild plants at 7 days post inoculation (DPI), but the transgenic
lines were resistant and only 50-70% of the leaf surface was infected 7 DPI.
In case of Ralstonia solanacearum (causing bacterial wilt), the control
tobacco plants completely wilted (80-100%) at 15 DPI. However, transgenic tobacco
plants were significantly resistant to virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum
and 30-50% of wilting symptoms appeared after 15 DPI. The level of H2O2
was increased approximately one-fold in infected transgenic tobacco plants relative
to uninfected transgenic plants. Thus, the activation of H2O2
level in transgenic plants represents a novel approach for engineering
broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. 2013/09/19 - 15:53

Ethiopia is one of the center of origin and diversity of Sorghum
bicolor (L.) Moench. The genus Sorghum has been divided into three
subspecies, namely, bicolor, verticilliflorum and drummondii.
The study of the genetic diversity of the wild species of sorghum significantly
contributes to the improvement of Sorghum. The aim of study was to investigate
the genetic diversity of wild Sorghum from Ethiopia using Inter-Simple
Sequence Repeat markers (ISSR) markers. ISSR were used to estimate genetic diversity
among and within 12 populations of wild sorghum that were collected from different
ecological zones of Ethiopia. Seven selected ISSR primers yielded 43 reproducible
bands from 96 individuals, eight individuals representing each population. Jimma
1 population exhibited highest gene diversity of 0.2885. The least gene diversity
(0.1192) was observed in East Wollega 1. Shannon diversity index also showed
the same diversity pattern where Jimma 1 population showed the highest value
(0.4067) and the least Shannon diversity index was exhibited by East Wollega
1 population (0.1757). Analysis of molecular variance showed that within population
variation was higher (54.68%) than among population variation (45.32%). Un-weighted
pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) based dendrogram showed Gambella
1 and Jimma 2 populations showed highest similarity. Individual based UPGMA
clustering of overall analysis showed five major clusters and some of individuals
were clustered with respect to their populations except few intermixed individuals
from other populations. In two dimensional (2 D) Principal coordinate analysis
(PCO), most of West Wollega 1 and West Wollega 2 individuals formed their separate
group except few individuals from other populations mixed with them. 2013/09/19 - 15:53

Recently, a large plantation has been established in Morocco, to reduce water and wind erosion, rangeland degradation, sand movement and to enhance the restoration of the vegetation cover. However, this plant material has unknown genetic characterization. In addition, several local classifications and morphological descriptions were used. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity using RAPD markers in a collection of 13 provenances of Moroccan Opuntia ficus indica (L.). Based on 13 random primers, the result showed that the level of diversity (h) and polymorphism varied according to the provenance. A high genetic differentiation was found between the provenances (Gst = 0.29), thus some loci were characteristic of certain provenances. These results can be used to characterize genetic resources of Morocco cactus pear and to initiate a program of genetic improvement and selection. 2013/09/19 - 15:53

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major crop in Eastern Africa in terms of production, consumption and income generation. Although highland ecologies in Eastern Africa have high potential for maize production, few varieties have been developed. Breeding efforts have been also concentrated on Quality Protein Maize (QPM) as a viable and cheaper method to alleviate malnutrition. Twenty conventional and 20 QPM three-way hybrid genotypes were developed and evaluated in a randomized block design across 11 and 8 environments in Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda in 2010. The objective was to identify superior and stable varieties from genotypes. Data were recorded on major agronomic traits (grain yield t ha-1). Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) statistical model was used to assess stability in performance for grain yield. Combined analysis of variance across environments indicated highly significant differences among non-QPM and QPM genotypes. Variations due to environment and genotypexenvironment (GxE) were suggesting genotypes performed differently across environments. Environments of Gisozi, Holleta, Kongoni and Kapchorwa were favourable and stable while Kulumsa was favourable but unstable. Other environments were of medium to low potential. The AMMI analysis ranked 5 non-QPM genotypes were with above-average yield (6.34 t ha-1) and 8 for stability performance across environments. While for QPM 3 genotypes were yielded better than best check (6.94 t ha-1) and 7 genotypes were stable. Genotype 9 (7.15 t ha-1) was the only non-QPM genotype with yield better than the best check across environments. The information obtained will help to streamline highland maize testing programs in the region. 2013/07/03 - 10:07

Ethiopia is one of the origins and centers of genetic diversity
of sorghum. As sorghum ranks fifth in global cereal production, the study of
its genetic diversity from its center of origin is important for its improvement.
Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the within and among
population genetic diversity of sorghum from Ethiopia using Inter Simple Sequence
Repeat markers. Eight individuals from each of eleven sorghum populations of
highland, intermediate and lowland ecological zones and one population of improved
variety and stay-green cultivars were used for the study. DNA was extracted
from young leaves and PCR was conducted using seven primers. A total of 55 clear
and reproducible bands with 100% polymorphism were generated. The total genetic
diversity (GD) and Shannon’s diversity index (I) were 0.205 and 0.296,
respectively. North Gondar Intermediate altitude population showed the highest
gene diversity (0.3) while the lowest diversity (0.1) was exhibited by North
Shewa population. AMOVA showed that 44.45, 30.84 and 24.71% of the total variation
was attributed to within populations, among populations and among groups, respectively.
Group based UPGMA exhibited four distinct clusters whereas the population based
UPGMA showed all populations clustered within its own ecological zone except
North Gondar (I1) intermediate altitude population and improved varieties
and stay-green (IM) individuals that were clustered in the highland populations.
Intermediate altitude populations exhibited higher genetic diversity than low
and high altitude populations indicating these high and low altitude populations
may have originated from the intermediates through ecological adaptations. 2013/07/03 - 10:07

The aim of this study is to determine the energy input/output ratio and parameter values of inputs affecting production amount. The data for this study were obtained from 25 hops producing households in Bilecik Province in Turkey. A face-to-face questionnaire was conducted in the production year 2011/2012. From the questionnaire, data to determine the cost of hops production, farmers’ selling prices, the productivity and profitability of fruit, the usage level of labour, machinery, diesel-fuel, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, water for irrigation and electricity, were analysed. A total energy input of 37,258.65 MJ ha-1 was required for hops production. Chemical fertilizer, the single highest source of energy input, accounted for 38.86% of the total energy input. The two next highest energy sources were human labor (20.227%) and electricity (19.24%). The values of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy were 1.59, 0.19, 5.36 and 21,875.13 MJ ha-1, respectively. Estimates made using econometric models showed that human labor, machinery and pesticides energy inputs had significantly positive effects on energy yield. The results of a sensitivity analysis of the energy inputs showed that the Marginal Physical Productivity (MPP) value of human labor was the highest, followed by pesticides and machinery. 2013/07/03 - 10:07

Oryza glaberrima is often classified into two ecological groups: upland and floating types. To assess the phenotypic variability of O. glaberrima across hydrological conditions, 217 accessions and 5 checks (Oryza sativa) were cultivated using toposequence. The trial was conducted at the experimental field of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Ibadan during the wet seasons in 2009 and 2010. An Alpha Lattice design with three replications was used. Phenotypic data including vegetative vigor, plant height and tillers number at maturity, days to 50% heading and crop duration were recorded. The results indicated high variability among all O. glaberrima tested across ecologies for plant height, tiller ability and crop duration. This variability was confirmed by low genetic correlation coefficients, which demonstrated the significance of genotype by environment interaction. Oryza glaberrima accessions tested showed best vegetative vigor from upland to lowland. In 2009, 77.5 and 82.2% of the accessions were tall in hydromorphic and lowland, respectively while they represented 87.5 and 84.8%, respectively in 2010. Tillers number was intermediate from upland to lowland in both years. Result in 2009 indicated that 54.5% in upland, 70.9% in hydromorphic and 45.3% in lowland of O. glaberrima were intermediate tillering. The second season showed 63.2% in upland, 79.1% in hydromorphic and 82.1% in lowland. High percentage of O. glaberrima accessions was observed as late and very late maturing in 2009, 89.9% in upland and 91.4% in lowland. This study support efforts to breed for phenological plasticity in any rice growing environment. 2013/07/03 - 10:07

Fine branching of lateral roots and the framework of seminal or nodal roots play an important role in performing function of a root system. The effects of L-β-phenyllactic acid (LPA) on growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, growth promotive effects of LPA on roots and shoots in rice seedlings were investigated. Rice seedlings were cultured in seed packsTM containing 1/100-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with or without 100 mg L-1 LPA at 30°C for 14 days. The total root length and total root surface area were calculated by digital image analysis. LPA-treated seedlings showed a 24% increase in plant height and a 26% increase in seminal root length compared with those of the control. The dry weight of shoots was markedly increased and that of roots was slightly increased by LPA. LPA treatment had no effect on the number of seminal and nodal roots per seedling. Digital image analysis revealed that LPA significantly increased the total length and surface area of fine roots (less than 0.757 mm in diameter). In addition, LPA did not affect the distribution of total length or surface area of rice roots in any diameter classes compared with that of control. The findings suggest that the growth-promoting effects of LPA on rice shoots can be attributed to increased water and nutrient absorption and/or the seed endosperm utilization efficiency, as a result of increased total length and surface area of roots. 2013/07/03 - 10:07

Precursor feeding through plant tissue culture is provided to enhance plant secondary metabolite production. The effects of sodium acetate and sucrose on Stemona alkaloids were investigated. Shoot tips and auxiliary buds of Stemona sp. were cultured on MS agar medium supplemented with 3 mg L-1 benzyladenine for multiple shoot induction. Single shoots were then transferred to half-MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 indolebutyric acid for root induction. Stemona plantlets were cultured on various concentrations of sodium acetate and sucrose and the alkaloids extract were determined. It was shown that both of them could enhance Stemona alkaloids production. The most effective precursor was 25 mg L-1 sodium acetate which gave the highest production of 1',2'-didehydrostemofoline and stemofoline at 2.35 and 2.04 folds higher than the control cultures, respectively. The study concluded that sodium acetate was the appropriate precursor than sucrose for enhancing Stemona alkaloids production. 2013/07/03 - 10:07

Termites, Macrotermes are major agricultural and domestic problem in Ethiopia
causing serious damage with loss up to 100%. The use of synthetic termitecids
was the most commonly used prevention measure to reduce the termites attack. However,
these synthetic termiticides were known to be very harmful to the environment
and non-target organisms. Therefore, efficacy of entompathogenic fungi, Metarhizium
anisopliae (isolates PPRC-2 and MM) and Beauveria bassiana (isolates
PPRC-56 and 9609) were evaluated against Macrotermes. The isolates were
obtained from Ambo Plant Protection Research Center, Ethiopia. For each isolate
concentrations of 1x105 to 1x109 conidia mL-1
were prepared and used as treatments. Untreated and standard (Diazinon 60% EC)
checks were used for comparison. The treatments were laid out in Completely Randomized
Design (CRD) and replicated thrice. The fungal isolates were evaluated by direct
spraying of spore suspensions on worker Macrotermes spp. The result of
the study revealed that all fungal isolates used were able to infect and cause
mortality at all concentrations. The percent mortality of Macrotermes varied
from 60 to 100% for M. anisopliae isolate MM at 1x105 to M.
anisopliae isolate PPRC-2 at 1x109, respectively. Similarly, the
percentage mortality of Macrotermes varied from 25-95% for B. bassiana
isolate 9609 at low concentration and isolate PPRC-56 at highest concentration,
respectively. The isolates had LT50 ranging from 7.74 days in M.
anisopliae isolate PPRC-2 to 8.80 days in B. bassiana isolate 9609.
The concentration response with the isolate PPRC-2 showed the lowest LC50
of 3.21x105 conidia mL-1 followed by isolates MM, PPRC-56
and 9609 with LC50 of 3.82x105, 4.39x105 and
5.08x105 conidia mL-1, respectively. In conclusions, the
present study suggests that the use of entompopathogenic fungi, M. anisopilae
and B. bassiana, at higher concentrations for seven days is an eco-friendly
effective mycoinsecticides that causes more than 95% mortality of Macrotermes. 2013/06/22 - 13:58