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Asian Journal of Plant Pathology

The aim of the present study was to investigate the variation in soil mycobiota involved in the decomposition of Sesbania aculeata L. in soil. Decomposition of Sesbania aculeata (Dhaincha) was studied by nylon net bag technique under experimental conditions. The colonization pattern by soil inhabiting mycobiota was studied by standard methods. Among the three methods used for isolation and enumeration of fungi, dilution plate technique recorded the highest number of fungi followed by damp chamber and direct observation method. Nutrient availability and climatic conditions influenced occurrence and colonization pattern of mycobiota. Maximum fungal population was recorded in July (48.95±0.20x104 of fungi/g oven dry litter) and minimum in June (19.78±0.20x104 of fungi/g oven dry litter). The distribution of Deuteromycetous fungi was much more (74.47%) than Zygomycetes, Oomycetes and Ascomycetes. In the early stage of decomposition Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Chaetomium globosum and Gliocladium roseum were found where as at the later stages of decomposition preponderance of Aspergillus candidus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia lunata and Aspergillus luchuensis was recorded. 2011/04/27 - 14:34

The aim of the present study was to check the efficacy of carbendazim 50% WP, antagonists and botanicals against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii associated with rhizosphere soil of guava. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) the apple of tropics is one of the most important fruit in India. The fruit of guava is a good source of vitamin C and pectin. Guava wilt is a serious disease and it recognized as a main causal organism. Isolation and identification of pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii) was carried out in the Department of Plant Protection, Allahabad Agricultural institute Deemed University, Allahabad. The radial growth of Fusarium cxysporum f. sp. psidii was fully inhibited at high concentrations like 100, 1000 and 10,000 ppm of cardendazim 50% WP whereas antagonists like Trichoderma spp. Produced maximum inhibition zone (61.91%) followed by Aspergillus niger (61.12%). The radial growth of Fusarium cxysporum f. sp. psidii was also significantly less in neem leaf extract treatment followed by Lantana leaf extract. Management of guava wilt by chemical (systemic fungicide) can be spectacular but this is relatively short-term measure. Eco-friendly management practices, i.e., use of bio-control agents and botanicals was studied in vitro which gave better results and these practices can be economical, long lasting and free from residual side effects. 2011/04/27 - 14:34

An experiment was conducted in the laboratory to study the induction of predatory rings and predacity test of isolates of Dactylaria brochopaga against second stage juveniles (J2s) of Meloidogyne incognita. Another experiment was also conducted in pots to study the effect of D. brochopaga (isolate D) on the management of root-knot disease of tomato. Isolate D of D. brochopaga showed maximum induction of predatory rings and in turn, trapped maximum number of second stage juveniles (J2s) of M. incognita in duel culture in laboratory test. For pot experiments, the promising isolate D among five isolates of D. brochopaga was grown on sorghum grains for its mass culture. The bioefficacy of spore suspensions and mass culture of D. brochopaga (isolate D) was studied with and without Cow Dung Manure (CDM) on root-knot, population of M. incognita and growth of tomato plants. The application of mass culture at 1%, its undiluted and diluted (10 times) spore suspension in soil infested with 1500 juveniles of M. incognita per 1000 g before planting of tomato seedlings, increased the plants growth and reduced the number of root-knots by 28.69-55.36%, of females by 25.52-49.41%, of egg masses by 20.53-54.40% and of juveniles by 30.61-54.83% in pot experiments. The bioefficacy of the fungus as nematode antagonist was enhanced when its spore suspensions and mass culture were applied with CDM which reduced the number of root-knots by 49.27-75.36%, of females by 38.87-69.32%, of egg masses by 47.04-77.20% and of juveniles by 51.87-76.09%. Furthermore, spore suspensions of the fungus also enhanced the growth of tomato plants and reduced the population of M. incognita significantly. 2011/04/27 - 14:34

A field experiment to determine the influence of root rot on dry matter partition of three cassava cultivars planted in the Sabongidda-Ora humid forests and in the Ibadan derived savanna of Nigeria was carried out from July 2003-November 2005. In each location, healthy cassava stems of three varieties; TME-1 (local), TMS 30572 and TMS 4 (2) 1425 (both improved) were planted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Dry matter partition data were recorded and statistically analysed using the general linear model statistical procedures. Comparisons among treatment means less than six were made with the Least significant square and up to six and above with the Duncan multiple range test (p = 0.05). Results were compared with the previously reported root rot incidences and severities from the same cultivars. Results showed cultivar TME-1; previously reported to have the highest root rot incidence of 52.6% and a severity of 21.3% at 12 months after planting in Sabongidda-Ora humid forest, to have the lowest dry matter partition of 367.4 g to roots in the same location, 12 months after planting. This was significantly lower than the 804.1 g of TMS 4(2)1425 and the 667.6 g of TMS 30572 recorded in the same location; cultivars TMS 4(2)1425 and TMS 30572 have also been reported to have the lowest root rot incidences of 0 and 6.4% and severities of 0-0.5% at the Ibadan derived savanna. The trend was the same during the second year planting. The results show clearly that root rot can have significantly negative effect on the dry matter partition to the storage roots of root rot susceptible cassava cultivar. 2011/02/06 - 03:04

In present study, the influences of different organic soil amendments on soil fungi was studied. Soil organisms carry a wide range of processor that are important for soil health and partially in both natural and managed agricultural scales. The total number of organisms, the diversity of species and activity of soil biota will fluctuate as soil environment changes. Three types of soil amendments and fertilizers viz., urea, FYM and vermicompost were used to amend the cultivated agricultural soil. The fungi were isolated from soil by using dilution plate technique and soil plate method. The dynamics of soil fungi were observed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The maximum number of fungi was recorded when soil amended with FYM (40.6x104 g-1), urea (38.8x104 g-1) of dry soil at different concentration 2.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, respectively. In control where soil was not amended with any organic amendment, the number of fungi was 13.0x104 to 16.8x104 g-1, 14.4x104 to 16.8x104 g-1, 13.8x104 to 16.8x104 g-1 in urea, FYM and Vermicompost, respectively. A total 25 fungi were observed during the experimental period. Eighteen were observed when soil amended with urea, twenty-two observed when soil amended with FYM and 20 when soil amended with vermicompost. In control soil only fifteen fungi were recorded. The result showed that the number of fungi was increased in amended soil. Qualitatively, the fungi Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium citrinum, Alternaria alternata and Curvularia lunata, White Sterile Mycelium and Black Sterile Mycelium were observed. 2011/02/06 - 03:04